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Most of the references listed below are held in the Library of the British Geological Survey, Murchison House, Edinburgh and at Keyworth, Nottingham. Copies of the references can be purchased subject to current copyright legislation. BGS Library catalogue can be searched online at: http://geolib.bgs.ac.uk

Allen, D J, Bloomfield, J P, and Robinson, V K (editors). 1997. The physical properties of major aquifers in England and Wales. British Geological Survey Technical Report, WD/97/34.

Allison, J, Godwin, H, and Warren, S H. 1952. Late-glacial deposits at Nazeing in the Lea Valley, North London. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, Vol. 236, 169–240.

Allsop, J M, and Smith, N J P. 1988. The deep geology of Essex. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, Vol. 99, 249–260.

Arkell, W J. 1933. The Jurassic System in Great Britain. (Oxford: Clarendon Press.)

Attewell, P B, and Farmer, I W. 1974. Ground deformations resulting from shield tunnelling in London Clay. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 11, 380–395

Aubry, M P. 1986. Palaeogene calcareous nannoplankton biostratigraphy of north-western Europe. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Vol. 55, 267–334.

Bailey, H W, Gale, A S, Mortimore, R N, Swiecicki, A, and Wood, C J. 1983. The Coniacian-Maastrichtian stages of the United Kingdom, with particular reference to southern England. Newsletters on Stratigraphy, Vol. 12, 29–42.

Baker, C A, and Jones, D K C. 1980. Glaciation of the London Basin and its influence on the drainage pattern: a review and appraisal. 131–175 in The shaping of southern England. Jones, D K C (editor.). Institute of British Geography Special Publication, 11. (London: Academic Press.)

Ballantyne, C K, and Harris, C. 1994. The periglaciation of Great Britain. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.)

Barrow, G, and Wills, L J. 1913. Records of London wells. Memoir of the Geological Survey of England and Wales.

Barton, M E, and Palmer, S N. 1989. The relative density of geologically aged, British fine and fine-medium sands. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, Vol. 22, 49–58.

Barton, M E, Palmer, S N, and Wong, Y L. 1986. A ­geotechnical investigation of two Hampshire Tertiary sand beds: are they locked sands? Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, Vol. 19, 399–412.

Bates, M R, and Barham, A J. 1995. Holocene alluvial ­stratigraphic architecture and archaeology in the Lower Thames area. 85–98 in The Quaternary of the lower reaches of the Thames. Bridgland, D R, Allen, P, and Haggart, B A (editors). (Durham: Quaternary Research Association Field Guide.)

Bell, F G. 1977. A note on the physical properties of the Chalk. Engineering Geology, Vol. 11, 217–224. (Amsterdam: Elsevier.)

Bell, F G, Culshaw, M G, Moorlock, B S P, and Cripps, J C. 1992. Subsidence and ground movements in Chalk.  Bulletin of the International Association of Engineering Geology. Vol. 45, 75–82.

Bell, F G, Culshaw, M G, and Cripps, J C. 1999. A review of selected engineering geological characteristics of English Chalk. Engineering geology, Vol. 54, 237–269.

Berry, F G. 1979. Late Quaternary scour hollows and related features in central London. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, Vol. 12, 9–29.

Besly, B M, and Kelling, G (editors). 1988. Sedimentation in a synorogenic basin complex: the Upper Carboniferous of northwest Europe. (Glasgow: Blackie.)

Bevan, T G, and Hancock, P L. 1986. A late Cenozoic mesofracture system in southern England and northern France. Journal of the Geological Society, Vol. 143, 355–362.

Bingley, R M, Ashkenasi, V, Ellison, R A, Morigi, A, Penna, N T, and Booth, S J. 1999. Monitoring changes in ground level, using high precision GPS. Environment Agency R&D Report, W210.

Bloomfield, J P, Brewerton L J, and Allen D J. 1996. Regional trends in matrix porosity and bulk density of the Chalk of England. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, Vol. 28, S131–S142.

Bowen , D Q (editor). 1999. A revised correlation of Quaternary deposits in the British Isles. Geological Society of London Special Report, No. 23.

Bowen, D Q, Hughes, S A, Sykes, G A, and Miller, G M. 1989. Land-sea correlations in the Pleistocene based on isoleucine epimerization in non-marine molluscs. Nature, Vol. 340, 49–51.

