Lead and zinc ores of Scotland Area II. Tyndrum, other Perthshire mines, Fifeshire and Forfarshire

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From: Wilson, G.V. with contibutions by J.S. Flett. The lead, zinc, copper and nickel ores of Scotland. Special Reports on the Mineral Resources of Great Britain Vol. XVII: Edinburgh : HMSO, 1921.
Figure 14. Map of Tyndrum area, showing distribution of metalliferous veins.

This district is situated on the borders of Argyllshire and Perthshire, and is taken as comprising the adjoining lands of Tyndrum and Coninish, which occur respectively near the heads of Strathfillan and the Coninish Water. The main Tyndrum Mines are close beside the Caledonian (Callander and Oban) Railway.

The Coninish Mines are from two and a half to three miles by cart track from the same line, and the Crom Alit workings and trials are situated within a few hundred yards of the North British (Glasgow and Fort-William) Railway.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 46; six-inch, Perth 77, 78, 89.

Geology[edit]

The area consists of metamorphic rocks, and, as will be seen from the accompanying map (Figure 14), is divided into two by a large north-east fault. To the west of this line of fracture the rocks are mainly quartzites and quartzose-flags, with occasional bands of mica-schist. On the east side, and thrown down against these, is a thick series of silvery-grey, soft, micaceous-schisjs, which dip at 200-250 to the S.S.E. So far, no workable metalliferous veins have been discovered on the east side of the fault, but several parallel, or almost parallel, veins are known on the west. In many localities the fault itself is ore-bearing and has even been worked.

History and Output.[1][edit]

The Tyndrum Veins were accidentally discovered in 1741 by Sir Robert Clifton of Clifton, a Nottinghamshire baronet, at that time working a lead mine in Lorne. Re appears to have taken a mining lease of the Breadalbane estate in 1730, and to have opened up the mine and raised 1697 tons of lead ore between 1741 and 1745. This was taken on pack horses to a furnace erected at the foot of Glen Falloch, close to Loch Lomond, the nearest point to which coal could be conveyed by water. Sir Robert seems to have favoured the Jacobite cause in the rebellion of 1745, consequently the mines and works were occupied by the Argyllshire Militia (Royalists), who appear to have done a considerable amount of damage, and also to have carried away 28 lb. of smelted lead. Sir Robert was succeeded by the Mine Adventurers of England, who raised 2046 tons of ore between 1745 and 1760. This company also did a considerable amount of prospecting work in the Crom Allt part of the estate. From 17601762 the mines were in the hands of the Rippon Company, who raised 330 tons of ore. They were succeeded by Messrs. Richardson & Paton, who raised 942 tons of ore between 1762 and 1768, in which year the mines passed into the hands of the Scots Mining Company. They erected new smelting works about one mile east of the mine, and produced 3685 tons of ore, which yielded 1678 tons of lead between 1768 and 1790. The journals showing the monthly returns of work during this period are in the Leadhills Library. In a memorandum and plan of the veins drawn up in 1791, it is stated that the smelting mill was worked eight hours per day, and that it was capable of producing 8½ " Dutch " stones of lead per hour. Estimates are also given to show that the cost of a ton of lead at Tyndrum Smelting Mill was £19, 3s. 7½d., to which had to be added 11s. 3d. for cartage and freight to Glasgow, via Glenfalloch, which caused the total cost of 1 ton of lead as delivered in Glasgow to be £19, 14s. 10½d.

After the time of this last company operations were only carried on intermittently till 1858, when the Marquis of Breadalbane took the mines in hand, and from 50 to 100 tons of ore were raised annually till his death in 1862. Then all mining ceased by order of his executors. The mines remained in an abandoned state till 1916, when a lease was granted to the Tyndrum Lead and Zinc Mines Ltd., who have erected plant to deal with the old dumps, and are also developing the mines.

