OR/14/047 Identification of potential study sites

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Farr, G, and Hall J. 2014. Atmospheric deposition and groundwater dependent wetlands: implications for effective catchment management and future Water Framework Directive groundwater classification in England and Wales. British Geological Survey Internal Report, OR/14/047.

Existing case studies from the UK[edit]

Several GWDTEs in England and Wales are part of a suite of various monitoring programmes set up to assess the impact of atmospheric deposition at designated sites. This section will provide a list of GWDTEs in England and Wales that are part of monitoring networks or have undergone research in the past aimed principally at atmospheric deposition. The list (Table 7) also included references to the data sources and to any existing hydrogeological conceptual models. A list of GWDTEs that have exceeded both their TV and CL are included in Appendix 2 - List of GWDTEs that exceed both their Critical Load and fail their Water Framework Directive Threshold Values. The aim is to provide a short list of GWDTEs that have existing atmospheric deposition data that could be used for future projects.

Table 7    GWDTEs in England and Wales that have historic or current atmospheric deposition data/monitoring programmes
SSSI Habitat Summary of Project Hydrological Conceptual Model Data Source Location
Thorne, Crowle & Goole Moors Degraded Raised Bogs & Active Raised Bogs Large Plant Combustion Directive (LCPD) Monteith et al. 2012[1][2] England
Cannock Chase European dry heaths Large Plant Combustion Directive (LCPD) Some hydrogeological data Monteith et al. 2012[1][2] England
The New Forest European dry heaths Large Plant Combustion Directive (LCPD) Monteith et al. 2012[1][2] England
Skipwith Common MG16 heathland Large Plant Combustion Directive (LCPD) Monteith et al. 2012[1][2] & Emmett et al. 2011[3] & Penny Anderson, 2008 England
Astley & Bedford Mosses Degraded Raised Bogs Large Plant Combustion Directive (LCPD) Monteith et al. 2012[1][2] England
Minsterley meadows MG5 grassland CSM monitoring and grass forb ration v atmospheric deposition near poultry farm No but Adjacent to small metal mine (EA) Emmett et al. 2011[3] England
Moor House M18b

