Lead and zinc ores of Scotland Area I. The Leadhills–Wanlockhead district

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From: Wilson, G.V. with contibutions by J.S. Flett. The lead, zinc, copper and nickel ores of Scotland. Special Reports on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain Vol. XVII: Edinburgh : HMSO, 1921.
Plate 2. Map of the Leadhills and Wanlockhead district.

This area comprises the country south of a line joining the Firths of Forth and Clyde. It is by far the most productive area in Scotland, as it contains the extensive mining fields of Leadhills, Wanlockhead and Newton Stewart. Most of the veins are found in the belt of Silurian strata which stretches practically continuously across the country from Port Patrick to St. Abbs' Head. In the following description of the veins of this area the more important districts are considered first, and the isolated occurrences are discussed individually at the end of chapter III.

Contents

The Leadhills and Wanlockhead district[edit]

Situation[edit]

This district, which contains the most productive lead mines in Scotland, is situated on the north slopes of the Lowther Hills on the borders of Lanarkshire and Dumfriesshire. The village of Leadhills, in Lanarkshire, lies at a height of 1200-1300 ft., and is the highest village in Scotland. Wanlockhead, in Dumfriesshire, is a little lower, from 1100 to 1250 ft. The two villages are a mile apart, and until eighteen years ago were very inaccessible. The nearest railway stations are either Abington or Elvanfoot, 7 and 5 miles respectively from Leadhills; and Sanquhar, in the Nith Valley, which is 10 miles from Wanlockhead. At the present time the district is served by a light railway which joins the main Caledonian line at Elvanfoot.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 46 S.E.; 49 N.E., S.E.; 5 N.W. six-inch, Dumfries 7 N.E. New editions of Lanark 49 N.E., S.E., and Dumfries 7 N.E., are engraving.

Geology[edit]

The district is situated in an area of Ordovician (Lower Silurian) rocks which have been intensely folded along N.E.-S.W. axes, and show an extraordinary repetition of their outcrops.[1]

The general succession of the strata is as follows:—


Thickness
Caradoc Lowther Group 1000 feet
Lower Hartfell Shales 40–50 feet
Llandeilo Glenkiln Group
Arenig Radiolarian cherts 60–70 feet
Volcanic and intrusive rocks Base not seen

The Arenig volcanic and intrusive rocks consists mainly of lava flows, sills, tuffs, and agglomerates of basaltic and andesitic nature. Only the upper members are seen, and, since the base of the series is nowhere visible in. Scotland, no estimate as to their total thickness can be attempted.

The Radiolarian Cherts immediately overlie the volcanic rocks, and there is a gradual passage upwards from them into the Glenkiln Group, which consists of alternating layers of black shale and chert. Above these lie the Lower Hartfell Shales, the lowest few feet of which are identical in character with the Glenkiln Group and only distinguishable from them by their fossils. The upper portion consists of more fissile and softer black shales, which are often very graphitic and much pyritised, but all the black shales contain. more or less pyrites.

The Lowther Group, representing the barren mudstones or Upper Hartfell Series of the Moffat area, consists mainly of grey, sandy, micaceous shales, certain layers being also calcareous. Intercalated with these are grey, ferruginous, gritty beds (greywackes), some of which are also calcareous and have yielded a suite of Caradoc fossils from the Duntercleuch. A thin volcanic zone occurs sporadically near the base of the group. It is when the veins traverse the beds of this group that they are metalliferous. A number of later felsite dykes, probably of Lower Old Red Sandstone age, penetrate the rocks of the district. When fresh they are found to be of a pale grey colour. On microscopic examination they are seen to be much altered, and the felspars are replaced by sericite (mica). Occasionally they contain numerous cubes of pyrites which may attain a size of two inches in diameter. A few basalt dykes belonging to the typical Tertiary set of N.N.W. dykes are also met with in this area.

History[edit]

Leadhills[edit]

The first record of mining in the district is that of a lead mine in Glengonnar being worked by the monks of Newbattle in 1239,[2] but there is little doubt that lead-mining was in operation long before that time.

In the reign of James IV, the river gravels of this district were found to be auriferous, and the working and extraction of gold formed an important industry for a number of years. About this time it appears that lead-mining had been abandoned in the area, as lead was imported into the district for refining the gold.[3] - In 1562[4] lead-mining seems to have commenced again, and the metal was exported to Flanders for the extraction of the silver. Up to 1592 the lead mines seem to have been worked only intermittently, but in that year the Leadhills mines passed into the possession of Thomas Foullis, and they have remained in the hands of his successors till the present day. Foullis employed a skilled miner named Bevis Bulmer, who was engaged in the search for lead for a considerable time; the part of the country in which most of his trials were made goes by his name till the present day. Bulmer eventually confined himself to gold-mining, and the mounds of debris known as Gold Scaurs are remains of his work. He also erected a stamping mill at the head of the Long Clench, where he is said to have discovered a small vein of auriferous quartz. In 1637 the mines passed into the hands of Anne Foullis, who married James Hope of Hopetoun, ancestor of the Marquis of Linlithgow, the present proprietor. The Hopetoun family worked the mines themselves for a number of years, but Soon after 1715 part of the ground was let to the Scots Mining Company, which was founded by Sir John Erskine of Alva and financed by the Sun Fire Office. This company leased the northwest portion of the property, and, later, Marchbank & Company took the south-west portion, while the Hopetoun family continued to work the veins in the north-east part of the field. The Scots Mining Company secured the services of Stirling the mathematician as manager in 1735. He divided the men into four classes—miners; labourers, washers and smelters and also inaugurated the peculiar system of land tenure that exists in the district. About 1780 the Hopetoun family ceased to work the mines on their own account and let the north-east portion of the property to the Darlington Company, but they were unsuccessful and stopped work in 1805. The Scots Mining Company then took up this part of the ground, and the south-east portion was let to a Mr. Horner, who carried on work until his death in 1827. His lease was taken up by the Lead-hills Company (the successors of the Darlington Company), but owing to the Scots Mining Company interdicting the water rights they were unable to commence operations. Litigation ensued which lasted upwards of twenty years and led to no satisfactory result. At length by arbitration a compromise was arrived at, whereby the Scots Mining Company relinquished their lease, and the Leadhills Company took over the entire field.[5]

Wanlockhead[edit]

These lead veins are said to have been discovered (more probably rediscovered) by Cornelius Hardskins[6] (a German) during the minority of James VI. They were opened up by James Stampfield in 1680, who carried them on fairly sucessfully till 1691. He was succeeded by Matthew Wilson, who held the lease till 1710, and seems to have worked the Straitstep vein under the Dod Hill. In 1710 Matthew Wilson was succeeded by The Company for smelting lead ore with coal. They first wrought extensively in the Old Glencrieff and Belton Grain Veins, but without success. Later they were fortunate in discovering the New Glencrieff Veins, from which they raised a good deal of ore in a short time. In 1721 this company amalgamated with the Friendly Mining Society. The combined companies carried on the mines till 1727, and worked extensively in all the principal veins: New Glencrieff, Old Glencrieff, Cove and the Belton Grain. In 1727 the partnership was dissolved and the mining-field was divided between the Smelting Company and the Mining Society, who carried on separately till 1734, when both leases were resigned. That of the Smelting Company was held for a few years by Dean of Guild Wightman, one of the original partners, and that of the Mining Society was taken over by Alexander and William Telfer, who were unsuccessful at first, but eventually found good ore in the west branch of the New Glencrieff Vein. In 1755 they were succeeded by Ronald Crawford, Meason & Co., who worked the mines till 1842, at which time the Company was solely owned by the late Marquis of Bute. In 1842 the Duke of Buccleuch, the proprietor, took the mines into his own hands and worked them with more or less success till 1906, when they passed into the hands of the Wanlockhead Lead-Mining Company, Limited.