The veins and their contents[edit]

The veins are associated with a set of north-east lines of fracture, which most probably originated in Old Red Sandstone times. The principal veins known are:-

  1. The Hard Vein
  2. The Clay Vein

These two are said to unite to the south, and the conjoint vein is known as# The Tyndrum Main Vein

  1. The Mother Reef (Barren Quartz)
  2. The Coninish and Ben Lui Veins

Besides the above, several smaller veins occur, especially between the Clay and Hard Veins, near the Crom Allt, at the foot of Beinn Odhar. (See inset, (Figure 14)

Mineralogy. The veins vary from mere strings to 20 ft. in thickness, and the infilling usually consists of massive white quartz gangue, with occasional patches of calcite and barytes. The primary ores are galena, zinc-blende, chalcopyrite and pyrites. At many localities the galena and blende occur in almost equal proportions, and they are the only ores present in workable qu itities. In some cases they are found as definite ribs up to 2 ft. in width, and associated with calcite and barytes. More often they occur as small, isolated crystals disseminated through the quartz gangue. The secondary ores are not well represented, but pyromorphite and malachite are found on weathered specimens. Calamine and hydrozincite occur as incrustations on the walls of the old levels, and the timbers and roof are often coated with fine, hair-like crystals of goslarite (zinc sulphate). In one or two instances crystals of native sulphur were found along joints in the weathered material. A small quantity of cobalt bloom (erythrite) was formerly found in M`Callum's Level at Tyndrum Mine. An assay of this material yielded:[2] -

Cobalt — 28 per cent.

Silver — 60 ozs. to the long ton.

Assays of the lead and zinc ores are as follows:

Locality Lead Silver per long ton
Per cent. Oz dwt
West Slope of Tyndrum Hill[3] 28.7 1 6
Galena from Coninish Mine[4] 58.0 8 6
Galena from Coninish Mine[5] 68.5 3 12
Tyndrum Main Vein (Coninish)[6] 58.7 2 5
58.25 4 10
Steel Ore, Tyndrum Mine[7] 40 0
(Galena, Tyndrum Mine[8] 10 0
Locality Lead Zinc Oz Dwt
Average of Dumps at Tyndrum[9] 7.91 3.95 8 6

Geological History and Relations of the Veins.—In all probability the veins were first filled-in with massive white quartz, together with galena and zinc-blende. At a later date movements along the lines of fissure caused a shattering of the already formed infillings, together with the formation of open cavities. The waters, which then commenced to circulate in the veins, corroded and removed a good deal of ore from some localities, and no doubt redeposited it in the open cavities. The corrosion gave rise to a similar type of spongy galena to that already stated to occur at Wanlockhead. Concurrently, or at a slightly later date, the interstices were filled in with later growths of cryptocrystalline quartz, which can be seen filling cracks and fissures in the ores and primary gangue minerals. In some cases this secondary quartz is in complete optical continuity with the primary quartz, but often there is a well-defined break between the two. This secondary deposition of quartz in the cracks has often given rise to typical banded structure. The small crystals have grown inwards from the two sides, and in some cases the central portion consists of a disjointed string of zinc-blende.

The relations of the Clay Vein to the other veins, and to the Hard Vein in particular, are of interest in connection with any future development of the mines. The Clay Vein, as now seen, occupies a line of fault, and has been subjected to large earth movements at a later date than the other veins. In some parts of its course this vein is metalliferous and has been worked, but more often it consists essentially of ground-up mica-schist (country-rock) and contains little in the way of ore or gangue minerals. In some localities the fault has followed the line of a pre-existing quartz vein, but apparently this is not always the case.

About one mile to the north of Tyndrum, and half a mile up the Crom Allt above the railway bridge, the Clay Vein, which consists of quartz strings with a few specks of pyrites, is seen in the bed of the stream. About one-third of a mile further downstream, the vein consists mainly of crushed mica-schist, and it is clearly seen to cut off, and to be later than, two metalliferous quartz veins which are exposed in the stream. (See inset, (Figure 14))

At Tyndrum Mine the relations of the Clay Vein to the Hard Vein are obscure, but the general appearance of the junction of the two veins in the mine suggests that the former is later than, and cuts out the latter. At the lower levels the two veins hade to the south-east at slightly different angles, but further up the hill the hade of the Hard Vein becomes vertical, and finally changes over to the north-west. The upward extension of the two veins has been denuded away, but in all probability they formerly came together again at a short distance above the present level of the ground.