Bowen, D Q, Sykes, G A, Maddy, D R, Bridgland, D R, and Lewis, G G. 1995. Aminostratigraphy and amino acid ­geochronology of English lowland valleys: the Lower Thames in context. 61–63 in The Quaternary of the Lower reaches of the Thames. Field Guide. Bridgland, D R, Allen, P, and Haggart, B A (editors). (Durham: Quaternary Research Association.)

Bridgland, D R. 1994. The Quaternary of the Thames. Geological Conservation Review Series, No. 7. (London: Joint Nature Conservation Committee/Chapman and Hall.)

Bristow, C R. 1985. Geology of the country around Chelmsford. Memoir of the British Geological Survey, Sheet 241 (England and Wales).

Bristow, C R, Ellison, R A, and Wood, C J. 1980. The Claygate Beds of Essex. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, Vol. 91, 261–277.

Bristow, C R, Mortimore, R N, and Wood, C J. 1997. Lithostratigraphy for mapping the Chalk of southern England. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, Vol. 108, 293–316.

Bromehead, C N. 1912. On diversions of the Bourne near Chertsey. 74–77 in Summary of Progress of the Geological Survey for 1911.

Bromehead, C N. 1922. Excursion to Brockley, Bromley Park and Beckenham. Proceedings of the Geologists’Association, Vol. 33, 77–79.

Bromehead, C E N. 1925. Geology of north London. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britian, Sheet 256 (England and Wales).

BS 6031. 1981. Code of Practice for Earthworks. (London: HMSO for British Standards Institution.)

Building Research Establishment. 1996. Desiccation in clay soils. Building Research Establishment Digest 412. (London: HMSO.)

Bullard, E C. 1940. Seismic investigations on the Palaeozoic floor of East England. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Vol. A239.

Burland, J B, and Hancock, R J R. 1977. Underground car park at the House of Commons, London. Geotechnical aspects. Structural Engineering, Vol. 55, 87–100.

Burland, J B, and Kalra, J C. 1986. Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre: geotechnical aspects. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Vol. 80, 1479–1503.

Burnett, A D, and Fookes, P G. 1974. A regional engineering geological study of the London Clay in the London and Hampshire Basins. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology. Vol. 7, 257–293

Card, G B, and Carter, G R. 1995. Case history of a piled embankment in London’s Dockland. 79–84 in Engineering geology of construction. Eddleston, M, Walthall, S, Cripps, J C, and Culshaw, M G (editors). Geological Society Engineering Geology Special Publication, No. 10.

Carter, D J, and Hart, M B. 1977. Micropalaeontological investigations for the site of the Thames Barrier, London. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, Vol. 10, 321–338.

Catt, J A. 1986. The nature, origin and geomorphological significance of clay-with-flints. 151–159 in The scientific study of flint and chert. Proceedings of the Fourth International Flint Symposium, Brighton, 1983. Sieveking, G de G, and Hart, M B (editors). (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.)

Chadwick, R A. 1986. Extension tectonics in the Wessex Basin, southern England. Journal of the Geological Society of London, Vol. 143, 465–488.

Chadwick, R A, Kenolty, N, and Whittaker, A. 1983. Crustal structure beneath southern England from deep seismic ­reflection profiles. Journal of the Geological Society of London, Vol. 40, 893–911.

Chandler, R H, and Leach, A L. 1912. On the Dartford Heath Gravel and on a Palaeolithic implement factory. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, Vol. 23, 102–111.

Chandler, R J. 2000. Clay sediments in depositional basins: the Geotechnical cycle. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, Vol. 33, 7–38.

Chandler, R J, Willis, M R, Hamilton, P S, and Andreou, I. 1998. Tectonic shear zones in the London Clay. Geotechnique, Vol. 48, 257–270.

Chaloner, W G, and Richardson, J B. 1977. South-east England. 26–40 in A correlation of the Devonian rocks of the British Isles. House, M R (editor). Special Report of the Geological Society of London, No. 8.

Cheney, J E. 1988. 25 years’ heave of a building constructed on clay, after tree removal. Ground Engineering, 21 July, 13–27.

Cheshire, D A. 1981. A contribution towards a glacial ­stratigraphy of the Lower Lea valley and its implications for the Anglian Thames. Quaternary Studies, Vol. 1, 27–69.