Output[edit]

In all probability the mines were worked only intermittently till the middle of the seventeenth century, but since that time they have practically been in continuous operation, and have yielded a fairly constant supply of ore. The total amount raised cannot fall far short of 500,000 tons. From 1700 to 1786 the annual output from Leadhills varied from 750 to 1000 tons of ore, and a similar amount was most probably produced at Wanlockhead. The following tables give the output since 1842:[7]

Wanlockhead Leadhills
Periods. Inclusive. Tons Lead Ore. Tons Zinc-Blende. Oz. Silver. Tons Lead Ore. Oz. Silver.
1842-1850 8,479 Nil
1851-1860 8,722 Nil 25,500 5,454
1861-1870 10,271 Nil 47,985 10,740 12,573
1871-1880 12,841 39 56,362 18,661 28,507
1881-1890 20,246 285 115,546 20,973 117,349
1891-1900 19,707 1,194 67,369 13,526 57,253
1901-1910 13,288 1,010 67,371 16,512 47,251
Years.
1911 3,152 109 14,972 1,899 6,172
1912 3,330 952 16,650 1,749 6,121
1913 2,704 1,010 13,520 1,331 4,653
1914 3,234 1,057 19,404 2,145 7,508
1915 3,135 1,258 17,243 1,943
1916 2,333 960 12,832 1,874 4,731
1917 2,056 780 11,308 1,773 5,319
1918 1,715 865 11,147 1,952 5,856
1919 1,860 595 11,160 1,896 5,688

The veins and their contents[edit]

Almost all the veins of this district contain galena as the principal valuable mineral. A few, however, carry ores of copper in excess of the other sulphides, and have been worked for that metal. Most of them contain zinc-blende, but it is usually not in payable quantities, and so far has been worked in only one vein. The wide distribution of alluvial gold over the district leads one to suppose that auriferous quartz veins occur, but as yet they have not been discovered.[8] The lead and zinc deposits of the district are all connected with lines of fracture, and in many cases signs of repeated movement of the veins can be seen, i.e. slickensided galena and blende, and broken surfaces of blende covered with later crystalline growths of other minerals, such as galena and calcite. In some cases the country-rock has been mineralised to a considerable extent; for instance, the black graphitic shales are often full of minute cubes of iron pyrites, and an assay of a sample taken from an old dump near the foot of the Windgate Burn yielded the following result:-

Silver — 1 oz. 18 dwt. per long ton

Gold — Traces per long ton[9]

Surface indications[edit]

A striking feature in connection with this area is the small number of natural exposures of veins. In fact, in many cases the only surface indications—excepting, of course, the old mine dumps—are lines of springs and green patches along the hillsides. In the few instances where the veins are exposed they consist either of barren quartz or of a gozzan formed of broken country-rock mixed with a good deal of red, ferruginous clay, and usually little or no metallic ores are to be seen. Under these circumstances the discovery of so many veins in the district can only be attributed to the fact that in the search for gold the surface of the ground was broken up by innumerable costeen workings and hushes. At a later date other veins were no doubt found during the driving of cross-cuts and drainage-adits. A glance at the map (Plate 2) shows that the veins are contained within an area some 2 miles wide, stretching for about 5 miles in a N.E.-S.W. direction parallel to the strike of the country-rock. Most of the veins cross the strike at angles varying from 45° to 80° and can be divided into two main systems, one trending W.N.W. to N.W. and the other N.N.W. to N.N.E.; a few thin quartz veins with a N.E. trend are also met with. A peculiar feature of the veins is that most of them hade to the east, and of those that hade west fully 90 per cent. belong to the W.N.W.-N.W. set.

Relative ages of the veins[edit]

On the whole, the evidence on this point is meagre, but such as exists points to the veins of the W.N.W. to N.W. set being the older. Thus, for instance, Susanna Vein is said to be cut and thrown a foot by Glennery Scar Vein, and Katystaklin Vein by Roanburn Vein. In many cases the veins are shattered or even thrown a few feet by movements along and parallel to the bedding of the country-rocks. Several instances can be seen in the 160-fm. level driven north along the New Glencrieff Vein.

Relations between the types of country-rock and the shoots of ore[edit]

As already stated, the richest portions of the veins are found in the greywackes of the Lowther Group. This fact is due to these rocks consisting mainly of compact, hard felspathic grits, which naturally give rise to a loose, open breccia on fracture. Consequently when a line of fracture crosses this type of rock it is represented by a more or less open fissure suitable for the circulation of ore-bearing solutions.

When the veins cut through the cherty bands they contain only a little ore, owing to the shattery rock forming a fairly compact rubble, with only a few small interstices. In the black shales the movement has often given rise to an almost impervious material containing no open fissures, and the veins are only represented by crushed rock and thin strings of gangue minerals. These relations are exceedingly well seen in the northerly extension of the 160-fm. level in the New Glencrieff Vein at Wanlockhead, where a strong line of movement was followed a considerable distance through unproductive ground consisting mainly of black shales and associated rocks. They were eventually cut off by a strike fault parallel to the bedding. The vein continued on, and was found to be metalliferous in the hard, felspathic greywackes met with beyond the line of fault. In the early stages of the veins the porosity of the various types of country-rock would no doubt have its effect on the disposition of the shoots and pockets of ore. In the later stages, however, this influence would be almost neglible, since the composition and movement of water in many of the veins has been rendered to a certain extent independent of the surrounding country-rock owing to the occurrence of clay gouges, formed by repeated movement along the walls of the veins.

Nature and character of the veins[edit]

About 70 veins are known to occur in the district, and at some time or other lead ore has been produced from nearly all of them. At present only four are being worked: the New Glencrieff Vein and its west branch (the West Grove Vein) at Wanlockhead, and Brow and Brown's Veins at Leadhills. At both localities cross-cuts are now being driven to intercept other veins at lower levels with a view to their future development. The veins have well-defined walls, and vary in width from mere strings to 16 or 18 ft. They usually show typical banded structure, but more often are filled with a breccia of greywacke fragments cemented together by a calcite or dolomite matrix sometimes containing interspersed galena. The whole is often out by numerous vertical strings of ore varying from 0.5 in. to 3 or 4 ft. in width, and in exceptional cases from 12 to 18 ft. of solid galena has been met with. At the present time the average values of the stopes are about 10 cwt. to 1 ton of ore per fathom at Wanlockhead, and 1 to 2 tons at Leadhills. The ore occurs in shoots which are often of great size; for instance, the main shoot in the south end of the New Glencrieff Vein extended practically from the surface to the 200-fm. level, and had a pitch length of about 1600 ft. and a breadth of 1200 ft. A great deal of the ore has now been removed from this shoot, with the result that the walls of the vein are creeping together. Ore appears to be, on the whole, more plentiful near the foot-wall than the hanging-wall, and consequently when tracing the veins through new ground the foot-wall is in' all cases followed.

Mineralogy[edit]

The mining-fields of Wanlockhead and Leadhills are exceedingly rich in minerals, and several new species have been recorded from the mines. Many of the minerals occur in a variety of crystalline forms and are often of great beauty. The best specimens of primary ores and gangue minerals are usually obtained from large open cavities, and those of the secondary minerals from the smaller cavities in the oxidised parts of the lodes. Some specimens show signs of corrosion; and numerous interesting facts in this connection, and also in relation to the formation of pseudomorphs, can be seen and studied.

Primary main ores[edit]

Galena[edit]

Lead sulphide (PbS) is by far the most important mineral in the district, and until recently was the only ore worked. It usually occurs as massive, coarse-grained, crystalline aggregates, but fine-grained " steel ore " is occasionally found. Beautiful specimens, consisting of combinations of the cube and octahedron, are sometimes met with in the cavities in the New Glencrieff Vein. The individual crystals range up to 2 in. in diameter and, although the outer surface is often solid and compact, the inner portions in many cases are of a spongy nature, and may contain a central core of chalcopyrite. In some instances the galena carries a certain amount of antimony sulphide, and approximates to jamesonite in composition, but, on the whole, it is free from admixture with other sulphides, though occasionally it is intimately associated with blende and chalcopyrite.

Zincblende- sphalerite[edit]

Zinc sulphide (ZnS) is an important and abundant constituent of some of the veins, but has only recently been worked. It sometimes occurs in massive aggregates free from other sulphides, but is more often mixed with galena and chalcopyrite. The usual colour is dark brown, but some of the better developed crystals, found lining cavities, are almost black (black jack).

Primary accessory ores[edit]

Chalcopyrite[edit]

Copper iron sulphide (Cu2S,Fe,S3) is widely distributed throughout the district, but nowhere appears to occur in payable quantity, though one or two attempts were formerly made to work it. It is often associated with galena and zinc-blende, and then it appears to have been the first to crystallise out from the ore-bearing solutions.

Pyrites[edit]

Iron sulphide (FeS2). Ordinary iron pyrites is a common mineral in the area, both as a constituent of the veins, and disseminated through the country-rock. It occurs in a variety of forms and is occasionally beautifully tarnished. The common crystalline form developed is the cube, and in an occurrence noted in a felsite dyke cut in Glengonnar Mine the individual crystals were finely striated and up to 2 in. in diameter.

Jamesonite[edit]

A sulphantimonide of lead (2PbS,Sb2S3), with a pale grey colour and fibrous fracture, is an occasional constituent of the veins. It is nearly always associai. with galena.

Secondary ores (Reduction products)[edit]

Practically all the metallic sulphides already mentioned occur also as secondary growths on other minerals, and in all probability several generations of these ores exist in the veins.

Secondary accessory ores (oxidation products)[edit]

These minerals are usually restricted to the upper portions of the veins, but in the south end of the New Glencrieff Vein the oxidised zone extends to a depth of about 200 fathoms from the surface (120 fathoms below adit-level).

Azurite[edit]

Azurite the blue basic carbonate of copper (2(CuCO3).Cu(OH)2), occurs under similar conditions to malachite.

Hydrocerussite[edit]

Hydrocerussite, hydrated carbonate of lead (Pb3(OH),(CO3)2), occurs as scaly white coatings associated with cerussite and plumbocalcite in the Belton Grain Vein.