Near the top of the hill, above the Tyndrum Mine, the two veins may perhaps run together for a short distance at the surface, as shown on the map of the area (Figure 14). Farther south their positions can be made out in the Allt nan Sae.

The Hard Vein appears to be the southern boundary of a shatter-belt, and consists of about 6 ft. of quartz, with a little galena and zincblende. The shatter-belt is about 100 yds. in width, and is bounded on the north-west by a thin vein of quartz carrying a little pyrites. The Clay Vein[10] has only been recently recognised here, and is seen crossing the burn about 100 yds. downstream from the Hard Vein. It is about 8 ft. wide, and consists of shattered quartz, carrying small specks of galena and blende. South-west from here the course of the veins can be made out, and the trial about one-quarter of a mile from the burn is most probably a level driven in to cut the Clay Vein. This part of the course of the vein was formerly known as the Tyndrum Main Vein, but the finding of two distinct veins in the Allt nan Sae has proved that they do not run together in this part of the course, but continue as separate veins for at least two-thirds of a mile south-west from the Allt nan Sae. It is not yet possible to say whether the two veins have united before they reach the outcrop in the River Coninish just below the farm of that name. The. vein seen there is about 8 ft. wide, and consists of broken quartz with good lead ore. From its general appearance it might quite well be the Clay Vein. If this is the case, one would expect to find the Hard Vein a little further up the river, but unfortunately the latter has a gravelly bed, and there are no exposures.

Details of the mines and veins[edit]

Tyndrum Mine (Working)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Breadalbane.

Lessees: The Tyndrum Lead and Zinc Mines Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 46; six-inch, Perth 77 S.E.

The mine and works are situated on the south side of the railway, and about three-quarters of a mile west of Tyndrum Station. A railed hutch-way has recently been laid down for this distance.

Output.—The figures for the early returns of output from this mine have already been given, but those for the last period of working are as follows:[11]

Year Lead Ore Lead Silver
Tons Tons Oz
1856 130 94 -
1857 61 42 93
1858 I 54 37 82
1859 69 40 160
1860 80 57 229
1861 60 43 172
1862 67 47 120
1863 46 32 64
1864
1865 49 35
1919 4 3

Descriptions of the Veins and Workings.—Two almost parallel veins have been worked, namely, the Hard and the Clay Veins. The former trends 35° E. of N., and hades south-east at from 65° to 70° at the lower levels. The latter trends 40° E. of N., and hades south-east at 80°. The Clay Vein is the later of the two, and is associated with a large wrench fault, which cuts out the Hard Vein in depth, and the line of intersection inclines gently to the north-east. The Hard Vein occurs in the quartzite on the west side of the fault, and consists of a quartz gangue carrying galena, zinc-blende and chalcopyrite. The Clay Vein consists of similar material in a highly broken and shattered condition, together with numerous pieces of mica-schist. In both veins the galena is often of a fine granular type, and good crystals are rare. It is sometimes associated with calcite and barytes.

The mine has been worked by ten levels, which have been driven more or less along the course of the veins for distances of from 475 to 1200 ft. In order from top to bottom, they are as follows:

Distance below the preceding one.

LEVEL Feet
M`Callum's
Bryan's 65
Long 105
Burn 55
Stamp 100
MacDougal's 70
New 60
Low 57
Lubock's 200
Lowest 55

Only four of the levels are now open, and it has not yet been possible to correlate them with the old names. At the highest open level the Hard Vein is well seen, and contains a good deal of mixed ore containing galena up to two tons to the fathom. Near the entrance to the level, from 2 to 6 in. of good blende can be seen on the foot-wall. A similar amount is also exposed at the old open-cast working near the top of the hill. A fair distance along the level the Hard Vein is cut and thrown by a cross-course vein, which trends about N.N.W., and hades to the S.W. The level continues beyond the point of intersection, but it is not in vein-stuff. If the cross-course acts as a normal fault, the Hard Vein should be thrown to the west. This seems to have been proved to be the case at a lower level, where a cross-cut driven west beyond the cross-course has caught the vein. The cross-course stops against the foot-wall of the Clay Vein, and is probably a splay from it. Some of the levels have worked one vein only, but Burn, Stamp and MacDougal's Levels have been driven on both. A good deal of stoping has been done at the latter, and also in Bryan's and Long Levels, where the galena is said to have averaged 10-20 in. in thickness. At the present time the material of the old dumps is being worked over, and taken down the hill to the recently-erected dressing plant; where about 70 tons of galena and 120 tons of blende have been extracted. The tailings consist of fairly clean quartz-sand and gravel, which are being sold for building purposes.

