OR/14/013 Modelled surface/volumes
|Monaghan A A, Arkley S L B, Whitbread K, McCormac M. 2014. Clyde superficial deposits and bedrock models released to the ASK Network 2014: a guide for users Version 3 . British Geological Survey Internal Report, OR/14/013.|
|Code||Geological Unit||Equivalent description on 1:10 000 scale published map|
|Water||Water||Unattributed polygons or underlying sediments described|
|MGR-ARTDP||Made Ground (made and worked ground undifferentiated)||Made Ground (MGR), Made Ground and Worked Ground (WMGR), Infilled Ground (WMGR)|
|HEAD-XCZSV||Head||Not recorded on the maps covered by the model, would be described as Head, Flandrian (HEAD)|
|PEAT-P||Peat||Peat — blanket or basin peat, Flandrian (PEAT)|
|LDE-XCZSP||Lacustrine deposit||Lacustrine Deposits, Flandrian (LDE)|
|LAWSG-XCZSVP||Law Sand and Gravel Member||Alluvium — modern river floodplains — located along the upper reaches and tributaries to the River Clyde, Flandrian (ALV). Also includes some Alluvial Fan Deposits, Flandrian (ALF) and some River Terrace Deposits, Flandrian (RTD1 and RTD2)|
|KELV-XCZSP||Strathkelvin Sand and Silt Member||Alluvium — modern river floodplains — mainly tributaries located north of the River Clyde, Flandrian (ALV) and Lacustrine Deposits, Flandrian (LDE)|
|GOSA-XCZSV||Gourock Sand Member||Marine Deposits — located along the lower reaches of the River Clyde, Flandrian (MDU) and Alluvium — modern river floodplains — along the upper reaches of the River Clyde, Flandrian (ALV)|
|ERSK-XCZ||Erskine Clay Member||Not recorded on the maps covered by the model (concealed beneath younger deposits), identified at depth from borehole data|
|LUGH-XSV||Longhaugh Sand and Gravel Member||Not recorded on the maps covered by the model (concealed beneath younger deposits), identified at depth from borehole data|
|INVN-BLVC||Innerleven Gravel Member||Not recorded on the maps covered by the model (concealed beneath younger deposits), identified at depth from borehole data|
|KARN-XSV||Killearn Sand and Gravel Member||Generally Raised Marine Deposits, Devensian (RMDV), Raised Marine Deltaic Deposits, Devensian (RMDDD) or Raised Marine Intertidal and Subtidal Deposits, Devensian (RMIS)|
|LIWD-XCZS||Linwood Clay Member||Generally Raised Marine Deposits, Devensian (RMDV) or Raised Marine Intertidal and Subtidal Deposits, Devensian (RMIS)|
|PAIS-XCZS||Paisley Clay Member||Generally Raised Marine Deposits, Devensian (RMDV) or Raised Marine Intertidal and Subtidal Deposits, Devensian (RMIS)|
|BRON-XSVZ||Bridgeton Sand Member||Largely concealed beneath younger deposits, where present, exposures usually represented as Raised Marine Deposits, Devensian (RMDV)|
|BILL2-XZCS||Bellshill Clay Member||Glaciolacustrine Deposits, Devensian (GLLDD)|
|RSSA-XSV||Ross Sand Member||Glaciolacustrine Deposits, Devensian (GLLDD), Glaciolacustrine Deltaic Deposits, Devensian (GLDDD) or Glaciofluvial Deposits, Devensian (GFDUD)|
|RSSA-XSZ||Ross Sand Member (silt, sand)||Largely concealed beneath younger deposits, identified at depth from borehole data, rare exposures represented as Glaciolacustrine Deposits, Devensian (GLLDD) or Glaciolacustrine Deltaic Deposits, Devensian (GLDDD)|
|BILL1-XZCS||Bellshill Clay Member||Glaciolacustrine Deposits, Devensian (GLLDD)|
|BHSE-XSV||Broomhouse Sand and Gravel Formation (sand and gravel)||Largely concealed beneath younger deposits, where present, exposures usually represented as Glaciofluvial Deposits, Devensian (GFDUD), but also as Glaciofluvial Ice-Contact Deposits, Devensian (GFICD)|