Chisholm, F A. 1984. Rising groundwater levels under London and their Geotechnical significance. MSc Thesis, University of London.

CIRIA (Construction Industry Research and Information Association). 1989. The Engineering Implications of rising groundwater levels in the deep aquifer beneath London. Construction Industry Research and Information Association, Special Publication, No. 69.

Clarke, R P J, and Mackenzie, C N P. 1994. Overcoming ground difficulties at Tooting Bec. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Civil Engineering, Vol. 102, 60–75.

Clayton, C J. 1986. The chemical environment of flint formation in Upper Cretaceous chalks. 43–54 in The ­scientific study of flint and chert. Proceedings of the Fourth International Flint Symposium, Brighton, 1983. Sieveking, G de G, and Hart, M B (editors). (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.)

Cole, K W, and Burland, J B. 1972. Observations of retaining wall movements associated with a large excavation. Building Research Establishment, CP8/72.

Collinson, M E. 1983. Fossil plants of the London Clay. Palaeontological Association Field Guide to fossils 1. (London: The Palaeontological Association.)

Collinson, M E, and Hooker, J J. 1987. Vegetational and mammalian faunal changes in the early Tertiary of southern England. 259–304 in The origins of Angiosperms and their biological consequences. Friis, E M, Chaloner, W G, and Crane, P R (editors). (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.)

Coope, G R, Gibbard, P L, Hall, A R, Preece, R C, Robinson, J E, and Sutcliffe, A J. 1997. Climatic and environmental ­reconstructions based on fossil assemblages from Middle Devensian (Weichselian) deposits of the River Thames at South Kensington, central London, UK. Quaternary Science Reviews, Vol. 16, 1163–1196.

Costa, L, and Downie, C. 1976. The distribution of the dinoflagellate Wetzeliella in the Palaeogene of north-western Europe. Palaeontology, Vol. 19, 591–614.

Cruickshank, J. 1991. Knows to the ground. Ground Engineering. June, 12–15.

Culshaw, M G, and Crummy, J A. 1991. SW Essex — M25 Corridor: engineering geology. British Geological Survey Technical Report, WN 90/2.

Curry, D. 1965. The Palaeogene beds of south-east England. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, Vol. 76, 151–173.

Daley, B, and Balson, P S. 1999. British Tertiary stratigraphy. Geological Conservation Review Series. No. 15. (Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee.)

Davis, A G. 1926. Notes on some chalk sections in N E Surrey. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, Vol. 37, 211–220.

Davis, A G. 1928. The geology of the City and South London Railway Clapham-Morden Extension. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, Vol. 39, 339–352.

Davis, A G. 1929. Excursion to Keston, Kent and Fairchildes, Surrey. Saturday, April 30th, 1927. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, Vol. 40, 103–104.

Davis, A G, and Elliott, G F. 1957. The palaeogeography of the London Clay sea. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, Vol. 68, 255–277.

Derbyshire, E, and Mellors, T W. 1988. Geological and ­geotechnical characteristics of some loess and loessic soils from China and Britain: a comparison. Engineering Geology, Vol. 25, 135–175.

Devoy, R J N. 1979. Flandrian sea level changes and ­vegetational history of the lower Thames estuary. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Vol. 285, 355–410.

Dewey, H. 1912. Report on an excursion to Claygate and Oxshott, Surrey. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, Vol. 23, 237–242.

Dewey, H, and Bromehead, B A. 1921. The geology of South London. Memoirs of the Geological Survey, Sheet 270 (England and Wales).

Dewey, H, Bromehead, C E N, Chatwin, C P, and Dines, H G. 1924. The geology of the country around Dartford . Memoirs of the Geological Survey, Sheet 271 (England and Wales).

Dibley, G E. 1909. Excursion to Gravesend. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, Vol. 15, 463–464.

Dibley, G E. 1918. Additional notes on the Chalk of the Medway valley, Gravesend, west Kent, northeast Surrey, and Grays (Essex). Proceedings of the Geologists’Association, Vol. 29, 68–105.

Dick, M, and Jaques, P A. 1994. Tunnel construction. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Civil Engineering, Vol. 102, 43–59.

Dines, H G, and Edmunds, M A. 1925. The geology of the country around Romford. Memoir of the Geological Survey, Sheet 251(England and Wales).