In the meantime, the mine is being explored and developed, and it is hoped that the ore extracted from the dumps will keep the concern going until the mine is in working order.

Beinn Odhar Level (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Breadalbane.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 46: six-inch, Perth 78 N.W.

The old mine occurs in the Hard Vein, and is situated about half a mile south of the summit of Beinn Odhar, and three-quarters of a mile from the road. The vein is much broken up, hades south-west, and consists of a shattered zone about 20 ft. wide, which is strung through by numerous thin veins of quartz, carrying occasional strings and patches of galena, blende and also a little erythrite.

Extent of Workings. These are on a very limited scale, but a certain amount of open-cast work has been done, and a level has been driven for a few fathoms along the foot-wall.

About three-quarters of a mile S.S.W. from here, a small, opencast trial has been made on a four-foot vein of quartz, which carries a small quantity of galena and blende. (See Inset, (Figure 14))

Crom Allt and Beinn Bheag Workings (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Breadalbane.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 46; six-inch, Perth 77 N.E.

Several small trials have been made for lead ore on both sides of the Inveroran Road, near where the railway crosses the Crom Allt.

The most northerly of these occurs about 100 yds.above the railway, and consists of a small, shallow shaft, which has been sunk on the east side of the burn. The vein is exceedingly well seen where it cross the stream. It consists of about 6 ft. of quartz, a little barytes and calcite, with strings of galena up to 2 in. in thickness, and also numerous self - pieces, from 6-8 in. in diameter. Northwards from here the vein splits into two, and both branches are seen crossing the burn (see Inset (Figure 14)). They are very similar in appearance, and consist of white quartz, with a good deal of disseminated galena and zinc-blende. On the east side of the burn the two branches are seen to be cut off by the fault, or Clay Vein, which at this point is not metalliferous. Southwards from the trial-shaft the course of the vein is not well-defined, but most probably swings slightly to the east and joins up with the Clay Vein at a small open-cast on the east side of the burn, about 100 yds. Below the railway bridge. This open-cast is about 20 yds. long, and occurs along the line of the fault. It was opened up by the Mine Adventurers, who raised about 7 or 8 tons of lead from it.

On the west side of the burn, and about due west of the railway bridge, the remains of an old open-cast working can be made out.

It is most probably situated on the four-foot vein already mentioned as having been tried on the slope of Beinn Odhar. , At the present time the vein cannot be seen, but from the material on the dump (which has been used as road-metal) the infilling consists of quartz, with a good deal of disseminated galena and zinc-blende.

About 1000 ft. south-west from this point the site of an old shaft can be made out (see Inset, (Figure 14)). In all probability it is sunk on the Hard Vein, which, from the material on the dump, apparently consists of quartz, with galena and zinc-blende. Following the line

of the vein, about 500 ft. south-west from this point, we find the site of a hush which cuts diagonally across the vein. The position of the mouth of an old level driven by the Scots Mining Company can be made out. At this point the vein contained a good deal of clayey matter, besides quartz with galena and zinc-blende. It is said to have been about 3 ft. wide, and the level was driven a considerable distance.

Sron nan Colan and Allt nan Sae Levels. (in process of reopening.)[edit]

Proprietors: The Marquis of Breadalbane and Tyndrum Lead and Zinc Mines Ltd.

Lessees: Tyndrum Lead and Zinc Mines Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 46; six-inch, Perth 77 S.E.

A small level has been driven on the Hard Vein at a point about one-third of a mile south of the eastern end of Sron nan Colan, and the same distance north-east from the Allt nan Sae. The vein, which is most probably the Hard Vein, consists of quartz carrying fair quantities of galena and zinc-blende. The level has been driven a short distance, and a little stoping has been done.