|BHSE-S||Broomhouse Sand and Gravel Formation (sand)|
|WITI-DMTN||Wilderness Till Formation||Till — Devensian (TILLD)|
|SUPD-XZC||Clay and silt|
|CADR-XSV||Cadder Sand and Gravel Formation||Generally concealed beneath younger deposits, identified at depth from borehole data, rare exposures represented as Glaciofluvial Deposits, Devensian (GFDUD)|
|BRLL-XCZ||Broomhill Clay Formation|
|BNTI-DMTN||Baillieston Till Formation|
|SUPD-XSV||Sand and gravel|
Table 1 indicates the lithostratigraphic units in the Superficial Deposits Models. In Table 1, X indicates that each lithology is represented (e.g. XSV is a unit containing sand and gravel as opposed to SV which would be a gravelly sand), where S=sand, C=clay, Z=silt, V=gravel, DMTN= diamicton, ARTDP= artificial deposits, P= Peat. Some lenses are modelled in addition, as described below.
A description of each of the modelled units is given below in approximately ascending order.
Baillieston Till Formation (BNTI)
The Baillieston Till Formation rests directly on bedrock in the Clydebank and North Glasgow model areas and is overlain by the Broomhill Clay Formation, Cadder Sand and Gravel Formation, or an un-named silt unit. It consists of stiff to very stiff, red-brown, silty, sandy clay with gravel, cobbles, boulders and some sand layers. The Baillieston Till Formation is considered to be a pre late-Devensian till.
Broomhill Clay Formation (BRILL)
The Broomhill Clay Formation consists of laminated clayey-silt with sandy partings and rests directly on bedrock or is underlain by the Ballieston Till. It is overlain by the dense sand and gravel of the Cadder Sand and Gravel Formation.
Cadder Sand and Gravel Formation (CADR)
The Cadder Sand and Gravel Formation is found mainly to the north of the River Clyde, with deposits up to 60 m thick associated with the deep bedrock depressions of the Kelvin buried valley-system. In some areas (e.g. SE Glasgow) the unit has been truncated by the emplacement of overlying tills and by modern river erosion, resulting in modification of the original depositional morphology of the unit.
The Cadder Sand and Gravel Formation consists of bedded and trough cross-bedded dense sand or silty sand, with gravel and some cobbles. There are occasional clay lenses. Cross bedding has been described in exposed outcrops in the Kelvin Valley. Significant deformation of the upper parts of the unit has occurred due to overriding of the Late Devensian ice sheet (Wilderness Till). The Cadder Sand and Gravel Formation is thought to have originated as outwash deposits, possibly fluvial or deltaic, formed in front of the advancing late Devensian ice sheet. The sands have yielded bones and teeth of woolly rhinoceros, from which Rolfe (1966) reported a radiocarbon age of 27.5 14C ka BP.
Silt Unit (SUPD_XZC)
A small, un-named silt unit consisting of a firm to stiff, red-brown clay or silty clay with a little sand, overlies the Cadder Sand and Gravel Formation in places. It has silt laminations and may contain sand seams and traces of fine gravel. The unit contains a till lense and is overlain by the Wilderness Till Formation. It may represent deposition from pro-glacial lakes developing in association with Cadder Formation sand and gravel as the Late Devensian ice sheet advanced up the Firth of Clyde and into the Clyde Valley.