Plumbonacrite[edit]

Plumbonacrite is the name given to those varieties of hydrocerussite which possess a nacreous lustre.

Hydrozincite[edit]

Hydrozincite, hydrated carbonate of zinc (ZnCO3.2Zn(OH)2), occurs as a white incrustation on the walls of some of the levels.

Plumbocalcite[edit]

Plumbocalcite is the name given to the intermediate compounds between calcite and cerussite. It is almost certainly of secondary origin.

Aurichalcite[edit]

Aurichalcite, hydrated zinc and copper carbonate (2(ZnCu)CO3. 3(ZnCu)(OH)2), is of a pale green to sky blue colour, and occurs associated with malachite, leadhillite and hydrocerussite in some of the veins.

Haematite[edit]

Haematite, ferric oxide (Fe2O3), is often found in the oxidised tops of the veins. It occurs as botryoidal masses, and some of the best specimens have been obtained from the Belton Grain Vein.

Limonite[edit]

Limonite, hydrated ferric oxide (2Fe2O8.3H2O), is the most common product of the alteration of iron pyrites, and is found in all the lodes. It also occurs as pseudomorphs after cubes of pyrites in the auriferous gravels of the district.

Minium[edit]

Minium, oxide of lead (Pb3O4), is stated to have been found in the district.

Calamine or Smithsonite[edit]

Calamine or Smithsonite, zinc carbonate (ZnCO), often occurs as an incrustation in the veins of the district.

Cerussite[edit]

Cerussite, lead carbonate (PbCO3), is a common oxidation mineral, and, in the massive form known as " grey lead ore," was formerly worked in the Susanna Vein. It also occurs as beautiful radiating aggregates or as individual crystals.

Malachite[edit]

Malachite, green copper carbonate (CuCO3.Cu(OH)2), does not occur in any quantity, but is often found in the oxidised materials.

Hemimorphite[edit]

Hemimorphite, hydrated silicate of zinc (2ZnO.SiO2.H2O), occurs as fine crystals lining cavities, and was exceedingly plentiful at the south end of the 100-fm. level in the New Glencrieff Vein, being occasionally up to 3 ft. in thickness. The mineral ranged from the 80 to the 120-fm. level, and was associated with cerussite, pyromorphite, blende and galena.

Chrysocolla[edit]

Chrysocolla, hydrated copper silicate (CuOSiO2.2H2O), is usually found as an incrustation or staining in conjunction with decomposing chalcopyrite.

Pyromorphite[edit]

Pyromorphite, lead chlorophosphate Pb5Cl(PO4)3, and Mimetite, lead chloroarsenate Pb5Cl(AsO4)3, are common oxidation minerals of the district. They are isomorphous, and practically all mixtures from pure pyromorphite to pure mimetite are found. The specimens show a remarkable range of colour, but usually vary from olive-green to orange-red, or even yellow.

Vanadinite[edit]

Vanadinite, lead chlorovanadinate (9PbO.3V2O5.PbCl2), is an exceedingly rare mineral in the district, and so far has only been found in Belton Grain and Susanna Veins. It occurs both as individual crystals and as globular masses.

Anglesite[edit]

Anglesite, lead sulphate (PbSO4), occurs in many of the veins, and is often associated with lanarkite, linarite and cerussite. It usually occurs as long-bladed crystals, and the best localities are the Susanna and Belton Grain Veins.

Goslarite[edit]

Goslarite, zinc sulphate (ZnSO4.7H2O), is found as a feathery growth attached to the sides and timbers of some of the upper and dry old levels in the various mines.

Leadhillite[edit]

Leadhillite, hydrated carbonate and sulphate of lead (4PbSO4, 2CO3H2O), has been found in all the veins of the district except the Belton Grain.

Susannite[edit]

Susannite is a variety of leadhillite.

Lanarkite[edit]

Lanarkite, basic sulphate of lead ((Pb2O)SO4), is the rarest mineral occurring in the district, and has only been met with in the Susanna Vein.

Caledonite and Linarite[edit]

Caledonite and Linarite are two basic sulphates of lead and copper (PbCu)2(OH2)SO4, and PbCu(OH)2SO4. The first is green in colour and the second is azure blue. Both have been found in many veins in the district. They usually occur together, often with chrysocolla and malachite.

Gangue minerals[edit]

Quartz[edit]

Quartz, silicon dioxide (SiO2), is a common gangue mineral of the veins, and often occurs as beautiful crystals lining cavities. The individual crystals, however, are seldom large enough to be of economic value.

Calcite[edit]

Calcite, the hexagonal variety of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), occurs in a great variety of forms both massive and crystalline, and some specimens are of great beauty. The large cavities in the veins are often lined with large scalenohedra, "dog-tooth spar." In other cases the form developed is that known as "nail-head spar," and occasionally specimens are found with the latter type as a growth on the former, whose shape can be seen as a " ghost " inside the crystal.

Aragonite[edit]

Aragonite, the rhombic variety of calcium carbonate, is an occasional constitutent of the veins and often occurs in beautifully radiating clusters.

Dolomite or Pearlspar[edit]

Dolomite or Pearlspar, calcium magnesium carbonate (CaCO3. MgCO3), is fairly common. It possesses the usual faint pink colour and the crystals have the characteristic curved outlines. On exposure to weather the colour changes to light brown.

Witherite[edit]

Witherite, barium carbonate (BaCO3), is one of the rarest minerals in Scotland. A cavity opened up early in the year 1918 at the 200-fm. level in the west - branch of the New Glencrieff Vein has yielded the first authentic Scottish specimens. The mineral occurs as beautifully formed, radiating, botryoidal masses, up to 8 in. in diameter. It is intimately associated with barytes, and is evidently a secondary product due to the alteration of that mineral.

Barytes[edit]

Barytes, barium sulphate (BaSO4), is a common gangue mineral, and numerous beautiful specimens of the cockscomb variety have been obtained from Wanlockhead Mines.

Gypsum[edit]

Gypsum, calcium sulphate (CaSO4), has occasionally been obtained in small crystals from Wanlockhead Mines. It also occurs in the fibrous variety sometimes known as satin spar.

Note—Many particulars of the minerals of this district will be found in Heddle's "Mineralogy of Scotland," and collections of them may be seen in the Royal Scottish Museum, the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, and at Wanlockhead and Leadhills.

Alteration of the ores (oxidation)[edit]

The percolation of surface waters into the outcrops of the lodes causes a number of chemical actions to take place whereby the original sulphide ores are decomposed and part of their content removed by solution, often to be precipitated again either as oxygen salts in the upper portions of the lodes where oxidising conditions exist, or as sulphides at greater depths under reducing conditions. This solution and reprecipitation of mineral matter in many cases has resulted in the secondary formation of rich pockets of ore in an otherwise poor vein.

Pyrites and chalcopyrite[edit]

Pyrites and Chalcopyrite are generally the first sulphides to decompose, and when in considerable quantities their oxidization gives rise to large amounts of limonite and hamatite, thus forming the well-known " gozzan " or " iron hat " of the miners' terminology. Several chemical equations have been devised to represent the reaction which takes place in the decomposition of common pyrites, but the net result appears to be the formation of ferrous sulphate and sulphuric acid. The reaction may be represented as follows:

FeS2 + 7O + H2O=FeSO4 + H2SO4.

Intermediate substances are also probably formed, including sulphur dioxide (SOS) and sulphuretted hydrogen (II,S). The ferrous sulphate is soon oxidised to the ferric salt which, by decomposition, breaks down into limonite and sulphuric acid. This change from pyrites to limonite may take place without any alteration of the shape of the original pyrites crystal. Notable examples are the beautiful cubes of altered pyrites which are obtained on washing the auriferous gravels of the district.

When chalcopyrite is present copper sulphate is formed, which may react with carbonic acid and yield either malachite or azurite, or with some soluble silicate to give chrysocolla: or again, it may unite with some of the products of the oxidation of galena, and thus give rise to linarite or caledonite.

In many cases the black amorphous substance known as copper pitch is one of the decomposition products of chalcopyrite. This substance is of variable composition, but contains considerable quantities of copper, iron and water, and may best be considered as a hydrate. Polished surfaces of decomposing ore often show kernels of chalcopyrite surrounded by copper pitch passing outwards to limonite and the whole veined with strings of crystalline malachite.

Oxidation of galena[edit]

This sulphide resists oxidation to a marked degree and is only slowly tarnished on exposure to the atmosphere. When in contact with running water it often remains quite bright, and its stability is easily seen from the fact that small bright cubes are often found when washing the.river gravels for gold. On alteration the first change to take place is most probably the formation of the sulphate, anglesite. This reaction may be one of simple oxidation. Lead sulphate is only slightly soluble in water, and would be deposited as anglesite, though some seems to have united with more lead and yielded the basic sulphate, lanarkite. Other small quantities have combined with copper sulphate, and given rise to linarite and caledonite. A further portion no doubt has reacted with carbonic acid and yielded the carbonate, cerussite. In some cases, however, the carbonate has probably been formed direct without the occurrence of the intermediate sulphate.