A couple of trials for lead ore are to be seen on the south side of the Allt nan Sae, and about one-quarter of a mile farther along the course of the vein. The more northerly trial consists of a small shaft, and the spoil heap is mainly country-rock, and no ore is to be seen. The other trial is situated about 70 yds. to the south, and consists of a cross-cut level which has been driven a short distance in a northwest direction to cut the Clay Vein. The material on the dump shows that the vein was metalliferous, and that it consisted of quartz gangue, with interspersed galena and zinc-blende.

The vein is also to be seen where it crosses the River Coninish near the farmhouse of the same name. A small amount of costeenwork has been done at this locality, and galena and blende are visible.

The Mother Reef[edit]

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 46: six-inch, Perth 77 S.E.

A massive vein of barren quartz can be traced in a south-west direction from Drochaid-an-Droma, near the north-west end of Sron nan Colan, to a point where it crosses a tributary of the Allt Eas Anie, about half a mile north-west of Coninish. Several trials have been made on this end of the reef, but at none has it been found to be metalliferous. Southwards from the exposure in the tributary burn the Mother Reef branches. The southern branch continues straight on, and is found to be metalliferous at a small trial made on the hill-side, about one quarter of a mile E.S.E. of Eas Anie. The vein here is about 5 ft. wide, and consists of quartz containing strings of galena up to 2 in. in thickness. The northern branch strikes towards Eas Anie.

Eas Anie Mines (Coninish). (In process of reopening.)[edit]

Proprietors: Tyndrum Lead and Zinc Mines Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 46; six-inch, Perth 77 S.E.

The old mines are situated at Eas Anie, about two-thirds of a mile west of Coninish. There is a fairly good road to within half a mile of the mines.

In all probability the workings are on two veins, but at the present time only those on one vein can be examined. The vein trends south-west, hades south-east at 70°, and varies from 18 in. to 2 ft. 6 in. in width. The infilling consists of broken country-rock, quartz and calcite, with occasional patches of galena, zinc-blende and chalcopyrite.

Extent of Workings. At the present time only two levels can be examined. These are about 30 ft. apart, and are connected by a winze. The upper level has been driven a distance of about 50 fms., and the lower one some 6 fms. further. In an account of this mine by J. S. Grant Wilson and H. M. Cadell,[12] mention is made. of the Beinn Chuirn Level, which is said to contain 1 ft. of good lead ore. No signs of this level can now be seen, nor of a vertical shaft, which is said to have been sunk 470 ft. from the top of the cliff, and to have been connected with the various levels. A little material with galena and blende occurs scattered about at the top of the crag. As no shaft is to be seen in either of the two open levels, it appears that they cannot be the ones mentioned in the above account.

Ben Lui Mine (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietors: Tyndrum Lead and Zinc Mines Ltd.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 46; six-inch, Perth 89 N.W.

The old mine is situated about one third of a mile up the Allt an Lund, a tributary of the River Coninish, and about one and a half miles W.S.W. of the farm of that name.

The vein trends north-east, and is probably a continuation of the Coninish Vein (Eas Anie). It is not now seen, but contains a fair quantity of galena and blende.

Extent of Workings.—A level has been driven a short distance north-east along the course of the vein, and the material on the dump near its mouth contains good galena and blende. A few other small shafts have been sunk along the line of the vein.

Other Perthshire mines and veins[edit]

Meall Luaidhe Mines (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: Ernest Salter Wills, Esq.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 46; six-inch, Perth 57 N.W., N.E.

Situation.—The old mines are situated on the Farm of Kerrowmore, about one mile up the Allt Bail' a' Mhuilinn from Glen Lyon, and half-a-mile east of the road to Killin, which is distant about twelve miles.

History.—The mines appear to have been opened up about 1730,[13] , but being unprofitable were soon abandoned.

Description. The country-rock of the district consists mainly of garnetiferous mica-schists, with interbedded quartzose and calcareous bands. Three veins have been worked. They have a general trend of 50° E. of N., and hade south-east at angles of 70°--75°. The more northern vein has been worked for a distance of about 25 yds., and where seen, is from 2 ft. to 2 ft. 6 in. in width, and consists of quartz mixed with schist. A little galena occurs on the hanging-wall, and thin, irregular strings are to be seen at intervals along the bottom of the working.

