British regional geology: Northern England
| From: Stone, P, Millward, D, Young, B, Merritt, J W, Clarke, S M, McCormac, M and Lawrence, D J D. 2010. British regional geology: Northern England.
Fifth edition. Keyworth, Nottingham: British Geological Survey.
The British regional geology: Northern England has been converted to a series of articles for this wiki. The book is available for purchase at the BGS Online Shop Its full reference is:
Stone, P, Millward, D, Young, B, Merritt, J W, Clarke, S M, McCormac, M and Lawrence, D J D. 2010. British regional geology: Northern England. Fifth edition. Keyworth, Nottingham: British Geological Survey.
- 1 Contents
- 1.1 Introduction
- 1.2 Early Ordovician: Skiddaw and Manx groups
- 1.3 Ordovician: Caradoc magmatism
- 1.4 Late Ordovician to Silurian: Windermere Supergroup
- 1.5 Devonian: Acadian deformation and magmatism
- 1.6 Carboniferous: blocks, basins and sedimentary cyclicity
- 1.7 Late Carboniferous to early Permian deformation and magmatism
- 1.8 Permian, Triassic and Jurassic: deserts, rivers and shallow seas
- 1.9 Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonics and magmatism
- 1.10 Mineralisation
- 1.11 Quaternary: ice sheets and a changing climate
- 1.12 Geology and man
- 2 Foreword to the fifth edition
- 3 Acknowledgements
Devonian: Acadian deformation and magmatism
Quaternary: ice sheets and a changing climate
Foreword to the fifth edition
Northern England is underlain by a wide variety of rocks with an exposed geological history spanning almost 500 million years. Its mineral wealth, in terms of both coal and metal,has driven the industrial development of parts of the region and has contributed much to the prosperity of the United Kingdom as a whole. The underlying geological diversity also imparts to the region its scenic range and high landscape value. Two of England’s National Parks, the Lake District and Northumberland, form substantial parts of the area described here whilst a third, the Yorkshire Dales, overlaps its southern margin. Recognised Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty include the Northumberland Coast, the Solway Coast, and the North Pennines, the last of these areas is also designated a UNESCO European and Global Geopark.
The first edition of this guide to the geology of Northern England was written by T Eastwood and published in 1935. The second and third editions were closely based on the original work, though with some additions by F M Trotter and W Anderson. The fourth edition was prepared by a team of authors led by B J Taylor, but was still acknowledged to be based on the previous editions by Eastwood. The fourth edition was published in 1971, but its preparation was mostly carried out in the late 1960s, before the full effects of the plate tectonic revolution had permeated all aspects of geology. This fact alone would justify a new edition, but the huge volume of additional data generated over the last 50 years makes it long overdue. The fresh insights and interpretations presented here owe much to those who have generated this data: colleagues within the British Geological Survey, academic researchers, energy and mineral exploration geologists, civil engineers and, increasingly, scientists working with a broadly based, environmental brief.
With its historical pedigree, the Taylor et al. text has continued to provide a valuable source of data for Northern England and its influence can undoubtedly still be found in this, the new fifth edition, which is nevertheless an entirely new work. The authors have approached their task from a perspective of dynamic geological development, in which tectonic processes, sedimentation and magmatism are integrated, rather than being treated separately in the traditional fashion. The book gives a comprehensive account of the geology of the region that it is hoped will prove informative to a wide range of users, from students and those with a general interest in their surroundings, to professional scientists, planners and engineers.
- John N Ludden, PhD
- Executive Director
- British Geological Survey
This edition of Northern England has been compiled by P Stone and edited by him, D Millward, S G Molyneux and J E Thomas.
Articles have been written by the following authors:
Introduction P Stone
Early Ordovician P Stone
Manx Group R P Barnes
Ordovician: magmatism D Millward
Late Ordovician to Silurian P Stone
Devonian P Stone, D Millward and M McCormac
Carboniferous D J D Lawrence, M McCormac and P Stone
Late Carboniferous to early Permian D Millward
Permian, Triassic and Jurassic S M Clarke
Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic D Millward
Mineralisation B Young
Quaternary J W Merritt
Fuel and energy B Young
Industrial minerals B Young
Building stone B Young
Ground engineering D C Entwisle
Geological hazards P Stone
Hydrogeology and water supply A S Butcher
The authors are grateful to the following for their specialist reviews of parts of the text: Peter Brand, David Highley, Douglas Holliday, Ewan Hyslop, Wishart Mitchell, Roger Musson, Jack Soper, Colin Waters, Nigel Woodcock.
Figures were produced by J Bow, K Henderson, K MacKenzie, E Mann, C Shearer and L Wilson
Book design by Amanda Hill
Photographs are from the BGS archive unless otherwise stated, and were prepared by F I MacTaggart and B M McIntyre.