In many instances the oxidising waters have carried small quantities of hydrochloric, arsenic, phosphoric and vanadic acids in solution; these have acted directly on the galena and given rise to incrustations of pyromorphite, mimetite, and occasionally also of vanadinite. Often the pyromorphite is found enclosing a solid mass of galena.

Oxidation of sphalerite or zinc-blende[edit]

This mineral is decomposed far more rapidly than galena, and consequently is very seldom found near the surface in the veins of this district. In all probability the reason for this rapid decomposition is that zinc sulphate is readily soluble in water and is rapidly removed, leaving a fresh surface of blende to be acted upon.

The reaction may probably be represented by the following equation: ZnS + 4O = ZnSO4 or if the water already contains sulphuric acid, ZnS + H2SO4=ZnSO4 + H2S.

Both of the products being soluble are removed in solution. In many cases the zinc sulphate reacts with the calcite in the veins, and thus is converted into the carbonate (calamine), with the simultaneous formation of calcium sulphate (gypsum), but since the latter is distinctly soluble in water, it is only occasionally found in a crystalline condition. A considerable quantity of hydrated zinc silicate was met with between the 80 and 100-fm. levels in the south end of the New Glencrieff Vein at Wanlockhead. The occurrence of such a deep oxidation zone is peculiar and will be discussed later. The hemimorphite often occurs as an incrustation on a corroded and etched surface of blende, but it is also found as a pseudomorphous growth replacing calcite, aragonite, or even broken fragments of country-rock. The interior of these pseudomorphs is often hollow or spongy, showing that the original substance has been dissolved away almost concurrently with the deposition of the hemimorphite.

Other chemical changes taking place in the veins-the formation of pseudomorphs, etc.[edit]

Besides the changes that are brought about by the surface oxidation of sulphide ores, a large number of intricate chemical reactions are taking place in the veins. Their results can be studied in materials derived from the New Glencrieff Vein.

In the deep oxidised zone at, and about, the 80-fm. level, the galena is being dissolved, leaving a cavernous mass similar to that which is a charactistic product of the weathering of limestones. In some cases the interstices are partly or entirely filled with derussite, but in others they are empty. This action is plainly one of solution due to oxidation. At lower levels, however, and below the oxidised zone (i.e. below the 120-fm. level), the galena is often found with the same type of weathering but on a small scale, and in many cases the corroded surface is perfectly bright. In some instances beautifully developed and apparently solid cubes of galena are found lining cavities and even growing on broken surfaces of blende. On breaking them open, however, they are often seen to have porous interiors, and usually contain a kernel of chalcopyrite or blende around which the galena is arranged with a peculiar radiating type of lamination due to the skeleton-like growth of the crystal. Many crystals of this type also show signs of later corrosion, and since the interstices are often filled in with calcite, it appears that the action must have been caused by solutions of alkaline carbonates. The bright appearance of the corroded surfaces leads one to suppose that the action is of recent date, and may perhaps be still in progress in the unwatered portions of the veins. The general inferences are (1) that repeated growth and solution of galena are taking place in the vein, (2) that a continual migration of ore is in process, and (3) that this migration is connected with the natural flow of water in the vein. If, then, the direction of. this flow could be ascertained, it would be of great value as a guide when proving new ground.

From the fact that the 120-fm. level was driven a distance of half a mile through a wide, open, and well-watered fissure containing no ore or gangue minerals, and also that the oxidised zone reaches a depth of nearly 200 fms. from the surface at this end of the workings, it appears that water is finding its way into the vein at the south, and is gradually removing the ore in its passage northwards. The dip of the rocks is also generally in this direction, so that the water would have a tendency to sink deeper into the vein. This northward flow of water may also characterise many of the other veins, and a little evidence in support of this suggestion is gathered from the fact that the veins cut in the 160-fm. cross-cut usually give a more copious supply of water on the south than on the north side of the level.

An interesting case of the mechanical disintegration of one mineral by the growth of other crystals upon it was shown by a specimen taken from New Glencrieff Vein. A thin layer of clear quartz had first been deposited on galena and afterwards covered by a simultaneous growth of calcite and quartz. During this latter growth the stresses set up by the pressure of the growing crystals against one another had been sufficient to pull the core of galena apart along its cleavage lines, and also to break the first formed layer of quartz.

Alterations of barytes[edit]

Although this mineral is considered to be one of the most stable and insoluble bodies known, it is often corroded by mineral waters. Thus in many cases it becomes encrusted with calcite, and afterwards dissolves slowly, leaving a hollow pseudomorph of granular calcite having the shape of the original barytes crystal. At other times it is replaced by common pyrites, which may itself undergo oxidation to limonite, and thus give rise to what may be described as a case of repeated pseudomorphism.

A cavity recently opened up in the west branch of the New Glencrieff Vein and at the 200-fm. level has yielded the first authentic specimens of Scottish witherite. The mineral occurs as beautifully radiating semiglobular masses which are evidently secondary after barytes, being found encrusting corroded masses of that material. The chemistry of this reaction is difficult to understand, since barium sulphate is far less soluble than the carbonate, their relative solubilities in water being:

BaSO4 — .0023 grammes per litre

BaCO3 — .023 grammes per litre

It seems reasonable to suppose that the change has taken place through the formation of an intermediate sulphide by the action of hydrogen sulphide in solution in the mine waters.

This reaction may be written as follows, and it is reversible:

3BaSO4+4H2S⇄3BaS+H2SO3

The H2SO3 probably reacts with CaCO3, and is thus removed. Barium sulphide is easily decomposed by water, and seeing that the mine water contains calcium bicarbonate in solution the two may react as follows:

BaS+CaH2(CO3)2⇄ CaCO3+BaCO3+H2S

The BaCO, is then deposited as witherite. The CaCO3 may be deposited as calcite or may combine with the sulphurous acid liberated in the first reaction. The H2S may react with soluble lead, zinc, iron or copper salts, present in the water, and so give rise to the deposition of galena, blende or pyrites. Crystals of these minerals are often found encrusting corroded masses of barytes. This series of reactions can explain several of the changes to which barytes is subjected, and the resulting products are deposited in accordance with their relative solubilities.

As already stated, galena is often altered to, and replaced by pyromorphite. Pseudomorphs of galena after pyromorphite have also been found. All pyromorphite may be regarded as secondary and due to oxidation. The replacement of pyromorphite by galena requires reducing conditions which must have set in locally; probably owing to the influx of waters carrying hydrogen sulphide in solution. Other pseudomorphs which have been noted as occurring in the district are as follows:[10]

Anglesite after galena

Calamine after calcite

Calamine after galena

Calamine after vanadinite

Calcite after galena

Calcite after leadhillite

Cerussite after anglesite

Cerussite after galena

Cerussite after lanarkite

Cerussite after leadhillite

Cerussite after pyromorphite

Chryscolla after barytes

Chryscolla after galena

Chryscolla after cerussite

Hemimorphite after calcite

Pyromorphite after barytes

Pyromorphite after galena

Pyromorphite after calcite

Pyromorphite after leadhillite

Quartz after anglesite

Quartz after barytes

Quartz after calcite

Quartz after galena

Order of deposition of the minerals[edit]

On the whole, the veins of this district show only indefinite evidence as to the sequence of deposition of their constituent minerals. Thus, for example, no definite relation exists between galena and blende, and instances occur where either of them is found as crystalline growths upon the other. Similarly, where a vein is in contact with country-rock, pyrites or chalcopyrite is often seen to have been the first sulphide to crystallise out, but, on the other hand, late crystals of calcite taken from cavities are often found to be dusted all through with grains of pyrites.

In a sample of complex ore taken from the 187-fm. level at Brow Vein the blende is seen to be distinctly later than the galena, and to be replacing it and spreading along its cleavage cracks.

Of the gangue minerals, quartz, dolomite atd calcite appear to have been first, then barytes, aragonite and finally witherite. Some quartz, and the bulk of the calcite, is secondary, and is deposited on primary galena and blende. If, as seems probable, the beautiful crystals of galena are secondary, then certain deposits of quartz and calcite are even later than secondary galena, and may be described as tertiary. The order in a general way may be stated as follows, but it is by no means uniform# Quartz, dolomite, calcite

  1. Pyrites, chalcopyrite
  2. Galena, blende
  3. Barytes
  4. Calcite and quartz. 2nd generation
  5. Galena, blende and pyrite. 2nd generation
  6. Calcite and pyrites. 3rd generation

The secondary solution and deposition of ore in veins are of great importance from an economic point of view, and no doubt the processes are repeated as long as the veins contain open cavities. The reactions are intimately connected with the composition of the waters circulating in the veins, and this is by no means uniform even in any one vein. We find that whereas at one locality in the New Glencrieff Vein galena is being dissolved and calcite deposited, in others calcite is being dissolved, and in others, again, galena is being deposited.