The second vein has been worked a distance of about 50 yds., and to a maximum depth of 15 ft. The sides of the working have fallen in, but the vein appears to have been about 2 ft. wide, and to have carried strings of galena up to 2 in. in thickness.

The third vein occurs about 50 yds. south of the first vein, and has been worked on for a distance of 50 yds. Where seen it consists of from 2-21 ft. of quartz, mixed with country-rock, and carries strings of galena up to one inch in width. About 120 yds. north-east of the first vein the mouth of an old cross-cut can be seen. It was evidently intended to intercept the vein, but was only driven about 18 yds.

Allt nan Sliabh (Vein) (Not worked)[edit]

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 46; six-inch, Perth 80 N.E.

A brecciated vein of calcite trending north-east, and carrying ores of lead and copper, is exposed on the sides of the Allt nan Sliabh, about one and a half miles south-east of Killin, and one mile upstream from Achmore House. At the locality where the vein is seen the country-rock consists of schists, but about a quarter of a mile south-west a wide belt of limestone is exposed. The extension of the vein has not been traced into this rock, but seeing that veins are often productive in limestones, it may be worth making a trial, with a view to proving the southward extension of the vein.

Corrie Buie Mines (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Breadalbane.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 47; six-inch, Perth 69 S.E.

Several veins of argentiferous galena have been worked at Corrie Buie, near the top of Meall-na-Creige, a hill 2683 ft. high, situated about two and a half miles south-east of Ardeonaig, and the same distance S.S.E. of Tomnadashan, on the south side of Loch Tay.

The hill is capped by a zone of calcareous schists, which is about 100 ft. in thickness and underlain by micaceous schists. The metalliferous portions of the lodes are restricted to the upper group of rocks. When traced downwards into the underlying schist they immediately become unproductive. Two main systems of veins have been noted, namely, east-and-west, and 10° W. of N. The former usually consist of barren quartz, but the latter are often metalliferous and hade steeply to the east. Thost[14] states that eighteen such veins were met with in. a distance of 200 yds., and he had no doubt that others remained to be discovered. The veins vary from 2 or 3 in. to a few feet in thickness, and the infilling consists of quartz and dolomite, or of spathic iron ore. Galena is the principal valuable mineral, and zinc-blende, chalcopyrite and pyrites are rare. Thost also states that native gold was twice found when the ore was being crushed under the hammer. The galena is remarkable as being exceedingly rich in silver. The amount of that metal present is said to vary from 85 oz. to 600 oz. to the ton of ore.

Extent of Workings.—The total area of the exposure of calcareous rock is only about 20 acres. The various veins have been worked by levels and open-cast workings.

Ardtalanaig (Abandoned)[edit]

Proprietor: The Marquis of Breadalbane.

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 47; six-inch, Perth 69 N.E.

Several small veins have been exposed by costeening on the hillside about half a mile due east of Miltown Ardtalanaig.

There are said to be two sets of intersecting veins,[15] one set trending north-and-south, and the other N.N.E. The infilling consists of broken country-rock (partly mica-schist and partly felsite), together with quartz and pyrites carrying galena and zinc-blende. It is interesting to note that when in contact with mica-schist the vein carries quartz and barytes, with galena and blende, while when it traverses the felsite, quartz and galena alone are present.

Urlar Burn Trials (Abandoned)[edit]

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 55; six-inch, Perth 60 N.W.

Several trials have been made on a large number of veins, which are exposed in the Urlar Burn, about three and a half miles southwest of Aberfeldy, and three miles east of Kenmore (Taymouth). A rough track on the west side of the burn passes close beside the exposures.

The veins trend north-west, and consist of quartz and calcite carrying galena and chalcopyrite.

Ben Ledi Mine (Abandoned)[edit]

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 38; six-inch, Perth 114 S.W.

A lead vein[16] was discovered during the eighteenth century on the north-east side of Ben Ledi. The vein is said to trend N.E., and the ore raised to have yielded 40 oz. of silver to the ton, but operations eventually ceased, owing to the vein being too small and poor to defray the expense of working.