M19a/b blanket bog

Environmental Change Network (ECN) Emmett et al. 2011[3] England
North Wyke Lowland grassland Environmental Change Network (ECN) Emmett et al. 2011[3] England
Porton Woodland and semi natural chalk grassland Environmental Change Network (ECN) Emmett et al. 2011[3] England
Budworth Common Lowland heath N budget, N immobilization is soil pools and leaching loss. Management cut and
re-establishment monitored
UKREATE.defra.gov.uk England
SSSI Habitat Summary of Project Hydrological conceptual Model Data source Location
Wardlaw Hay Cop Calcaerous and acidic Grassland Long term 18 year study application of N and P UKREATE.defra.gov.uk England
Peaknaze Upland moorland Impact of climate change under reduced pollution effects UKREATE.defra.gov.uk England
Ainsdale dunes and sands dune grassland and humid dune slacks Environmental Change Biodiversity Network Clarke and Sanitwong Na Ayuttaya (2010)[4] Emmett et al. 2011[3] England
Bure Marshes fen (flood plaine basic) wet woodland open water Environmental Change Biodiversity Network Emmett et al. 2011[3] England
Burnham Beeches Beech woodland, dry and wet heath Environmental Change Biodiversity Network Emmett et al. 2011[3] England
Fens Whixhall & Bettisfield Mosses active raised bog, degraded raised bog Environmental Change Biodiversity Network Yes Emmett et al. 2011[3] England
Ingleborough upland wet and dry heat bog Environmental Change Biodiversity Network Emmett et al. 2011[3] England
Lindisfarne mobile dunes, humid dune slacks, heath and grassland Environmental Change Biodiversity Network Emmett et al. 2011[3] England
Thursley lowland heath and valley mire Environmental Change Biodiversity Network N additions and changes in management and monitored recovery Emmett et al. 2011[3] England
Newbald Becksies and Askham Bogs various Potential impact of historic atmospheric deposition from power stations Paul Howlett, Environment Agency Paul Howlett, Environment Agency, Hogg et al 1995[5] England
Wye Valley SAC Suggested by Andrew Pearson EA England
Merthyr Mawr Humid dune slacks Nitrogen Budget SWS, 2010a[6] Jones et al. 2005[7] Jones et al. 2006[8] Wales
Mynydd Llangatwyg Blanket Bogs Large Plant Combustion Directive (LCPD) Monteith et al. 2012[1][2] Wales
Esgryn Bottom Active Raised Bogs Large Plant Combustion Directive (LCPD) Monteith et al. 2012[1][2] Wales
Cors Caron Raised Bog Environmental Change Biodiversity Network 5 years of PC bulk data, 13 months of NH3 diffusion tubes Rigare NRW data Wales
SSSI Habitat Summary of project Hydrological conceptual model Data source Location
Cors Erdderiniog Fen Environmental Change Biodiversity Network 5 years of PC bulk data, 13 months of NH3 diffusion tubes SWS, 2010b[9] and Rigare (assorted dates) NRW data Wales
Cors Fochno Raised bog Environmental Change Network (ECN)
5 years of PC bulk data, 13 months of NH3 diffusion tubes
Rigare reports for NRW NRW data Wales
Yr Wyddfa acidic grassland and heath Environmental Change Network (ECN) Emmett et al. 2011[3] Wales
Rhuabon Moor Moorland Impacts of nitrogen, management and intervention on moorland. Application of N and P UKREATE.defra.gov.uk Wales
Pwllpeiran Acidic grassland and heath Nitrogen addition experiments to determine interaction between grazing pressure and nitrogen deposition UKREATE.defra.gov.uk Wales
Cwm Cadlan wet calcaerous grassland Environmental Change Network (ECN) Emmett et al. 2011[3] Wales
Newborough Warren dune grassland and humid dune slacks Environmental Change Network (ECN); impacts of nitrogen management and intervention; chronosequence studies. Nitrogen budget. Source apportionment for local NH3 atmospheric sources Numerous reports e.g. Stratford, 2006[10] Emmett et al. 2011[3] NVC maps 1980s and 1990s; Jones et al. 2008[11]; Plassmann et al. 2009[12]; Jones et al. 2013[13]. Wales
Ogof Ffynnon Ddu limestone pavements and cave system Environmental Change Network (ECN) No Emmett et al .2011[3] Wales
Oxwich Humid dune slacks Environmental Change Network (ECN) Grey literature held by NRW Emmett et al. 2011[3] Wales
Rhos Llawr Cwrt bog grassland oak woodland Environmental Change Network (ECN) Emmett et al . 2011[3] Wales
Crymlyn Bog Quaking bog transition mire alkaline fen Nutrient Source Apportionment study Grey literature held by NRW Environment Agency Wales, 2004[14] & 2005[15]
Headley, 2004[16].
Wales

Selection of potential study site for Phase 2 investigation[edit]

No strict methodology has been applied to proposing potential sites for the phase 2 work, however the following points have been considered;

  • Is there an existing conceptual model for the site?
  • Is there NVC data for the site?
  • Is there existing on site water level and quality data?
  • Has the critical load or threshold value been exceeded?
  • What is the distance to an established atmospheric chemistry monitoring station?
  • Do the sites present variability in terms of type and setting?
  • Are there willing local experts who will assist with future investigations?

Potential sites are listed in Table 8.

Table 8    Possible sites for consideration in phase 2
GWDTE Country Type Setting WFD Threshold Value Critical Load Conceptual Model NVC data Distance to existing atmospheric monitoring point
Wynunbury Moss England Lowland bog Lowland Not exceeded Exceed Yes Yes 20 km
Fens Whixhall & Bettisfield Mosses England/Wales Fens Lowland Not exceeded Exceed Yes Yes On site
Newbald Becksies England Base rich marsh and wet natural grassland Lowland Not exceeded Exceed Yes Yes >50 km
Askham Bogs England Riased bog and fen Lowland Not exceeded Exceed No Yes 10 km
Merthyr Mawr Wales Humid Dune Lowland coastal Exceed Exceed Yes Yes >50 km*
Newborough Warren Wales Humid Dune Lowland coastal Not exceeded Exceed Yes Yes >50 km*
Aberffraw Wales Humid Dune Lowland coastal Not exceeded Exceed Yes Yes >50 km*
Cors Bodeilo & Cors Eddreiniog Wales Alkaline and Calcareous Fens lowland Exceed Exceed Yes Yes >50 km
Cors Carron (Tregaron Bog) Wales Riased Bog Upland Not exceeded Exceed Yes Yes <10 Km

* Nitrogen budget for atmospheric deposition available.