Material is almost certain to be deposited when two types of water unite and mix with one another, and in all probability the rich pockets of ore often found at the junction of two veins are due to this or a similar cause.

Wanlockhead. Details of the mines and veins[edit]

Figure 2. Plan of the workings in the New Glencrieff Vein and its west branch (Wanlockhead). The numbers indicate the approximate depth in fathoms of the levels below adit.
Figure 3. Sections of the workings in the New Glencrieff Vein and its west branch (Wanlockhead).

About ten veins have been worked for lead ore in this part of the district, and several others are known, but have not yet been proved to be metalliferous. The main veins occur in a more or less parallel set, have a general direction of about 30° west of north, and hade north-east at angles varying from 50° to 80°.[11]

The main adit or drainage-level for the area occurs at an average height of about 1110 ft. and slopes to the north at 1 in 200. At the present time only two veins are being worked, namely, the New Glencrieff and its west branch, or the West Grove as it is sometimes called. (Beyond the point of intersection the northern extension of the New Glencrieff is occasionally known as the east branch of that vein.) The workings in these veins have been taken to a depth of 1320 ft. below shaft-head. None of the other veins have been worked to a greater depth than 500 ft. below adit, but a cross-cut is now being driven east at the 160-fm. level from the New Glencrieff Vein to cut and unwater these veins, with a view to their future development in depth.

Wanlockhead Mine (Glencrieff Shaft) (Working)[edit]

Proprietor: The Duke of Buccleuch.

Lessees: The Wanlockhead Lead Mining Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Dumfries 7 N.W.

The mine shaft and works are situated just below the village of Wanlockhead and at an elevation of 1195 feet. The shaft is sunk on the west branch, or West Grove Vein. It has been continued downwards for a distance of 240 fms. on the slope of the vein, and is connected with the main or New Glencrieff Vein by levels and cross-cuts. The New Glencrieff Vein appears to have been discovered between 1710 and 1721, and soon afterwards a fair quantity of ore was raised from it, but not sufficient to pay expenses. During the driving of the Glenglass adit-level about 1740, the west branch of the vein was discovered. It proved to be very rich and a large quantity of ore was raised. The mine was worked extensively till about 1770 when it was abandoned as unprofitable. It remained in this condition for over seventy years, but was opened up again by Mr. J. Stewart between 1842 and 1850, and the shoot of ore cut at the south end of the New Glencrieff Vein has proved one of the richest in Scotland, and is still being wrought.

Description of the Workings The mine has now been sunk to a depth of 1320 feet, and the bottom of the shaft is about 140 ft. below sea-level. The extent of the workings and the general disposition of the shoots of ore can be seen from the plan and section shown on (Figure 2) and (Figure 3) . The water is pumped in two stages, from the bottom to the 160-fm. level, and from there to adit-level, which crosses the shaft at about 90 ft. from the surface.

The main vein itself varies greatly in thickness. It is usually strong, cavernous, and well-defined, but owing to slight changes in direction, and to its being shifted laterally by small strike faults, it is often rather difficult to follow. At the south end the top levels were exceedingly rich in galena, and the main shoot of ore was practically continuous for 200 fms. At the 80-fm. level a large quantity of hemimorphite was also encountered, and at the 120-fm. level this gave place to blende. From that level downwards the galena gradually gave out until at the 200-fm. level the vein consisted almost entirely of blende. A peculiar fact in connection with the blonde is that it is restricted to the south end of the vein, and ends abruptly to the north, though quite recently specimens of blende have been obtained in the 240-fm. level at the north-west end of New Glencrieff Vein. A small quantity of blonde was also met with in some of the upper levels in the " West Branch." Southwards from this main shoot of ore the vein becomes unproductive, and although the 120-fm. level was continued a distance of half-a-mile in a strong open vein no ore was touched in the course of the work. Recent developments at the north end of the 160-fm. level have been more successful, although a considerable amount of trouble was encountered owing to the drivage deviating from the course of the vein (Figure 2) . Eventually by crosscutting 21 fms. to the east the vein was picked up again in its true course, and was found to be ore-bearing. The level was then continued a considerable distance through unproductive black shales, but eventually a shoot of ore was cut, which is 50 fms. in length and valued at 12 tons to the fathom. The 240-fm. level has also been driven southward, and the shoot of ore which exists in the 200-fm. level has been found to continue down to the lower one.

The sulphide ores are galena, jamesonite, zinc-blende and pyrites, and of these galena and blende are worked. The oxidised ores are pyromorphite, cerussite and hemimorphite, and the gangue minerals are calcite, dolomite, quartz, barytes and a little witherite.

The Treatment of the Ores.—The mine is worked by overhand and underhand stoping, and a good deal of the material is handpicked underground. After lifting, the material is screened, and the oversize portion shovelled on to a conveyer along which a number of men are posted to pick out the barren material. From here it passes to a stone-breaker and then to a hopper, which also receives the smalls from the screens. From here the material is first fed into the crusher rolls and then on to the trommels and jigs. The slimes pass on to the classifiers, and the various types of sand and slime tables employed. The plant is also equipped with a small chat mill to deal with the middlings thrown off from the 10-mm. jigs. The tailings from the jigs are clean, but those from the slime plant generally contain a little ore. The lead concentrates yield about 81.5 per cent. of lead, and the dressed blende is sold as containing 501 to 52 per cent. of zinc.

The galena is smelted at a plant which is situated about one mile further down the valley, and consists of two roasting furnaces, five Scotch hearths, and one slag hearth. Both silver and fume lead are produced, but the desilverising " Pattison " process has been abandoned since 1910. For a more detailed description of the

dressing plant the reader is referred to a paper in the Mining Magazine for July 1919, by Mr. J. Mitchell.

Other veins in the Wanlockhead area.

Shieling Burn Vein (Not worked)[edit]

Proprietor: The Duke of Buccleuch.

Lessees: The Wanlockhead Lead Mining Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Dumfries 7 N.W.

This is the most westerly of the veins shown on the map (Plate 2), and so far it has not been proved to be metalliferous. A few trials have been made on its south end, near the head of the Bailgill Burn, but the material on the dumps consists mainly of open breccia with few or no metallic minerals or even gangue. The northern extension of the vein has not been proved, but its course can be made out by a line of springs.

Old Glencrieff Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Duke of Buccleuch.

Lessees: The Wanlockhead Lead Mining Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Dumfries 7 N.W., and Lanark 49 S.E.

This vein lies about 100 fms. to the east of the New Glencrieff Vein. It has been known for a considerable time, but little work has been done on it for about eighty years. The vein stuff is largely stained red with iron oxide, and the ore is said to have been scattered through the vein, but never to have occurred in any quantity.

Extent of Workings. From the size of the dumps it is evident that a considerable amount of work has been carried on, and levels are said to have been driven for a distance of 130 fms. The workings are mainly in the south part of the vein, and little has been done at its northern end. The appearance of this vein, where cut in the new 160-fm. cross-cut, is not promising, and bears out the inferences obtained from the old workings.

Weir's Vein. (Not worked.)[edit]

Proprietor: The Duke of Buccleuch.

Lessees: The Wanlockhead Lead Mining Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Dumfries 7 N.W., and Lanark 49 S.E.

This vein lies about 50 fms. east of the Old Glencrieff. It was discovered by the Friendly Mining Society when driving the Whyte's Cleugh Level, and was opened up for a few fathoms. In the new 160-fm. cross-cut two veins have been cut at about the position of Weir's Vein: both of them carried a little galena.

Straitstep or Whyte's Cleuch Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Duke of Buccleuch.

Lessees: The Wanlockhead Lead Mining Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Dumfries 7 N.W., and Lanark 49 S.E.

The course of this vein, as laid down on the old plans, is rather irregular, and in all probability the workings are not all in one vein. The Bay Mine is the most northerly of the works, and is situated on what is known as the Bay Vein, which trends about N.N.W. and hades to the east. About 120 yds. from its junction with Straitstep Vein proper this vein changes its direction, and runs about 12° west of north for a short distance; then it turns off to the west and resumes its former direction. The change may possibly be due to the fact that the Weir's Vein joins the Bay Vein at about this point.

The Straitstep Shaft is situated on the Straitstep Vein proper. Northwards from the shaft the vein trends about 12° west of north, and continues in that direction beyond its junction with the Bay Vein. Southwards the vein changes its direction until it assumes a N.N.W. trend, which it keeps till its junction with the Lochnell Vein, when it again takes a direction of 12° west of north, and is known as Margaret's Vein.

Extent of the Workings.—An. adit-level has been driven in the vein the whole length of the workings for a distance of about a mile. The Bay and Straitstep Shafts are 310 fms. apart and are connected by several levels. Most of the work is on the Bay' Vein, where the lowest level is 80 fms. below adit. The section of the mine shows that the bulk of the stoping was done between the 160-fm. and the 80-fm. levels. The old dumps of the Bay Shaft contain a good deal of blende, but usually in isolated pieces.

