Excursion to Greenhithe and Stone. Saturday, April 25th, 1914 - Geologists' Association excursion

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Geologists' Association Circular No. 165. Session 1913-1914. p.14-16[edit]

Excursion to Greenhithe and Stone. Saturday, April 25th, 1914 (Transcription from: GA Circular No. 165. Session 1913-1914. p.14-16)[edit]

DIRECTOR: S. PRIEST, F.G.S.

EXCURSION SECRETARY: A. H. WILLIAMS, 13, Derwent Villas, Whetstone, N.

Leave Cannon Street (S.E. & C.R.) 1.43 p.m. Arrive Greenhithe 2.37 p.m.

Meet, Mr. Williams not later than 1.30 p.m., under the clock, to obtain special tickets, price 1s. 10d.

Throughout excursion, false-bedded loams, sands, and gravels may be regarded as representing locally the lower beds of Dartford Heath Gravels, lying as they do between Dartford Heath and Swanscombe, agreeing generally in height at base levels, as well as in constituents and arrangement.

From Station Road, proceed W. along London Road towards Dartford, noting on S. extensive chalk working. Opposite Stone Castle, chalk covered by Thane Sand and loamy gravel, Much Roman pottery discovered here. Site of Roman Cemetery marked here.

On Howe Hill, near smithy, chalk capped by sands and gravels. Howe Hill pit shows finely-bedded gravels resting on chalk floor, junction clean. Black bands, stained by iron and manganese, occasionally accentuate the bedding planes. Unworn chalk flints at base and much Tertiary material throughout. Channel of dark stiff loam cutting abruptly across top of gravel. Decalcified beams and mass of Shelly basement-bed London Clay noted here last year. Pot-boilers abundant on surface. Both this and adjoining pit worked by Thames Sand Dredging Co.

Adjoining pit (Castle Cross) extensive, with deep sections. Great thickening of gravels in hollow on surface of chalk, as seen looking along line of chalk workings south of Stone Church. Clean river drift rests directly on irregular chalk surface, well seen in tramway cuttings. Extremely large unworn flints lying on floor of pit with sarsens. Block of Herts. pudding-stone from here measured 10½ in. x 7in. 7in.

Loams much better developed near top. Beds near pipes very misleading. Highest gravel of all totally unlike river drift, devoid of stratification. Pot-boilers, fragments of coarse pottery, poorly worked flakes with bulbs, from trenches, marking cooking pits (?).

At Horn's Cross, flat terrace of gravel capping chalk escarpment. Opposite Acacia Road, Martin's pit, showing false-bedded sands and gravels, much shattered flints, unworn flints from chalk (slight depth below floor). Woolwich Ostrea. Near base, heavy layer densely packed sand.

Approaching John's Hole, Scott and Branton's Tollgate Pit shows abundance of very fresh Ragstone and Chert (Darent drift). Near "blue clay" occur iron-stained flints from broken-up Bull-head. "Blue Clay" is green-coloured Thanet Sand,upon which rests very thin layer of Woolwich pebbles. Two pipes show chalky loam. At John's Hole, Hillhouse Pit, worked by City of London Mental Hospital for builder's sand. Clean, fine gravel resting on chalk floor, proved 12 ft. below road level. Jurassic Gryphaea, Woolwich Cyrena, a 2 ft. band of fragmentary Cyrena exposed last summer, with false-bedded sandy gravels above and below.Time permitting, walk N. along Cotton Lane, near City of London Mental Hospital. Visit new pit, Stone Court Company, west side of lane, right on escarpment. Fault of Eocene age.

ft. in.
1. Dartford Heath gravels 4 0
2. Thanet Sand 6 0
3. Bull-head---here shows flints shattered to splinters 0 9
4. Chalk—piped below gravels

Sections here agree with pit other side of Cotton Lane. Pleurotomaria perspectiva found here this winter. Thickening of gravels probably corresponds with rise of ground (5). Gravels here form level capping over high ground between here and Hesketh Park.

Return to London Road, walk to Dartford. Descending East fill, note gravels resting on Thanet Sand, near Old Burial Ground. Trenches near Dartford Church showed marsh clay and peaty sludge resting on ballast gravel.