A certain amount of ore was also found on Brea-leney (Tomascridan).

Balquidder (Trials) (Abandoned)[edit]

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 46; six-inch, Perth 92.

Trials for lead ore were formerly made in this parish, but no true vein was discovered.[17]

Lochearnhead (Not worked)[edit]

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 46; six-inch, Perth 92 S. E.

Several inferior veins of galena are noted[18] as having been discovered near Lochearnhead. Their outcrops are composed of gossan, in which native gold is reported to have been found. The arsenical pyrites which accompanied the galena is said to have yielded six ounces of gold to the ton.

Glen Falloch (Not worked)[edit]

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 46; six-inch, Perth 90.

Galena is said to occur in a 3-ft. N.N.E. quartz vein at the head of Glen Falloch, near Crianlarich.[19]

Fortingal Veins (Not worked)[edit]

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 55; six-inch, Perth 48 S.W.

Several small veins of lead ore, associated with dykes of porphyrite, are to be seen on the hillside to the north of Fortingal[20]

Birnam Hill (Little Dunkeld) Veins (Not worked)[edit]

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 48; six-inch, Perth 62 S.W.

Thin veins of lead ore are said to exist on the summit of Birnam Hill,[21] and at various times small isolated pieces of galena have been discovered on its slopes. One such piece was about six pounds in weight, and consisted of fine-grained, compact ore, associated with spar.

Tillicoultry[edit]

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 39; six-inch, Perth 134 N.W.

In The (Old) Statistical Account of Scotland [22] lead ore is mentioned as occurring in some of the veins in this parish.

Wood of Condie (Ochil Hills) (Abandoned)[edit]

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 40; six-inch, Perth 109 S.E.; 119 N.E.

A lead mine is reported to have been discovered at the above locality on the farm of Rossie during the eighteenth century.[23] A trial was made, and the ore raised is said to have been rich in silver.

Burn of Sorrow (Abandoned)[edit]

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 39; six-inch, Perth and Clackmannan 134 N.W.

The old mine is situated on the burn of Sorrow, about one and a quarter miles north-west of Castle Campbell.

A full account of this mine is given on page 144. It was worked for lead and copper ores, which consist mainly of galena, chalcopyrite, and ohalcocite associated with pink barytes.

Fifeshire[edit]

Castleland Hill (Abandoned)[edit]

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 32: six-inch, Fife Old Series 39 N.E.; New Series 43 N.W.

The old mine is situated on Castleland Hill, five sixths of a mile west of Inverkeithing. It seems to have been accidently discovered about 1750,[24] and was worked soon afterwards. About 50 tons of ore are said to have been raised, but at a loss, and the mine was soon abandoned.

The vein is said to trend north-east, and to be partly in basalt and partly in sandstone. An analysis of the ore by Rev. A. Robertson ,[25] yielded 84.63 per cent. of lead and little or no silver.

East Lomond (Abandoned)[edit]

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 40; six-inch, Fife Old Series 16 S.E.; New Series 19 N.E.

The old mine is situated at Hanging Myre, on the south side of the East Lomond, and about one and a half miles S.S.W. of Falkland.

The vein, which trends about north-east, was probably discovered about 1783.[26] For a short period an attempt was made to work it, but for some reasons not definitely stated it was soon abandoned. A second trial was made in 1792[27] and the mine was again opened up. The ore raised is said to have been of good quality.

Myretown of Blebo (Abandoned)[edit]

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 49; six-inch, Fife Old Series 8 S.W.; New Series 8 N.E.

The old mine is situated at the foot of a hill at Myretown of Blebo, in the parish of Kemback.

The occurrence of lead ore at this locality was first noticed in 1722,[28] when several large isolated masses of galena, up to 24 stones " in weight, were found on the surface of the ground. This discovery led the proprietor, Mr. John Bethune of Blebo, together with some friends, to form a company to search for the source of these masses of ore. In the course of their trials a vein about 2 ft. wide was discovered, but owing to the hardness of the rock it was soon abandoned. A further trial about half a mile away to the northwest resulted in the discovery of another vein, which trended northeast. It was about 1 ft. wide, and contained a 3-in. rib of galena. A level was driven a short distance, and about two tons of lead were manufactured and exported to Holland. Soon afterwards this undertaking was abandoned. In 1748 the mines were leased to Captain William Thynne[29] who employed a few workmen for a short time, but with little result, and the Captain left a few weeks afterwards for the West Indies.