Ditchfield, P, and Marshall, J. 1989. Isotopic variation in rhythmically bedded chalks: paleotemperature variation in the upper Cretaceous. Geology, Vol. 17, 842–845.

Donato, J. 1988. Possible Variscan thrusting beneath the Somerton Anticline, Somerset. Journal of the Geological Society of London, Vol 145, 431–438.

Driscoll, R. 1983. The influence of vegetation on swelling and shrinking of clay soils in Britain. Geotechnique, Vol. 33, 93–105.

Driscoll, R. 1984. The effects of clay soil volume changes on low rise buildings. In: Ground Movements and their effects on structures. (Surrey University Press.)

Edmonds, C N, Green, C P, and Higginbottom, I E. 1987. Subsidence hazard prediction for limestone terrains as applied to the English Cretaceous Chalk. 283–294 in Planning and Engineering Geology. Culshaw, M G, Bell, F G, Cripps, J C, and O’Hara, M (editors). Geological Society of London, Engineering Geology, Special Publication, No. 4.

Edwards, F E, and Wood, S V. 1849–1877. A monograph of the Eocene Cephalopoda and Univalves of England.  Palaeontology Society Monograph.

Ellison, R A. 1979. Report of a field excursion to south Essex: 1st March 1975. Tertiary Research, Vol. 2, 51–55.

Ellison, R A. 1983. Facies distribution in the Woolwich and Reading Beds of the London Basin, England. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, Vol. 94, 311–319.

Ellison, R A. 1991. Lithostratigraphy of the Woolwich and Reading Beds along the proposed Jubilee Line Extension, south-east London. British Geological Survey Technical Report, WA/91/5C.

Ellison, R A, and Williamson, I T. 1999. Geology of the Windsor and Bracknell district — a brief explanation of the geological map. Sheet Explanation of the British Geological Survey. 1:50 000 Sheet 269 Windsor (England and Wales). (Keyworth, Nottingham: British Geological Survey.)

Ellison, R A, Booth, S J, and Strange, P J. 1993. The British Geological Survey LOCUS Project: a source of high quality ­geological maps and computer generated 3-D models of London. Episodes, Vol. 16, 383–388.

Ellison, R A, Knox, R W O’B, Jolley, D W, and King, C. 1994.  A revision of the lithostratigraphical classification of the early Palaeogene strata of the London Basin and East Anglia. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, Vol. 105, 187–197.

Ellison, R A, Ali, J R, Hine, N M, and Jolley, D W. 1996. Recognition of Chron 25N in the upper Palaeocene Upnor Formation of the London Basin, UK. 185–193 in Correlation of the early Palaeogene in northwest Europe. Knox, R W O’B, Corfield, R M, and Dunay, R E (editors). Geological Society of London Special Publication, No. 101.

Ellison, R A, Arrick, A, Strange, P J, and Hennessey, C. 1998. Earth science information in support of major ­development initiatives. Summary Report for the Department of Transport, Environment and the Regions. British Geological Survey Technical Report, WA/97/84.

Environment Agency. 2001. Rising groundwater levels in the Chalk-basal sands aquifer of the central London basin. (Environment Agency: Thames Region.)

Falcon, and Kent, PE. 1960. Geological results of petroleum exploration in Britain 1945–1957. Memoir of the Geological Society of London, No. 2.

Falcon, N L, and Tarrant, L H. 1951. The gravitational and magnetic exploration of the Mesozoic covered area of south-central England. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, Vol. 106, 141–170.

Farrant, A R. 2001. Karst development in the southern English chalk. 77–82 in Geotechnical and Environmental Applications of Karst Geology and Hydrogeology. Beck, B F, and Herring, J G (editors). (Lisse:Balkema.)

Ferguson, P A S, Runacres, A J, and Hill, N A. 1991.  London’s Docklands: ground conditions and tunnelling methods. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Vol. 90. 1179–1201.

Forster, A, Culshaw, M G, and Bell, F G. 1995. The regional distribution of sulphate in rocks and soils of Britain. 95–104 in Engineering geology of construction. Eddleston, M, Walthall, S, Cripps, J C, and Culshaw, M G. (editors.). Geological Society of London Engineering Geology Special Publication, No. 10.

Gale, A S. 1995. Cyclostratigraphy and correlation of the Cenomanian Stage in western Europe. 177–197 in Orbital forcing timescales and cyclostratigraphy. House, M R, and Gale, A S (editors). Geological Society of London Special Publication, No. 85.