Southwards from Straitstep Shaft the adit-level was driven about twofifths of a mile through barren ground, but at Margaret's Shaft the ore held down solid for a distance of 500 ft. from the surface, and about 50 fms. below adit. The dumps show the vein to have carried blende as well as galena. This part of the mine was abandoned many years ago, but work was carried on at the Bay Shaft till about 1900.

The Highlandman's Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Duke of Buccleuch.

Lessees: The Wanlockhead Lead Mining Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Dumfries 7 N.W., and Lanark 49 S.E.

This vein lies about 30 fms. east of Straitstep Vein, and was opened up by the Smelting Company, who drove a level along it for a short distance into the Dod Hill, but so far as is known no ore was met with.

New Cove and Wilson's Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Duke of Buccleuch.

Lessees: The Wanlockhead Lead Mining Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Dumfries 7 N.W., and Lanark, 49 S.E.

These two veins were cut when driving the Whyte's Cleuch low level cross-cut. They are about 30 fms. apart, and levels were driven along them for short distances to the south. In all probability Wilson's Vein is the continuation of the Lochnell Vein, and the New Cove Vein may perhaps be the same as the one cut at the end of the 160-fm. cross-cut, and about 30 fms. west of the point at which the Lochnell was expected to be met with. As seen in the cross-cut, this vein is about 20 ft. wide and hades east at about 70°. It is cut by another vein which hades the same way, but at 50°, and may possibly be the Highlandman's Vein.

Lochnell Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Duke of Buccleuch.

Lessees: The Wanlockhead Lead Mining Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Dumfries 7 N.W., and Lanark 49 N.E., S.E.

As already stated, this is probably the same as Wilson's Vein.With slight undulations it runs more or less in a north-and-south direction and joins the Straitstep Vein a little to the north of the Margaret's Shaft. It was formerly considered to be a branch of the Cove Vein.

Extent of Workings The Vein has been worked to a depth of 147 fms. from the surface and 77 fms. below adit. The main shoot of ore appears to have been 116 fms. in length and about the same in depth.

The Cove Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Duke of Buecleuch.

Lessees: The Wanlockhead Lead Mining Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Dumfries 7 N.W., and Lanark, 49 N.E., S.E.

This vein takes its name from its great width. It was first opened up by Sir James Stampfield, and was worked fairly constantly till about 60 years ago. It trends N.N.W. and hades to the east.

Extent of Workings.—These are all at the north end, and before its junction with the Lochnell Vein. The ore has been worked out from the surface to 60 or 70 fathoms below adit, a total depth of 130 fms., and the levels appear to have been driven a distance of 185 Las. in ore-bearing ground.

Crawfurd's and Goldscaur Veins (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Duke of Buccleuch.

Lessees: The Wanlockhead Lead Mining Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Dumfries 7 N.W., and Lanark, 49 N.E., S.E.

These two veins occur between the Cove and Belton Grain Veins, and, as far as can be gathered from the evidence available, neither of them has been proved to be of any value. The exact position of Goldscaur Vein is doubtful, and it was not shown on the 1st edition of the Geological Survey's 6-in, maps. A vein with this name is said to occur a few fathoms to the east of the Cove Vein, but no signs of it can now be seen. I have, however, kept and given the name to a vein which cuts the Belton Grain Vein, and whose presence can be inferred by the red soils seen at the surface. It continues across the Belton Grain Vein and is then known as the New Vein. Crawfurd's Vein occurs about 100 fms. east of the Cove Vein and runs almost parallel to it. It was cut in the Whyte's Cleuch cross-cut, and a level was driven a short distance along its course. Its southern end has been opened up by a few small trials, and a little galena is said to have been found.

Belton Grain Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Duke of Buceleuch.

Lessees: The Wanlockhead Lead Mining Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Dumfries 7 N.W., and Lanark 49 N.E., S.E.

The vein trends about N.N.W., and can be traced for a distance of over one and a half miles. It was first opened up at its south end by Sir James Stampfield, and the work was continued by Matthew Wilson, and the Smelting Company. The ore was found in self-pieces, but the vein stuff was so soft and difficult to timber that the Smelting Company finally abandoned the work. In 1755 the north end of the vein, near the head of Whyte's Clench, was opened by Mr. Williamson, and the vein was found to vary from 12 to 20 ft. in width. It was drusy and cavernous, but in a better condition for working than at the south end. The ore often occurred in ribs up to 2 or 3 in. in thickness, and also in small pieces and strings mixed up with broken country-rock.

Extent of Workings.—The vein has been worked over a total length of 670 fms., and to a depth of 120 fms. from the surface and 60 fms. below adit. At the north end the ore held up to the surface and continued downwards a distance of 90 fms. At one time this vein was very productive and yielded 1000 tons of lead per annum.

New Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Duke of Buccleuch.

Lessees: The Wanlockhead Lead Mining Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Dumfries 7 N.W., N.E., and Lanark 49 N.E., S.E.

This vein was formerly considered to be a branch of the Belton Grain Vein, but on the accompanying map it is shown as the northerly extension of Goldscaur Vein. It was first worked in 1870 by a crosscut from the Belton Grain Vein and several tons of ore were obtained.

Lee's Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Duke of Buccleuch.

Lessees: The Wanlockhead. Lead Mining Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Dumfries 7 N.W., N.E., and Lanark 49 N.E., S.E.

This vein trends almost due north and south, but although several trials have been made on it no lead ore has been discovered, though a good deal of hematite was met with.

March Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Duke of Buccleuch.

Lessees: The Wanlockhead Lead Mining Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Dumfries 7 N.W., N.E., and Lanark 49 N.E., S.E.

This is the most easterly of the Wanlockhead group of veins, and so far it has not been found to be lead-bearing in that part of its course. When traced northwards, however, towards the Leadhills boundary, it splits into two and the branches are known as the West and East Stayvoyage Veins.

Leadhills. Details of the mines and veins[edit]

Figure 4. Plan of the workings in Brow and Brown's Veins (Leadhills). The numbers indicate the depth in fathoms of the levels below adit.
Figure 5. Sections of the workings in Brow and Brown's Veins (Leadhills).

About 40 veins have been worked for lead ore in this district, but in many cases the workings are only shallow and on a small scale, The bulk of the veins belong to two main sets, one trending northwest, and the other varying from N.N.W. to a few degrees east of north.

The veins of the former set usually hade to the south-west, and those of the latter to the east. In the Wanlockhead field all the veins hade to the east.

The main adit-level of the district is known as Gripps Level. It occurs at a height of about 1100 ft. at Glengonnar Shaft, and following the various veins and cross-cuts, falls steadily northwards to its mouth, which is situated near the ruins of the old Smelting Mill, about two miles down the Glengonnar Valley. The exact date of the driving of Gripps Level is not known, but it was prior to 1790. Before it was completed the mines were drained by the Poutsheil Level, which is 20 fms. above Gripps and issues about half a mile below Leadhills village.

Glengonnar Shaft (Brow and Brown's Veins)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Lessees: The Leadhills Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E., S.E.

The shaft is situated at an elevation of about 1460 ft., and is near to the county boundary and the railway. It is vertical till it cuts Brow Vein at a depth of 100 fms., but from that point it bends and follows the vein to a total depth of 249 fins. below the surface. Brow Vein trends north-west, and hades south-west at an angle of about 60°. Brown's Vein trends 10° west of north and hades east at 70°. The two veins intersect at the surface at a point some 500 ft. E.S.E. of Glengonnar Shaft, and the line of intersection then dips away at an angle of about 45° to the S.S.E.

As now seen in the 135 and 172-fm. workings, Brow Vein varies greatly in thickness, but averages 8 ft. between walls. The veinstone consists mainly of a breccia of country-rock cemented together by ore-bearing calcite and dolomite, and often strung through with vertical and ramifying ribs of solid galena varying from to 12 in. in thickness. In some cases the walls are 18 ft. apart, and the whole infilling consists of this rich, ore-bearing material. Brown's Vein is filled with very similar material to Brow Vein, but is perhaps not quite so rich in lead ore.

Extent of the Workings.—As will be seen from the plans and sections (Figure 4) and (Figure 5) , the workings in both veins are extensive, but as yet practically all the workings in Brow Vein are to the south-east of the shaft, and they have been carried to its intersection with Brown's Vein over a total length of about 300 fms., and to a depth of 187 fms. below adit.

The workings in Brown's Vein extend over a distance of 500 fms., and reach to a depth of 160 fms. below adit. Besides the communications at the various levels, the workings in the two veins are also connected by a cross-cut at Gripps Level, driven from Glengonnar Shaft to a point a few fathoms north of Jeffrey's Shaft.

The Ores and their Alteration Products.—The primary ores are galena, blonde, pyrites and chalcopyrite, and of these galena is the only one occurring in payable quantity; but recently some ore raised from the lowest level was found to consist of an intergrowth of galena and blonde in almost equal quantities. The oxidised ores are limonite, hamatite and small amounts of malachite and chrysocolla.

The gangue minerals are mainly calcite and dolomite, together with a little siderite, quartz and barytes.