References[edit]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 MONTEITH, D, SHERRIN, L, HENRYS, P, ROSE, R, HALFORD, A, SMART, S, and EVANS, C. 2012a. Monitoring of acidifying and eutrophifying deposition and ecological parameters at seven vulnerable Natura 2000 sites in England and Wales. First Report to the Power Station and Refinery Operators. Center for Ecology and Hydrology.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 MONTEITH, D, SHERRIN, L, HENRYS, P, ROSE, R, HALFORD, A, SMART, S, and EVANS, C. 2012b. Monitoring of vegetation and bulk soil measurements at seven vulnerable Natura 2000 sites in England and Wales. Third Report to the Power Station and Refinery Operators. Center for Ecology and Hydrology.
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 EMMET, B A, ROWE, E C, STEVENS, C J, GOWING, D J, HENRYS, P A, MASKELL, L C, and SMART, S M. 2011. Interpretation of evidence of nitrogen impacts on vitiation in relation to UK biodiversity objectives. JNCC Report No. 449.
  4. CLARKE, D, and SANITWONG NA AYUTTAYA, SARINYA (2010) Predicted effects of climate change, vegetation and tree cover on dune slack habitats at Ainsdale on the Sefton Coast, UK. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 14, (2), 115–125.
  5. HOGG, P, SQUIRES. P, and FITTER, A H. 1995. Acidification, nitrogen deposition and rapid vegetation change in a shall valley mire in Yorkshire. Biological Conservation 71, 145–153.
  6. SWS. 2010a. River basin planning through targeted investigations on selected Welsh Groundwater Dependent Terrestrial Ecosystems - Cors Bodeilio and Merthyr Mawr. Schlumburger Water Services Report 1-274/R3 for Environment Agency.
  7. JONES, M L M, PILKINGTON, M G, HEALEY, M, NORRIS, D A, BRITTAIN, S A, TANG, S Y, JONES, M, and REYNOLDS, B. 2005. Determining a nitrogen budget for Merthyr Mawr sand dune system. Report for the Countryside Council for Wales. CCW Ref: FC 72-02-59, CEH Project Number: CO2352NEW.
  8. JONES, M L M, REYNOLDS, D, BRITTAIN, S A, NORRIS, D A, RHINDS, P M, and JONES, R E. 2006. Complex hydrological controls on wet dune slacks: the importance of local variability. Science of the total environment. 372 pp. 266–277.
  9. SWS (2010b). Desk study Cors Erddreiniog Investigations on selected Welsh Groundwater Dependent Terrestrial Ecosystems (GWDTEs). Schlumberger Water Services. Report 1-274/R3 for Environment Agency.
  10. STRATFORD, C. 2006. Review of hydrological reports for Newborough Warren, Anglesey. CEH report. http://www.forestry.gov.uk/pdf/NewboroughReviewFinalReport.pdf/$FILE/NewboroughReviewFinalReport.pdf
  11. JONES, M L M, SOWERBY, A, WILLIAMS, D L, and JONES, R E. 2008. Factors controlling soil development in sand dunes: evidence from a coastal dune soil chronosequence. Plant and Soil 307, 219–234.
  12. PLASSMANN, K, EDWARDS-JONES, G, JONES, M L M. 2009. The effects of low levels of nitrogen deposition and grazing on dune grassland. Science of the Total Environment 407, 1391–1404.
  13. JONES, L, NIZAM, M S, REYNOLDS, B, BAREHAM, S, and OXLEY, E R B. 2013. Upwind impacts of ammonia from an intensive poultry unit. Environmental Pollution 180, 221–228.
  14. ENVIRONMENT AGENCY WALES. 2004. Nutrient and other chemical loads to and from the Crymlyn Bog candidate Special Area of Conservation. Internal Report Report Ref: EATW/04/01.
  15. ENVIRONMENT AGENCY WALES. 2005. Summary of the assessment of levels and loads of air pollutants and the nutrient source apportionment at Crymlyn Bog candidate Special Areas of Conservation. Version 3. September 2005. pp.44.
  16. HEADLEY, A. 2004. Crymlin Bog SSSI, South Wales: Impacts of consented discharges and other sources of nutrient enrichment on cSAC qualifying habitats. Report To Environment Agency Wales.