Gale, A S. 1996. Turonian correlation and sequence ­stratigraphy of the chalk in southern England. 177–195 in Sequence stratigraphy in British Geology. Hesselbo, S P, and Parkinson, D N (editors). Geological Society of London Special Publication, No. 103.

George, W, and Vincent, S. 1978. Notes on the London Clay of the Ockendon clay plant, South Ockendon, Essex. Tertiary Research, Vol. 20, 5-8.

Gibbard, P L. 1977. Pleistocene history of the Vale of St Albans. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Vol. 280, 445–483.

Gibbard , P L. 1979. Middle Pleistocene drainage in the Thames Valley. Geological Magazine, Vol. 116, 35–44.

Gibbard , P L. 1985. The Pleistocene history of the Middle Thames Valley. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.)

Gibbard , P L. 1994. Pleistocene history of the Lower Thames Valley. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.)

Gibbard , P L. 1995. Palaeogeographic evolution of the Lower Thames valley. 5–34 in The Quaternary of the lower reaches of the Thames. Bridgland, D R, Allen, P, and Haggart (editors). (Durham: Quaternary Research Association Field Guide.)

Gibbard , P L. 1999. The Thames Valley, its tributary valleys and their former courses. 45–58 in A revised correlation of Quaternary deposits in the British Isles. Bowen, D Q (editor). (London: The Geological Society.)

Gibbard , P L, and Hall, A R. 1982. Late Devensian river deposits in the Lower Colne valley, West London. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, Vol. 93, 291–299.

Gibbard , P.L, Coope, G R, Hall, A R, Preece, R C, and Robinson, J E. 1982. Middle Devensian deposits beneath the ‘upper floodplain’ terrace of the River Thames at Kempton Park, Sunbury, England. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, Vol. 93, 275–289.

Glossop, R. 1947. The London Clay Part I — Field and ­laboratory technique. Verres et Silicates Industriels, Vol. 13, 87–98.

Gray, D A. 1965. The stratigraphical significance of electrical resistivity marker bands in the Cretaceous strata of the Leatherhead (Fetcham Mill) Borehole, Surrey. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, Vol. 23, 65–115.

Green, P A, and Cocksedge, J E. 1975. 159–168 in The ­settlement behaviour of three tall buildings in London. (Pentech Press: London.) Hallsworth, C. 1993. Stratigraphic variations in the heavy minerals of the Palaeogene sandstones in the London Basin and the implications for sand provenance. British Geological Survey Technical Report, WH/93/304.

Hamblin, R J O, Crosby, A, Balson, P S, Chadwick, R A, Penn, I E, and Arthur, M J. 1992. United Kingdom offshore regional report: the geology of the English Channel. (London: HMSO for the British Geological Survey.) ISBN 0 11 884490 3.

Hamblin, R J O, Moorlock, B S P, and Rose, J. 2000. A New Glacial Stratigraphy for Eastern England. Quaternary Newsletter, No 92. (Quaternary Research Association.)

Hancock, J M. 1989. Sea-level changes in the British region during the late Cretaceous. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, Vol. 100, 565–594.

Haq, B U, Hardenbol, J, and Vail, P R. 1987. Chronology of fluctuating sea levels since the Triassic. Science, Vol. 253, 1156–1167.

Hare, F K. 1947. The geomorphology of a part of the Middle Thames. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, Vol. 38, 294–339.

Hart, M B, Bailey, H W, Crittenden, S, Fletcher, B N, Price, R J, and Swiecicki, A. 1989. Cretaceous. 273-371 in Stratigraphical atlas of fossil Foraminifera (second edition). Jenkins, D G, and Murray, J W (editors). (Chichester: Ellis Horwood.)

Haswell, C K. 1969. Thames cable tunnel. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Vol. 44, 323–340.

Heath, J R, and West, K J F. 1996. Ground movements at depth in London Clay. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 119, 65–74.

Hester, S W. 1965. Stratigraphy and Palaeogeography of the Woolwich and Reading Beds. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, 23, 117–137.

Hewitt, R A. 1982. Studies of London Clay concretions, with special reference to Leigh-on-Sea, in Essex. Tertiary Research, Vol. 3, 161–169.