Treatment of the Ores.—The mine is worked by overhand and underhand stoping from the various levels. The material is roughly picked underground, but the bulk is lifted and taken to the hand-picking shed where it is divided into three categories (1) clean ore, (2) ore-free tailings, (3) mixed ore and gangue. These last are then put through a jaw crusher and taken away to the dressing plant about half a mile to the north, where they are passed through crusher rolls, trommels, jigs, classifiers and tables. The ore concentrate is pure galena, and yields about 83 per cent. lead, and the tailings are now in great demand for building purposes.

Other veins in the Leadhills area[edit]

West Stayvoyage Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Lessees: The Leadhills Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E., S.E.

As stated in the descriptions of the Wanlockhead area, this vein is a continuation of March Vein. It hades to the east at 85°, and has been worked to a small extent. It is said to have carried lead ore associated with barytes and quartz to within a few fathoms of the Wanlockhead boundary.

East Stayvoyage Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Lessees: The Leadhills Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E., S.E.

This vein is the northern extension of the east branch of March Vein. It hades to the east, and consists mainly of barytes and quartz, with bands of malachite and some chalcopyrite, but lead ore is scarce. It has been worked to a small extent, and was met in a cross-cut at Gripps Level driven west from Glengonnar Shaft.

A small vein occurs between the two Stayvoyages, and on an old plan it is called the Stay the Voyage Vein, and the other two are known as the East and West Veins respectively. Near the end of the crosscut this vein is about 2 fms. from the East Stayvoyage Vein. It carried a little lead and was worked for a short distance.

Scar Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Lessees: The Leadhills Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15: six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E., S.E.

This vein trends about 20° west of north, and hades to the east with slight variations in the angle, being 69° at the top level and 63° at Poutshiel Level. It has a maximum width of about 4 ft., and carries a little galena and chalcopyrite.

Katrine Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Lessees: The Leadhills Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E., S.E.

This vein consists mainly of ferruginous brecciated country-rock. It hades east at 55°, and crosses Scar Vein obliquely.

Marehbank's Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Lessees: The Leadhills Co. Ltd.

Ma s One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E.

This is a small vein that occurs between Scar and Katrine Veins; it has only been worked to a small extent.

Hopeful Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow. Lessees: The Leadhills Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; Lanark 49 N.E.

This vein has a north-west trend, and cuts across Brow Vein about a third of a mile north-west of Glengonnar Shaft, from which point the line of intersection inclines gently to the south. The vein hades at a high angle to the south-west, and at Gripps Level consists mainly of about 2 ft. of breccia with strings of quartz and galena. It has been worked on a small scale, and was formerly drained by the Hopeful Level which issues near Wet Bush.

Gordon's Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Not leased.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E.

The workings in this vein are on the west and north-west sides of Lamb Knowes, near the head of the Snar Water, and they are reached by an old cart track over the hill from Leadhills.

The vein is not seen, but its course can be traced by the line of old shafts and fallen-in levels. The direction of its strike coincides with that of Brow Vein, and from this, and also from the similarity of the materials on the dump of both veins, it appears likely that Gordon's Vein is the northern continuation of Brow Vein.

Extent of Workings.—From the size of the dumps the workings cannot be of any extent, but since they contain upwards of 50 tons of blende, it appears that good zinc-ore was met with, but was then of no value and so discarded.

Several of the Wanlockhead veins strike towards this locality, and if they should prove to be metalliferous, a practically un.worked mining-field exists here.

Sarrowcole and Laverock Hall Veins (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Lessees: The Leadhills Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E.

The positions of these two veins are shown on the map (Plate 2). They are possibly part of the same vein, and are taken as such; both hade to the east, and from the material on the old dumps the infilling seems to have contained a good deal of quartz, with galena and pyromorphite.

Extent of Workings.—Both veins have been worked to a certain extent, and the Sarrowcole Vein has been wrought to Cockspap Level (which occurs a little below Hopeful Level). They have been abandoned for a large number of years, but from information taken from the old journals at Leadhills, the Laverock Hall Vein was being worked early in the eighteenth century, and lead ore was then being raised from it.

Debbie's Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Lessees: The Leadhills Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E.

This vein trends north-west, and hades to the south-west. It has been worked to Poutshiel Level.

George's Roust Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Lessees: The Leadhills Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E.

This vein trends 30° north of west, and hades to the south-west at 66°. It is about 2 ft. wide, and consists of a few inches of breccia on either wall with a 14-in. rib of quartz, carrying a little pyromorphite through the centre. It has been worked to Poutshiel and Cockspap Levels.

Leadhills. Clay String (Abandoned)

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Lessees: The Leadhills Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E.

This vein trends north-east, and is parallel to the bedding. It cuts across between Hopeful and George's Roust Veins, and shifts the latter a few feet. Levels have been driven along it at different elevations, but they are probably only for drainage. The vein appears to be barren.

Carse's Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Lessees: The Leadhills Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E.

The position and direction of this vein are shown on the map (Plate 2). It hades to the east, but little else is known about it, and the workings are very old.

Raik, Lammington's and Wester Veins (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Lessees: The Leadhills Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E., S.E.

The Raik Vein trends about 12° east of north, and can be traced for a distance of one and three-quarter miles from Broad Law southwards to beyond Mine Hill. About a quarter of a mile north of the latter point it branches. That part which goes straight on is known as Lammington's Vein, while the eastern branch keeps the name of Raik; Wester Vein is a small vein that intersects the two branches.

Raik and Lammington's Veins both hade to the east, and from the materials on the dumps appear to have carried a good deal of zincblende besides galena.

Extent of Workings.—The workings in the north end of Raik Vein have been carried to a considerable depth, and a good deal of ore was met with, especially near the junctions with Meadowhead, Labour in Vain and Jeffrey's Veins. Southwards from the point of branching both Lammington's and Raik Veins have been worked to a considerable extent, though the main workings appear to have been in Lammington's Vein, and this is probably the one which was found to carry good zinc-blende where cut in the 154-fm. level in the Brow Vein workings.

Portoto or Jeffrey's Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Lessees: The Leadhills Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E.

This vein trends north-west, and hades south-west. At its north end, against Brown's Vein, it is known as Portoto Vein, and is only a few inches thick. The middle part of the vein, where it abuts on Raik Vein, is known as Jeffrey's Vein. A little work has been done on it at both localities. Southwards from Raik Vein it continues for a distance of half a mile, and is there known as Horner's Vein.

Horner's, Roanburn and Katystaklin Veins (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Lessees: The Leadhills Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E.

Roanburn Vein trends about 15° west of north, hades to the east at 60°, and has been traced for a distance of over half a mile. Along the greater part of its course it is associated with a felsite dyke, which is cut through and brecciated by some of the movements to which the vein has been subjected.

The vein has been worked to a fair extent, and an adit-level was formerly driven along its course nearly as far as Deadburn. At one point (between Hope's and Patterson's Shafts) it contained a good deal of barytes with quartz and some galena up to 2 in. in thickness. Just south of here, and near Moffat's Shaft, the workings branch off into another vein which trends 30° west of north, consists mainly of barytes, and is clearly seen to be cut by the Roanburn Vein, though the amount of displacement cannot be made out. In all probability this vein is the Katystaklin Vein which further to the south has yielded a small amount of galena between the Katystaklin and Poutshiel Levels. Horner's Vein is the continuation of Jeffrey's Vein, and at this locality has been worked on a fair scale in both directions. It hades slightly to the south-west, and consists mainly of brecciated country-rock with barytes and some dolomite.

Muir's Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Lessees: The Leadhills Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E.

This is a small vein which trends about north and south, hades to the east, and joins Homer's Vein at about 250 yards east of Raik Vein. A level has been driven along it for a short distance to the south.

Labour in Vain Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Lessees: The Leadhills Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E.

This vein trends north-west, and hades to the south-west. It has been worked on a small scale, and is said to have carried good ore in one or two localities, but from its name it never seems to have been very productive.

Meadowhead Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Lessees: The Leadhills Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E.

This vein trends north-west, and hades to the south-west. It was formerly worked on a fair scale, and has recently been proved to be ore-bearing in depth by a cross-cut from Brown's Vein at the 145-fm. level. The galena occurred in large, rough cubes up to 4 in. in diameter.

Wilson's, Mill and Glasgow Veins (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow. Lessees: The Leadhills Co. Ltd.

Maps: Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E.

These three veins occur near the north end of Leadhills village. They have all been worked at some time, but only on a small scale.

Glennery Scar, Portobello and Humby Veins (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Lessees: The Leadhills Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E.

Glennery Scar Vein trends N.N.W. for part of its course, but then swings round to about 10° east of north. This change in direction is most probably due to the fact that the vein joins Laverock Hall Vein, and then continues in the same direction. This part of the vein is said to cut and throw the Susanna Vein a few feet. The other veins have been worked on a small scale, but nothing is known as to their value.

Susanna Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Lessees: The Leadhills Co. Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E.

This vein, also known as the Clay-bed, is one of the most interesting in the whole district, and is noteworthy of being the finest repository of secondary minerals of lead and copper that has ever been found in Scotland. Several new species of minerals were discovered there.