Forfarshire[edit]

Lochlee Mine (Abandoned)[edit]

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 66; six-inch, Forfar 6.

This vein appears to have been known for a considerable period, and an attempt was made to work it in 1728.[30] It is said to run in an east-and-west direction.

Glammis Mine (Abandoned)[edit]

Maps: One-inch Ordnance and Geological, Sheet 56; six-inch, Forfar 37 or 38.

A small quantity of ore is said to have been raised about 1770[31] from a mine near to the east end of the village of Glammis. The vein crosses the burn, and the gangue mineral is barytes.

References[edit]

  1. Grant Wilson and Cadell, Breadalbane Mines," Proc. Roy. Phy. Soc. Edin., vol. viii., 1884,-p. 197.
  2. Grant Wilson and Cadell, The Breadalbane Mines, Proc. Roy. Phy. Soc Edin., vol. viii., 1884, p. 196.
  3. Grant Wilson and Cadell, The Breadalbane Mines, Proc. Roy. Phy. Soc. Edin., vol. viii., 1884, pp. 195-196.
  4. Grant Wilson and Cadell, The Breadalbane Mines, Proc. Roy. Phy. Soc. Edin., vol. viii., 1884, pp. 195-196.
  5. Grant Wilson and Cadell, The Breadalbane Mines, Proc. Roy. Phy. Soc. Edin., vol. viii., 1884, pp. 195-196.
  6. Grant Wilson and Cadell, The Breadalbane Mines, Proc. Roy. Phy. Soc. Edin., vol. viii., 1884, pp. 195-196.
  7. Assays supplied by W. H. Borlase, Esq.
  8. Assays supplied by W. H. Borlase, Esq.
  9. Assays supplied by W. H. Borlase, Esq.
  10. Discovered this summer by Mr. Oates (Mine Surveyor for the Company).
  11. Taken from Mineral Statistics, Mem. Geol. Surv.
  12. Grant Wilson and Cadell, The Breadalbane Mines, Proc. Roy. Phy. Soc. Edin., vol. viii., 1884, p. 194.
  13. The (Old) Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. ii., 1791, p. 452.
  14. C. H. G. Thost, Minerals, etc., on the Property of the Marquis of Breadalbane, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc., vol. xvi., 1860, p. 424.
  15. Odernheimer, Mines and Minerals of the Breadalbane Highlands, Trans. High. Soc., vol. xiii., 1841, p. 548.
  16. The (Old) Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. xi., 1794, pp. 586-587.
  17. The (Old) Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. vi., 1793, p. 90.
  18. Thost, The Breadalbane Mines, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc., vol. xvi., 1860, p. 425.
  19. Thost, The Breadalbane Mines, Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc., vol. xvi., 1860, p. 425.
  20. The (Old) Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. ii., 1791, p. 452.
  21. The (Old) Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. vi., 1793, p. 358.
  22. The (Old) Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. xv., 1795, p. 197.
  23. The (Old) Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. iii., 1792, p. 302.
  24. The (Old) Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. x., 1794, p. 515.
  25. Rev. A. Robertson, Analyses of Galena, Edin. New Phil. Journ., vol. vii., 1829, pp. 257–259.
  26. Dr. Anderson, The Geology of Fifeshire, Trans. High. Soc., vol. xiii., 1841, p. 421.
  27. "The Old Statistical Account of Scotland" vol. iv., 1792, p. 441.
  28. The (Old) Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. xiv, 1795, p. 305–306. also The New Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. ix., 1845, Fife, p. 722.
  29. Captain Thynne leased the Islay Mines in 1745.
  30. The (Old) Statistical Account of Scotland, vol. v., 1793, p. 367.
  31. The (Old) Statistical Account of Scotland," vol. iii., 1792, p. 127.