Building stones of Edinburgh. 2nd edition.

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From: McMillan, A.A., Gillanders, R.J. and Fairhurst, J.A. 1999 Building stones of Edinburgh. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Geological Society.

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Contents

Foreword

Contents

Preface to the 2nd Edition


Chapter 1 the City of Edinburgh and its geological backdrop[edit]

Building stones of Edinburgh: Quarry sources for Edinburgh's buildings[edit]

Chapter 2 the geological characteristics of building stones[edit]

Introduction
Sedimentary rocks
Sandstones
Bedding characteristics
Sedimentary structures in sandstones
Joints
Classification of sandstones: mineralogy, grain and cement composition and colour
Weathering
Limestones
Igneous rocks
Metamorphic rocks
Slate
Marble
References

Chapter 3 Stratigraphy and origin of sandstones used in Edinburgh[edit]

Geological setting
Scottish Devonian sandstone ('Old Red Sandstone')
Sandstones of Angus
Caithness Flagstones
Carboniferous sandstone of the Midland Valley of Scotland
Inyerclyde Group
Kinnesswood Formation
Ballagan Formation
Strathclyde Group
Arthur's Seat Volcanic Formation and Gullane Formation
West Lothian Oil-Shale Formation
Clackmannan Group
Lower Limestone Formation
Limestone Coal and Upper Limestone Formations
Passage Formation
Coal Measures

Permian and Triassic Sandstone ('New Red Sandstone') of Dumfries & Galloway and Ayrshire

Appleby Group
Locharbriggs Sandstone Formation
Thornhill Sandstone Formation
Corncockle Sandstone Formation
Mauchline Sandstone Formation
Sherwood Sandstone Group
St Bees Sandstone Formation
Permian and Triassic Sandstone New Red Sandstone of Moray
Carboniferous sandstone from the Scottish Borders and England
Lower Carboniferous
Cementstone Group
Fell Sandstone Group
Scremerston Coal Group
Lower and Middle Limestone Groups
Millstone Grit
Coal Measures
Permian and Triassic Sandstone New Red Sandstone of England
References

Chapter 4 Tests on building stones[edit]

History
Current methods of testing
Tests used as indicators of durability
Porosity
Water absorption
Saturation coefficient
Acid immersion test
Sodium sulphate crystallisation test
The mechanical properties of stone
Strength tests
Uniaxial or unconfined compression test
The point-load test
Hardness
References

Chapter 5 Quarrying methods[edit]

Working of the stone
Organisation of work
The workmen
References

Chapter 6 The use and availability of sandstone in Edinburgh[edit]

Methods of walling
Surface finishes
Smoothed ashlar
Droved (boasted) work
Tooled work
Stugged (punched) work
Broached work
Rock-faced (bull-faced, pitch-faced, rusticated) work
Vermiculated work
Cladding
Use of different stone in the same building
Availability of stone: an historical perspective
References

Chapter 7 Where to see sandstones in Edinburgh's buildings: Part 1. Edinburgh's quarries and their building stone products[edit]

Stone from the Kinnesswood Formation

Burgh Muir (Meadows and Bruntsheld) and Grange Quarries

Craigmillar and Hawkhill Wood Quarries

Stone from the Ballagan Formation
The 'Salisbury' Quarries (Camstone and Dumbiedykes)
Salisbury Crags Quarries
Greyfriar's Port Quarries
Other Old Town Quarries
Stone from the Gullane Formation
Craigleith
Maidencraig
Barnton Park
Ravelston
Craigcrook
Granton Quarries
Bearford's Quarries
Upper Quarry Holes (London Road Quarries) and Lower (Nether) Quarry Holes
Quarries In the West End of the New Town
Broughton Quarries
Stone from the West Lothian Oil-Shale Formation
Ravelston No. 2 and Ravelston Black
Leith Hill
Wardie
Hailes
Redhall
Stone from the Limestone Coal and Upper Limestone Formations
Joppa Quarries
Niddrie

Chapter 8. Where to see sandstones in Edinburgh's buildings: part .2 Scottish and English quarries and their building stone products[edit]

Stone from the Devonian of Angus and Caithness
Carmyllie and Leoch
Caithness
Stone from the Carboniferous of West Lothian
Binny
Hermand
Dalmeny
Humbie
Craigton
Stone from the Carboniferous of Fife
Grange
Newbigging
Cuhalo
Clunevar
Fordell
Stone from the Carboniferous of the Stirling and Glasgow areas
Bishopbriggs Quarries
Kenmure and Huntershill
Plean
Dullatur
Polmaise
Dunmore
Giffnock
Braehead
Auchintea
Stone from the Carboniferous of the Scottish Borders and England
Swinton and Whitsome Newton
Fairloans
Doddington
Craggo
Blaxter
Darney
Prudham
Gunnerton
Dunhouse
Stainton
Catcastle
Wewield
Stoke Hall
Stanton Moor
Stancliffe
Springwell
Woodkirk
Heworthburn
Stone from the Permian and Triassic (New Red Sandstone) of Dumfries & Galloway and Cumbria
Locharbriggs
Corncockle
Gatetawbridge
Closeburn
Corsehill
Lazonby
Moat
Stone from the Permian and Triassic (New Red Sandstone) of Moray
Clashach
Spynie
References

Appendix 1 Glossary[edit]

Appendix 2 Sandstone quarries: locations and stratigraphy[edit]

Appendix 3 Quarry sources for Edinburgh's buildings[edit]

Appendix 4 Dates of operation and peak numbers employed in selected sandstone quarries[edit]

Appendix 5 Properties of building stones[edit]

B. Localities, descriptions and properties of building stones
C. Bibliography

Appendix 6 fossil trees from Craigleith, Granton and Redhall quarries[edit]

Index