It was probably one of the first veins to be worked, and its position is now marked by a great open-cast gash up the hillside. The Foullis family wrought extensively in this vein, and at the time of the litigation between Anne and Douglas Foullis the latter made several trials from his lands of Glendorch in search of it, but without success.

At a much later date, however, and while working an exceedingly rich pocket of ore, one of the miners accidentally broke through into his old workings, and thus showed that Douglas Foullis had been within a few feet of success.

The vein trends a few degrees north of west, and hades to the north at from 45°-500. It consists mainly of broken country-rock with interspersed self-pieces of galena, and in some places it is said to have been 18 ft: wide in solid ore.

Ores and their Alteration Products.—The primary ores are galena, blende, pyrite and chalcopyrite, the last three being in subordinate quantities only. The oxidised ores are of great variety, and include cerussite, anglesite, pyromorphite, mimetite, lanarkite, susannite, leadhillite, linarite, caledonite, chrys..colla, malachite, azurite and other rarities. The gangue appears to have been mainly quartz, with subordinate calcite and barytes. A good deal of cerussite was formerly worked in the upper levels.

Extent of Workings.-- The workings extend for a length of over 260 fms. and to a depth of 140 fms. The mine was abandoned owing to inability to cope with the water.

Wool Gill Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E.

The old mine is situated a quarter of a mile up the Wool Gill Burn and about one mile north of Leadhills.

The vein trends about 5° E. of N., and has been worked under Wool Law. From the size of the dumps, which carry a fair quantity of calamine, the workings are of considerable extent, and they were drained by a cross-cut adit to the Glengonnar Water.

Guthrie's and Wilson's Veins (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E.

These two veins occur in the south side of the Wool Gill Burn. They are about 100 yds. apart, and run parallel to the Wool Gill Vein. Guthrie's Vein was worked by a level from Wool Gill Burn, and Wilson's by a shaft from the surface.

Broad Law and Reid's Veins (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 75; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E.

These two parallel veins also occur on the south side of the Wool Gill Burn. They are almost 60 yds. apart, and have a direction 10° N. of W. A considerable amount of work has been done on these veins, and several shafts have been sunk. An adit drainage-level was driven a distance of about 200 yds. by Alexander Sherriff, who was the manager about 1770.

Lead Vein, Clay Vein and Spar Vein (Abandoned) .[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E.

Several trials on veins have been made to the south and west of and within a quarter of a mile from the summit of Broad Law. Aditlevels were also driven from the west to drain the workings. Little in the way of lead ore appears to have been found, and at the present time the water escaping from one of these workings is used as the household supply for Leadhills village.

Haddington's or Road Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Maps: Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E.

This vein trends about 10° W. of N., hades to the east, and crosses the railway about half a mile east of Leadhills.

The North or Road Vein end was abandoned in 1768. A level has been driven and a few shallow shafts sunk to it, and a trial was also made on an offshoot running north-west and haling south-west. This was abandoned in 1763.

Haddington's, or the southern portion of the vein, was worked by numerous shallow shafts along its course, and a cross-cut level was driven about 150 yds. west from Silverside Shaft to drain the workings.

A little galena and pyromorphite can be found in the old dumps along the course of the vein.

Straight Brae and Risping Clench Veins (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Naps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch,:Lanark 49 N.E.

A vein is seen crossing the Risping Clench about 400 yds. upstream from the railway viaduct. It hades east, is only about 2, ft. thick, and consists mainly of greywacke breccia strung with quartz and a thin seam of yellowish-brown clay. Several shafts have been sunk on both sides of the burn, and a drainage adit has been driven from a point near the railway. The southern end of the vein was opened up in 1766, and a level driven along it from a point just beside the road to two shafts about 200 yds. to the north.

A little white barytes, galena and pyromorphite can be found on the dumps near the Risping Clench. From the existence of a line of old shafts, which runs parallel to and about 20 yds. from the east side of the burn, it appears that another vein which is not exposed also occurs. A little pyromorphite can be found on the dumps, showing that it was worked for lead.

Glen Ea's Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Maps: One-inch Ordinance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E.

The old workings are situated on the east side of the Short Clench Water, and are about 250 yds. north of the summit of Glen Ea's Hill, and a third of a mile south-east of Hass Cottage. The vein trends north-west, and hades to the south-west. It has been worked by a series of levels driven in from the north-west, and also by a crosscut driven from the north-east so as to intersect the vein at a distance of about 100 yds. The ore raised was taken down the hill on sledges.

Short Clench Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E.

This vein trends north-west, and crosses the Short Clench Water near Lauder Cottage, from whence its course southwards can be traced about a third of a mile by a line of springs. A few trials have been made on the north end of the vein, but from the size and appearance of the dumps, little or nothing of value was met with.

Middle Grain Veins (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 46 S.E.; 49 N.E.

The old workings on these veins are situated half-way between Wool Law and Bulmer Moss, and are about two-thirds of a mile from the railway.

Apparently two parallel veins occur, but neither of them is seen, though from the direction of the lines of old trials and shafts it appears that they trend about 10° W. of N. The country-rock consists of greywacke and finely laminated calcareous shales, which are much weathered where exposed at the surface.

Extent of Workings. Several shafts and levels have been opened up on the lines of the veins, and the workings extend over a distance of half a mile. A cross-cut to drain the working has been driven from 150 yds. to the wept. From the size of the dumps a considerable amount of work has been carried out, and the quantity of galena and pyromorphite scattered about shows the veins to have been fairly rich. The principal operations on -these veins seem to have come to an end about 1761.

Bulmer Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15: six-inch, Lanark 46 S.E.; 49 N.E.

This vein runs parallel to Middle Grain Vein, and is about 350 yds. to the east. It is not seen at the surface, but it can be traced by means of the old workings for a distance of about a mile.

The more northerly of the workings occur near the head of Well Grain, where three levels have been driven to catch the vein. The material of the dumps contains fragments of galena, pyromorphite and chalcopyrite. About a third of a mile to the south the refuse from a couple of old shafts contains considerable quantities of galena and pyromorphite. Farther south there is another old shaft, and an adit-level draining this part of the workings occurs near the head of the Over Cleuch.

Gold Scaurs Vein (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Linlithgow.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 15; six-inch, Lanark 49 N.E.

Several old trials have been made on this vein, but, from the small size and appearance of the dumps, little of value was discovered.

Veins of lead ore are also said to have been discovered on the lands of Glendouran, Glendorch and Gilkerscleuch. Williams visited those at the last locality.[12] He describes them as occurring about five miles to the north of Leadhills, and states that at one of the trials then being made good lead ore was obtained at the depth of a few fathoms, but that operations ceased as no machinery existed to cope with the water which accumulated.

References[edit]

  1. B. N. Peach and J. Home, The Silurian Rocks of Scotland," Mem. Geol. Surv.,,, 1899
  2. G. V. Irvine, The Upper Ward of Lanarkshire," vol. i., 1864, p. 51
  3. R. S. Hunter, The Silurian Districts of Leadhills and Wanlockhead," Trans. Geol. Soc. Glasgow, vol. vii., 1884, p. 379
  4. Cochran Patrick, Early Records relating to Mining in Scotland," 1878, p. 4; also " Reg. Priv. Council Scot.," vol. I., p. 232; and Muir Porteous, God's Treasure-House in Scotland," 1876
  5. More detailed particulars can be obtained from the old MS Mine Journals, which are preserved in Leadhills Library. See also The (Old) Statistical Account of Scotland," vol. iv., 1792, p. 511; " The New Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. vi., 1845, Lanark, p. 335. A.B.G., A Trip to the Gold Regions of Scotland (Modern History of Lead-hills), The Gentleman's Magazine and Historical Review, vol. xxxix., 1853, pp. 459, 468, 589. Muir Porteous, God's Treasure-House in Scotland," 1876. W. Lauder Lindsay, The Goldfields and Gold Diggings of Crawford Lindsay (Lanarkshire), The Scottish Naturalist, vol. iv., 1877-1878, pp. 214-218, 256-268, 305-317, 349-360.
  6. The New Statistical Account of Scotland," vol. iv., 1845, Dumfries, pp. 299-304. See also Watson, in James Brown, The History of Sanquhar, 1891, pp. 424-442; and Edmond in same work, pp. 442-450; and Muir Porteous, God's Treasure-House in Scotland, 1876.
  7. Compiled from " Mineral Statistics " (Mem. Geol. Surv.), and from Part III. of Mines and Quarries (Home Office Reports).
  8. According to tradition gold-bearing quartz veins were discovered by Bulmer and Bowes, but the records are not trustworthy
  9. Assay kindly supplied by W. Rutherford, Tharsis Co., Glasgow
  10. Mainly taken from Heddle, Mineralogy of Scotland.
  11. Note.—In this memoir hade is taken as synonymous with dip, and in all cases the angle is measured from the horizontal.
  12. Williams, The Natural History of the Mineral Kingdom, vol. ii., 1810, p. 453.