Wilderness Till Formation (WITI)
The Late Devensian Wilderness Till Formation is the most extensive unit in the Clyde area and is named after temporary sections seen in the Wilderness Plantation area north of Bishopbriggs. It is characterised by a diamicton comprising isolated boulders, gravel and cobbles in a firm to stiff sandy, silty to clayey matrix (Browne and McMillan, 1989). Commonly it rests directly on bedrock, but is underlain in places by the Cadder Sand and Gravel, Broomhill Clay or Ballieston Till formations. Drumlins, which are large mounds formed during emplacement of the till below moving glacier ice, are a characteristic landform associated with the Wilderness Till Formation. Drumlins constrain the hilly terrain of Central Glasgow and the surrounding areas where the Wilderness Till is exposed at the surface. Along the Clyde valley, buried drumlins cause considerable spatial variation in the thickness of overlying sediment deposits.
Broomhouse Sand and Gravel Formation (BHSE)
The Broomhouse Sand and Gravel is named after the Broomhouse area of eastern Glasgow where it generally overlies the Wilderness Till Formation. It comprises glaciofluvial ice-contact deposits, which produce features such as esker ridges, mounds, isolated flat-topped kames and kettleholes. Overall, the most abundant deposit is sand, except in esker ridges where gravel dominates. In some places it may also contain cobbles, clay and silt. The sands are planar and trough cross-bedded, ripple laminated and horizontally laminated; the gravels are typically massive or crudely bedded. Deposits are up to 25 m thick and flow directions were towards the east (Browne and MacMillan, 1989). The noted occurrences of Broomhouse Sand and Gravel Formation are coincident with areas of dense borehole data. This implies that there may be more extensive deposits in the area than have been modelled, but a lack of data means that further deposits remain undetected. The Broomhouse Sand and Gravel Formation includes three members: the Bellshill Clay Member, the Greenoakhill Sand and Gravel Member and the Ross Sand Member. The Bellshill Clay and Ross Sand members have been modelled separately.
Bellshill Clay Member (BILL1 and BILL2)
The Bellshill Clay Member, a member of the Broomhouse Sand and Gravel Formation, comprises silt-clay with wisps, laminae and bands of silt and sometimes sand, deposited, along with the coarser-grained Ross Sand Member (described below), in lakes forming at the margin of the Clyde glacier. The largest of these lakes, a pro-glacial lake called ‘Lake Clydesdale’, formed to the south-east of an ice margin marked by the ‘Blantyreferme terminal moraine’ (south-east of Glasgow) as the glacier retreated towards the north-west (Browne and McMillan, 1989). The area covered by ‘Lake Clydesdale’, located south of Bothwell, thus contains the most extensive development of the Bellshill Clay Member. Away from the Clyde valley, the Bellshill Clay Member is found in hollows in the Wilderness Till Formation drumlins. Its occurrence can be best explained by a level for Lake Clydesdale at about 62 m O.D., although it is found as high as 80 m O.D. in other areas.
Near the margins of the former glacial lake, the Bellshill Clay Member inter-fingers with coarser silty-sand and gravelly-sand of the Ross Sand Member, deposited in deltaic systems by meltwater streams entering Lake Clydesdale. The Bellshill Clay Member is thus found below, adjacent to, and in places above, the Ross Sand Member (e.g. Fig 3 of Browne and McMillan, 1989), and the relationship of the units has been simplified for modelling purposes by splitting the Bellshill Clay Member into two units that lie above (BILL2) and below (BILL1) the Ross Sand Member. The Bellshill Clay Member is overlain by the Bridgeton Sand Member, Paisley Clay Member and later alluvial deposits.
The following rules were used to model the Bellshill Clay Member:
- The Bellshill Clay member is distinguished from the overlying Paisley Clay Member by the presence of intervening sand units and more abundant sandy laminae within the silt-clay strata.
- The Bellshill Clay Member includes some lithologies coded in the BGS borehole database as diamicton. These are described in logs as clay rich gravel layers and are hypothesised to be boulder clay. The decision to include diamicton in this group is supported by descriptions of the Bellshill Clay Member lithologies in Browne and McMillan (1989). These units are interpreted to be thin till bands deposited during minor oscillations in the position of the ice front during the period of existence of Lake Clydesdale.
