Burst Clough

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C N Waters (BGS)

Burst Clough, Pendle Hill, Lancashire [SD 7808 4220 – SD 7830 4197][edit]

Map extract from DigMap50k showing the location of Burst Clough and the distribution of Pendleside Limestone Formation limestones (in turquoise) and Rad Brook Mudstone Member (plale blue), with underlying Hodderense Limestone Formation (in lilac) to NW and overlying Bowland Shale Formation present to SE. P785914.


Burst Clough is located on the lower western slope of Pendle Hill, 0.16 km southeast of Angram Green Farm, 1.38 km eastsoutheast of Worston. An almost complete section in the Pendleside Limestone Formation is exposed, for which this represents the type locality (Riley, 1990[1]; Waters et al., 2009)[2], together with lower beds of the overlying Bowland Shale Formation.

Pendleside Limestone Formation[edit]

The lowermost c. 60 m of the upper limestone-dominated succession comprises a light, blue-grey, thickly bedded, locally cross-bedded, fine limestone unit with bands and lenses of chert, fully exposed at the type locality (Earp et al., 1961)[3]. The limestone forms a marked escarpment on the lower northwestern slopes of Pendle Hill.

Key fossils:[edit]

Lithostrotion arachnoideum and L. portlocki are found from a crinoidal limestone near to the base of the limestone-dominated succession and the ammonoid Bollandoceras (Beyrichoceras) micronotum from below the crinoidal bed (Parkinson, 1926, p.215)[4].

Rad Brook Mudstone Member[edit]

The lowermost c. 122 m of the Pendleside Limestone Formation comprises almost completely exposed dark to pale olive and blue-grey, calcareous, bioturbated mudstone, interbedded with dark, laminated, micro-micaceous, calcareous siltstones and sporadic fine-grained, grey-blue packstones and wackestones of the Rad Brook Mudstone Member. The top of this member is marked by interbedding of mudstones and limestones and is taken at the lowest packstone within a succession with less than 50% mudstone.

Key fossils:[edit]

Parkinson (1926, p.214) recorded a fauna from the lower beds of the Rad Brook Mudstone Member including the coral Cryptophyllum hibernicum from about 3 m above the base of the member and corals Cyathaxonia rushiana and Zaphrentis densa from about 11 m above the base. The overlying mudstone-dominated succession has yielded few recognizable fossils, with the exception of the ammonoids Beyrichoceras hodderense, Nomismoceras sp., Orthoceras sp. and Prolecanites compressus.

Hodderense Limestone Formation[edit]

The Hodderense Limestone Formation is exposed in Burst Clough [SD 781 421], although no details are provided by Earp et al. (1961).

See also[edit]

Pendleside Formation (PDL)

  • Burst Clough


  1. RILEY, N J. 1990. Stratigraphy of the Worston Shale Group (Dinantian) Craven Basin, north-west England. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, Vol. 48, 163-187.
  2. WATERS, C N, WATERS, R A, BARCLAY, W J, and DAVIES, J R. 2009. Lithostratigraphical framework for Carboniferous successions of Southern Great Britain (Onshore). British Geological Survey Research Report, RR/09/01.
  3. EARP, J R, MAGRAW, D, POOLE, E G, LAND, D H, and WHITEMAN, A J. 1961. Geology of the Country around Clitheroe and Nelson. Memoir of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, Sheet 68 (E&W).
  4. PARKINSON, D. 1926. The faunal succession in the Carboniferous Limestone and Bowland Shales at Clitheroe and Pendle Hill, Lancashire. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, Vol. 82, 188-249