Hey, R W, Krinsley, D H, and Hyde, P J W. 1971. Surface textures of sand grains from the Hertfordshire pebble gravels. Geological Magazine, Vol. 108, 377–382.

Hicks, H. 1891. On the discovery of mammoth and other remains in Endsleigh Street and on sections exposed in Endsleigh Gardens, Gordon Street and Tavistock Square, London. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, Vol. 48, 453–468.

Higginbottom, I E. 1966. The engineering geology of chalk. 1–14 in Proceedings of the symposium on chalk in earthworks. (London: Institution of Civil Engineers.)

Hinton, M A C. 1900. The Pleistocene deposits of the Ilford and Wanstead district. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association London, Vol. 16, 271–281.

Hinton, M A C, and Kennard, A S. 1900. Contributions to the Pleistocene geology of the Thames Valley, I The Grays Thurrock area, part 1. Essex Naturalist, Vol. 11, 336–370.

Hobbs, N B, and Healy, P R. 1979. Piling in Chalk. Construction Industry Research Association, Report PG6.

Hollin, J T. 1977. Thames interglacial sites, Ipswichian sea levels and Antarctic ice surges. Boreas, Vol. 6, 33–52.

Holyoak, D T. 1983. A late Pleistocene interglacial flora and molluscan fauna from Thatcham, Berkshire, with notes on the Mollusca from the interglacial deposits at Aveley, Essex. Geological Magazine, Vol. 120, 623–629.

Hooker, J J. 1974. Notice of a temporary re-exposure of Thanet Sands at Swanley village, Kent. Tertiary Times, Vol. 2, 42.

Hooker, J J. 1991. The sequence of mammals in the Thanetian and Ypresian of the London and Belgian Basins. Location of the Palaeocene-Eocene Boundary. Newsletters on Stratigraphy, Vol. 25, 75–90.

Hooker, J J. 1996. Mammalian biostratigraphy across the Paleocene-Eocene boundary in the Paris, London and Belgian basins. 205–218 in Correlation of the early Palaeogene in northwest Europe. Knox, R W O’B, Corfield, R M, and Dunay, R E (editors). Geological Society of London, Special Publication, No. 101.

Horner, R W. 1984. The Thames tidal flood risk the need for the barrier: a review of its design and construction. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, Vol. 17, 199–206.

Howland, A. 1991. London’s docklands: engineering geology. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers. Vol. 90, 1153–1178. Huggett, J M. 1994. Diagenesis of mudrocks and concretions from the London Clay formation in the London Basin. Clay Minerals, Vol. 29, 693–707.

Huggett, J M, and Gale, A S. 1995. Palaeoecology and ­diagenesis of bored wood from the London Clay Formation of Sheppey, Kent. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, Vol. 106, 119–136.

Hutchinson, J N. 1967. The free degradation of London Clay cliffs. Proceedings of Geotechnical Conference, Oslo. Vol. 1, 113–118.

Hutchinson, J N. 1980. Possible late Quaternary pingo remnants in central London. Nature, Vol. 284, 253–255.

Hutchinson, J N, and Gostelow, T P. 1976. The development of an abandoned clay cliff in London Clay at Hadleigh, Essex. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series A283, 557–604.

IPCC. 1995. Climate Change 1995. The science of climate change, contribution of working Group I to the second ­assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.)

James, J P. 1975. Some new and old London Clay exposures around Brentford. Tertiary Times, Vol. 2, 125–136.

Jarvis, I, and Woodroof, P B. 1984. Stratigraphy of the Cenomanian and basal Turonian (Upper Cretaceous) between Branscombe and Seaton, S E Devon, England. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, Vol. 95, 193–215.

Jeans, C V, Long, D, Hall, M A, Bland, D J, and Cornford, C. 1991. The geochemistry of the Plenus Marls at Dover, England: evidence of fluctuating oceanographic conditions and of glacial control during the development of the Cenomanian-Turonian C13 anomaly. Geological Magazine,Vol. 128, 603–632.

Jefferies, R P S. 1961. The palaeoecology of the Actinocamax plenus Subzone (Lowest Turonian) in the Anglo-Paris Basin. Palaeontology, Vol. 4, 609–647.

Jefferies, R P S. 1963. The stratigraphy of the Actinocamax plenus Subzone (Turonian) in the Anglo-Paris Basin. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association, Vol. 74, 1–33.

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