- Where it outcrops at the surface, the Bellshill Clay Member is equivalent to the Glaciolacustrine Deltaic Devensian (GLDDD), consisting of silty clay with some predominant silt and sand partings, depicted on BGS digital 1:10 000 and 1:50 000 scale superficial geology maps (DiGMapGB).
Ross Sand Member (RSSA)
The main lithologies of the Ross Sand Member, a member of the Broomhouse Sand and Gravel Formation, are sand or sand and silt, with clays at the base and thin local gravel layers. As noted above, the deposits are glacio-lacustrine in origin with deposits found in the south-east of Glasgow interpreted to have formed in deltaic systems at the margins of glacial ‘Lake Clydesdale’ (Browne and MacMillan, 1989). For modelling purposes, the lithologies have been separated into two units, a main unit of sand with minor gravel (RSSA-XSV), and an underlying finer-grained sand with silt (RSSA-XSZ).
The Ross Sand Member is found draping the Wilderness Till Formation and is overlain by deposits of the Bridgeton Sand Member and Paisley Clay Member. Where it outcrops at the surface, the Ross Sand Member corresponds to glaciofluvial deltaic (and/or subaqueous fan) deposits (GFDD) on BGS DiGMapGB.
Clyde Clay Formation
The Clyde Clay Formation is part of the British Coastal Deposits Group and includes mainly Late Devensian deposits from marine isotope stages 2, 2a-b δ18O. The formation is modelled as component members including the Bridgeton Sand Member, the Paisley Clay Member, the Linwood Clay Member, the Killearn Sand and Gravel Member and the Innerleven Gravel Member.
Bridgeton Sand Member (BRON)
The Bridgeton Sand Member is characterised by fine to medium, massive dense sand or silty sand. Locally, fine to coarse gravel and boulders occur in a sandy matrix. There is some flat bedding but generally the deposits are massive. The unit is largely confined to the Clyde valley, where it overlies the Wilderness Till and Broomhouse Sand and Gravel formations. In the Clydebank area, The Bridgeton Sand Member is 20–30 m thick occupying a 2.5 km wide ‘strip’ confined by a bedrock depression following the line of the River Clyde. The deepest part of the depression, which contains the greatest thickness of the Bridgeton Sand Member, lies approximately 300–400 m to the south of the modern river.
Browne and MacMillan (1989) suggested that the sands were deposited as submarine outwash fans formed during catastrophic draining of pro-glacial Lake Clydesdale to the north-west along the line of the Clyde valley following breaching of the glacier dam.
Paisley Clay Member (PAIS)
The Paisley Clay Member comprises laminated clay and silt-clay deposited in a glaciomarine setting. In borehole records it is described as a grey and grey-brown, occasionally laminated, clayey silt and silty clay, often with a mottled appearance. The retreating glaciers are believed to have been to the north-west, in the sea lochs of the Southern Highlands. Relative sea level was high when deposition of the Paisley Clay Member commenced and some clays were deposited at elevations up to 40 m above OD (Browne and McMillan, 1989). The Paisley Clay Member drapes the underlying topography, and appears to thin out over the tops of drumlins (Wilderness Till Formation) and bedrock ‘highs’. To the south-east of Glasgow, all clay units at the ground surface within lowland areas (max. 40–45m O.D.) are assumed to be deposits of the Paisley Clay Member. All DiGMapGB polygons coded as raised marine deposits-Devensian (RMDV) were interpreted as outcrops of the Paisley Clay Member.
Linwood Clay Member (LIWD)
The Linwood Clay member overlies the Paisley Clay Member and consists of up to 35 m of clay or silt clay, with some sandy lenses and very sparse gravel. Occasional boulders encountered in some boreholes may be dropstones. The Linwood Clay Member is stratigraphically distinguished from the underlying Paisley Clay largely on the basis of an increase in the diversity of marine fossils contained within the strata (Browne and MacMillan, 1989). However, borehole logs rarely contain palaeontological information and thus the Paisley and Linwood Clay members are difficult to distinguish in many areas. Generally, the Linwood Clay Member is considered to be less laminated than the underlying Paisley Clay Member. In some areas, especially near outcrop, the Paisley Clay Member is orange to red-brown in colour, compared to the more grey-brown of the Linwood Clay. In an embayment of the palaeoshoreline in the vicinity of Paisley-Renfrew (much of sheet NS46NE), the Paisley Clay is significantly thinner than deposits found further east up the Clyde valley. By contrast, the Linwood Clay Member becomes more dominant in this area and is considerably thicker than the underlying Paisley Clay Member.