Tea at Bull Hotel.

Return trains: Dartford, 6,48; London Bridge, 7.32; Cannon Street, 7.37.

REFERENCES.

Ordnance Survey Map, 6 inch, Kent, Sheet ix N.E.

Geol. Surv. Map, 1 inch, London district Sheet 4.

WHITAKER, W.—"Geology of London."

CHANDLER., R. H., and LEACH, A. L.—"Recent Papers and Reports on the Dartford Heath Gravels." Proc. Geol. Assoc.

Images[edit]

Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914[edit]

List of photographs[edit]

Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914[edit]

Page 17 P804664 Howe Hill Gravel Pit. These finely bedded gravels resting on a Chalk floor with a clean junction are equivalent to the lower beds of the Dartford Heath Gravels. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914. They occur between Dartford Heath and Swanscombe and agree generally in height at base levels as well as in constituents and arrangment. [Two photographs combined to give continuous landscape view.].
Page 17 P804665 Howe Hill Gravel Pit. These finely bedded gravels resting on a Chalk floor with a clean junction are equivalent to the lower beds of the Dartford Heath Gravels. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914. They occur between Dartford Heath and Swanscombe and agree generally in height at base levels as well as in constituents and arrangment. [Two photographs combined to give continuous landscape view.].
Page 17 P804666 Howe Heath Gravel Pit. Finely bedded Dartford Heath Gravels. These contain unworn Chalk flints at the base and a great deal of Tertiary material scattered throughout. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914.
Page 17 P804667 Howe Heath Gravel Pit. False or current bedding in gravel. The harder bands which accentuate the bedding planes are stained by iron and manganese. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914.
Page 19 P804668 Scott and Brantons Tollgate Pit. Sections in the Darent Drift containing a quantity of very fresh Ragstone and Chert. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914.
Page 19 P804669 Scott and Brantons Tollgate Pit. Sections in the Darent Drift containing a quantity of very fresh Ragstone and Chert. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914.
Page 19 P804670 Martins Pit, opposite Acacia Road, Horns Cross. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914. This pit is in a flat terrace of Dartford Heath Gravel capping the chalk escarpment, showing false bedded sands and gravels with flints very much shattered. Near the base is a heavy layer of densely packed sand.
Page 19 P804671 Martins Pit, opposite Acacia Road, Horns Cross. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914. This pit is in a flat terrace of Dartford Heath Gravel capping the chalk escarpment, showing false bedded sands and gravels with flints very much shattered. Near the base is a heavy layer of densely packed sand.
Page 21 P804672 Castle Cross Gravel Pit. Finely bedded Dartford Heath Gravels resting directly on the Chalk. Very large unworn flints and sarsens are found at the base. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914.
Page 21 P804673 Castle Cross Gravel Pit. Finely bedded Dartford Heath Gravels resting directly on the Chalk. Very large unworn flints and sarsens are found at the base. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914.
Page 21 P804674 Stone Court Gravel Pit, west side of Cotton Lane. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914. Added note: Thanet Sand in hollows on Chalk; Gravel. [Bottom to top.].
Page 21 P804675 Stone Court Gravel Pit, west side of Cotton Lane. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914. Added note: Thanet Sand in hollows on Chalk; Gravel. [Bottom to top.].
Page 23 P804676 Stone Court Gravel Pit, west side of Cotton Lane. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914. Added note: Chalk; Bulkhead bed 9 inches; Thanet Sand 6 feet; Dartford Heath Gravel 4 to 6 feet. [Bottom to top.].
Page 23 P804677 Stone Court Gravel Pit, west side of Cotton Lane. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914. Added note: Chalk; Bulkhead bed 9 inches; Thanet Sand 6 feet; Dartford Heath Gravel 4 to 6 feet. [Bottom to top.].
Page 23 P804678 Redeposited flint layer. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914.
Page 23 P804679 A ?Fossil Mare's Nest?. Excursion to Greenhithe, April 25th 1914. This was described by the archaeologist present as the shaft of a ?denehole? until a workman pricked the bubble by saying it was worn by tipping the gravel down into rucks[?] which ran under from the adjoining pit.