Killearn Sand and Gravel Member (KARN)
The Killearn Sand and Gravel Member is a patchy deposit comprising of varying proportions of sand and some clay layers. The deposits are commonly found in inter-drumlin areas along the Clyde Valley, and the distribution suggests that it formed as a result of marginal marine processes associated with the Late Devensian marine incursion responsible for the deposition of the Paisley and Linwood clays. The maximum level of the marine incursion thought to be responsible for the Killearn Member is approximately 34–36 m above OD (Browne and McMillan, 1989; Hall et al., 1998; Rose, 1975).
The Killearn Member is thought to have been deposited in a range of environments, including beaches, and fluvial and deltaic systems. Rose (1975) describes temporary sections north of Erskine bridge where Killearn Member sands and gravels overlie Broomhouse Sand and Gravel Formation. Here the Killearn is well bedded, with beds displaying shallow dip to the south-west. It is suggested that the sedimentary structures are consistent with shoreline processes, hence that the unit in this area is a beach gravel. Rose (1975) also describes ice wedge casts suggesting that a periglacial environment persisted in the period following the deposition of the Killearn Member. It is suggested that these features may have formed during the cold period associated with the cooling event of the Younger Dryas. During this time, glaciers readvanced in the Loch Lomond area, but the Clyde remained ice free.
Inverleven Gravel Member (INVN)
The Inverleven Formation is a 0.5–2.5 m thick unit found in the lower part of the Clyde valley. It consists of boulders, cobbles and gravel in a sandy-clay matrix, and some shells and traces of barnacles on clasts have been found (Browne and McMillan, 1989). It is thought to be a lag deposit representing a Late Devensian erosive, or non-depositional phase in the Clyde Estuary. The Inverleven Gravel Member overlies eroded Linwood and/or Paisley Clay members and Wilderness Till Formation (Browne and McMillan, 1989).
Clydebank Clay Formation
Longhaugh Sand and Gravel Member (LUGH)
The Longhaugh Formation is known only from site investigation boreholes and there is no standard section for the unit (Browne and McMillan, 1989). It consists of silty-sand, with a little gravel, and some boulders towards the base. Some boreholes record shell debris, and this rarely noted characteristic is the only means of distinguishing it from the sand units of the underlying Bridgeton Sand Member and the overlying Gourock Sand Member.
The Longhaugh Formation appears to fill a pre-existing erosive channel aligned along the modern Clyde river, in places lined with coarse boulders and cobbles of the Inverleven Gravel Member. The channel cuts into older deposits, reaching a maximum depth of ~ -20 m OD. This stratigraphy suggests that the channel was cut, probably by tidal processes concentrated through the narrow Erskine gap during a marine incursion in the Late Devensian. It may have developed during a relative sea level fall (c.f Browne and McMillan, 1989 p15–16), either associated with the Loch Lomond Re-advance, or with the transition from marine to estuarine conditions that occurred in Late Devensian to early Flandrian times. This interpretation is consistent with the lack of occurrence of the Paisley and Linwood Clay Members in the lower parts of the Clyde Valley. Strong tidal currents may have prevented the deposition of fine clay and silt sediments in this area throughout the late Devensian, with the channel incision occurring at a low stand in sea level.
Erskine Clay Member (ERSK)
The Erskine Clay Member is the fine equivalent of the Flandrian age Gourock Sand Member, and is found in the valleys of the River Clyde and White and Black Cart Waters. It is distinguished from the underlying Linwood Clay Member because it contains significant organic matter. It is mainly found in association with the Gourock Sand Member, which overlies the Erskine Clay in a number of areas. The Erskine Clay Member overlies the Wilderness Till, Broomhouse Sand and Gravel Formation, Bridgeton Sand Member and the Longhaugh Sand and Gravel Member in the Clyde Valley, and the Linwood Clay Member in the valleys of the Black and White Cart. Small patches of peat may be developed on top of the Erskine Clay Member.
Gourock Sand Member (GOSA)
The Gourock Sand Member forms extensive deposits in the Clyde valley and as deposits along the Black and White Cart Waters. It consists of 0.5–~5 m of fine to coarse sand with some gravel, silt and clay and organic detritus. It passes laterally in some areas into the Erskine Clay Member. The deposits are likely to have formed in estuarine environments, with a fluvial dominance in the east, becoming progressively more marine westwards with shallow channels linked by tidal flats (Browne and McMillan, 1989).
Clyde Valley Formation
Strathkelvin Clay and Silt Member (KELV)
The Strathkelvin Clay and Silt Member is found largely within the Kelvin valley and as deposits along water courses to the north-east of Glasgow. The unit consists of a silt-clay containing abundant layers of silt and some sandy layers and lenses interbedded with peat. In general the clays are dark brown in colour and bands relatively rich in organic detritus also occur. The deposits are either of floodplain or lacustrine origin.
Law Sand and Gravel Member (LAWSG)
The Law Sand and Gravel Member comprises fine to coarse sand with some silt, fine gravel and organic matter deposited in river channels and associated floodplains. The Law Sand and Gravel Member includes recent (currently accumulating) river deposits in the upper Clyde valley and deposits associated with the rivers Kelvin and the Black and White Cart Waters. Small alluvial fans and deposits associated with minor streams are also included in this unit.
Lacustrine Deposits (LDE)
Recent lacustrine deposits, consisting largely of soft silt and clay with organic bands and lenses of peat, are found in and around lakes or former lakes throughout the Clyde area. These lakes have formed in inter-drumlin hollows, and some have been completely infilled by accumulation of sediment and organic matter.
Small deposits of peat, consisting of dark, organic rich, humic material formed by the accumulation of partially decomposed vegetation, are found in places in the Clyde area. Peat accumulations are generally associated with lacustrine and alluvial sediments, where they may form surface deposits, or form bands or lenses within the strata.
Small areas of gravely clay overlying the Bridgeton Sand Formation, Law Sand and Gravel Member or the Paisley Clay Member, usually found at the base of a drumlin with significant relief, are interpreted as Head deposits formed by the remobilisation of the surface deposits on steep hillslopes
Made ground (MGR)
Made ground in the 3D model represents a combination of made and worked ground including filled and partially back-filled pits and quarries — hence it comprises all anthropogenic deposits. Areas of worked ground were primarily identified using DiGMapGB 1:10 000 polygons. These were subsequently altered to encompass areas where boreholes reported additional areas of artificial ground. Alterations were made using the Ordnance Survey maps to identify the extent of industrial areas, housing developments and other information. It is likely that more extensive but thinner deposits of made ground occur within the model that are not currently represented. This is particularly the case on sheet NS56NE (Kelvinside-Springburn and surrounds). Made ground has not been subdivided.
An accurate 5 m DTM and good quality borehole descriptions would be essential to the more detailed modelling of the made ground in the Clyde Valley area. Subdivision of the made ground will be considered in future models.
Many of the units described above contain considerable variation in lithologies within their strata. Where thin deposits of a contrasting lithology to the main unit are recorded within borehole descriptions, these have been depicted by the modelling of a lense contained within the ‘parent’ unit. In general, only lithological sub-units with thicknesses greater than approximately 2 m have been identified as separate lenses.
The lense types used in the Superficial Deposits Models are: clay_lense, silt_lense, sand_lense, gravel_lense, peat_lense, till_lense, CADR_lense, CADR2_lense, Witi_lense (Boulder clay without the clay fraction (washed out)).
|CLAY AND SILT||SAND AND GRAVEL||DIAMICTON||PEAT||LITHOLOGY|
The bedrock geology beneath the Bedrock Model area comprises Upper Carboniferous Coal Measures, Clackmannan and Strathclyde group strata (Table 3, Figure 3). The majority of the strata represent fluvio-deltaic to shallow marine facies consisting of argillaceous rock, sandstone, coal and limestone. The lithostratigraphy is primarily identified from interpretation of borehole records using the established BGS Carboniferous lithostratigraphic framework, lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic markers (Browne et al., 1999; Hall et al., 1998).
|Modelled horizon – Central Glasgow bedrock model||Rock volume above modelled horizon to next modelled horizon||Modelled horizon – Clyde Catchment scale bedrock model||Rock volume above modelled horizon to next modelled horizon|
|Rockhead unconformity from superficial deposits modelling (Combined base of all the superficial deposits)||Rockhead unconformity from BGS rockhead model (regional)|
|Base Upper Coal Measures bUCMS (UCMS-CYCCM)||UCMS-CYCCM|
|Glasgow Upper coal (GU-COAL) Worked coal in Scottish Middle Coal Measures Formation (MCMS)||MCMS-CYCCM|
|Glasgow Ell Coal (GE-COAL) Worked coal in Scottish Middle Coal Measures Formation (MCMS)||MCMS-CYCCM||Glasgow Ell Coal GE-COAL)||MCMS-CYCCM and UCMS-CYCCM|
|Kiltongue Coal (KILC_COAL) Worked coal in Scottish Lower Coal Measures Formation (LCMS)||MCMS-CYCCM and LCMS-CYCCM|
|Base Lower Coal Measures Scotland (LCMS-CYCCM) = base Coal Measures Group Scotland (CMSC) bCMSC||MCMS-CYCCM and LCMS-CYCCM|
|Base Upper Limestone Formation bULGS (ULGS-CYCC) = Index Limestone (ILS-LMST)||LCMS-CYCCM and PGP-CYCC and ULGS-CYCC||Base Upper Limestone Formation bULGS (ULGS- CYCC) = Index Limestone (ILS-LMST)||PGP-CYCC and ULGS-CYCC|
|Knightswood Gas Coal (KDG_COAL) Worked coal in Limestone Coal Formation (LSC)||LSC-CYCC|
|Base Lower Limestone Formation bLLGS (LLGS- CYCC) = Hurlet Limestone HUR-LMST||LSC-CYCC and LLGS-CYCC|
GU and GE are the uppermost and most extensively worked coals in the Scottish Middle Coal Measures Formation (MCMS) in the Central Glasgow area. KILC is quite extensively worked in the Scottish Lower Coal Measures Formation (LCMS). KDG is extensively worked within the Limestone Coal Formation, cropping out on the western side of the Central Glasgow area.
- ROLFE, W D I. 1966. Woolly rhinoceros from the Scottish Pleistocene. Scottish Journal of Geology 2, 253–258.
- BROWNE, M A E and MCMILLAN, A A. 1989. Quaternary geology of the Clyde Valley. Research Report of the British Geological Survey SA/89/1.
- HALL, I H S, BROWNE, M A E and FORSYTH, I H. 1998. Geology of the Glasgow district. Memoir of the British Geological Survey, Sheet 30E (Scotland).
- ROSE, J. 1975. Raised beach gravels and ice wedge casts at Old Kilpatrick, near Glasgow. Scottish Journal of Geology. Vol 11. p 15–21.
- BROWNE, M A E, DEAN, M T and HALL, I.H.S., MCADAM, A.D., MONRO, S.K. AND CHISHOLM, J I. 1999. A lithostratigraphical framework for the Carboniferous rocks of the Midland Valley of Scotland. British Geological Survey Research Report, RR/99/07.