OR/14/047 Identification of potential study sites
|Farr, G, and Hall J. 2014. Atmospheric deposition and groundwater dependent wetlands: implications for effective catchment management and future Water Framework Directive groundwater classification in England and Wales. British Geological Survey Internal Report, OR/14/047.|
Existing case studies from the UK
Several GWDTEs in England and Wales are part of a suite of various monitoring programmes set up to assess the impact of atmospheric deposition at designated sites. This section will provide a list of GWDTEs in England and Wales that are part of monitoring networks or have undergone research in the past aimed principally at atmospheric deposition. The list (Table 7) also included references to the data sources and to any existing hydrogeological conceptual models. A list of GWDTEs that have exceeded both their TV and CL are included in Appendix 2 - List of GWDTEs that exceed both their Critical Load and fail their Water Framework Directive Threshold Values. The aim is to provide a short list of GWDTEs that have existing atmospheric deposition data that could be used for future projects.
|SSSI||Habitat||Summary of Project||Hydrological Conceptual Model||Data Source||Location|
|Thorne, Crowle & Goole Moors||Degraded Raised Bogs & Active Raised Bogs||Large Plant Combustion Directive (LCPD)||Monteith et al. 2012||England|
|Cannock Chase||European dry heaths||Large Plant Combustion Directive (LCPD)||Some hydrogeological data||Monteith et al. 2012||England|
|The New Forest||European dry heaths||Large Plant Combustion Directive (LCPD)||Monteith et al. 2012||England|
|Skipwith Common||MG16 heathland||Large Plant Combustion Directive (LCPD)||Monteith et al. 2012 & Emmett et al. 2011 & Penny Anderson, 2008||England|
|Astley & Bedford Mosses||Degraded Raised Bogs||Large Plant Combustion Directive (LCPD)||Monteith et al. 2012||England|
|Minsterley meadows||MG5 grassland||CSM monitoring and grass forb ration v atmospheric deposition near poultry farm||No but Adjacent to small metal mine (EA)||Emmett et al. 2011||England|
M19a/b blanket bog
|Environmental Change Network (ECN)||Emmett et al. 2011||England|
|North Wyke||Lowland grassland||Environmental Change Network (ECN)||Emmett et al. 2011||England|
|Porton||Woodland and semi natural chalk grassland||Environmental Change Network (ECN)||Emmett et al. 2011||England|
|Budworth Common||Lowland heath||N budget, N immobilization is soil pools and leaching loss. Management cut and
|SSSI||Habitat||Summary of Project||Hydrological conceptual Model||Data source||Location|
|Wardlaw Hay Cop||Calcaerous and acidic Grassland||Long term 18 year study application of N and P||UKREATE.defra.gov.uk||England|
|Peaknaze||Upland moorland||Impact of climate change under reduced pollution effects||UKREATE.defra.gov.uk||England|
|Ainsdale dunes and sands||dune grassland and humid dune slacks||Environmental Change Biodiversity Network||Clarke and Sanitwong Na Ayuttaya (2010)||Emmett et al. 2011||England|
|Bure Marshes||fen (flood plaine basic) wet woodland open water||Environmental Change Biodiversity Network||Emmett et al. 2011||England|
|Burnham Beeches||Beech woodland, dry and wet heath||Environmental Change Biodiversity Network||Emmett et al. 2011||England|
|Fens Whixhall & Bettisfield Mosses||active raised bog, degraded raised bog||Environmental Change Biodiversity Network||Yes||Emmett et al. 2011||England|
|Ingleborough||upland wet and dry heat bog||Environmental Change Biodiversity Network||Emmett et al. 2011||England|
|Lindisfarne||mobile dunes, humid dune slacks, heath and grassland||Environmental Change Biodiversity Network||Emmett et al. 2011||England|
|Thursley||lowland heath and valley mire||Environmental Change Biodiversity Network N additions and changes in management and monitored recovery||Emmett et al. 2011||England|
|Newbald Becksies and Askham Bogs||various||Potential impact of historic atmospheric deposition from power stations||Paul Howlett, Environment Agency||Paul Howlett, Environment Agency, Hogg et al 1995||England|
|Wye Valley SAC||Suggested by Andrew Pearson EA||England|
|Merthyr Mawr||Humid dune slacks||Nitrogen Budget||SWS, 2010a||Jones et al. 2005 Jones et al. 2006||Wales|
|Mynydd Llangatwyg||Blanket Bogs||Large Plant Combustion Directive (LCPD)||Monteith et al. 2012||Wales|
|Esgryn Bottom||Active Raised Bogs||Large Plant Combustion Directive (LCPD)||Monteith et al. 2012||Wales|
|Cors Caron||Raised Bog||Environmental Change Biodiversity Network 5 years of PC bulk data, 13 months of NH3 diffusion tubes||Rigare||NRW data||Wales|
|SSSI||Habitat||Summary of project||Hydrological conceptual model||Data source||Location|
|Cors Erdderiniog||Fen||Environmental Change Biodiversity Network 5 years of PC bulk data, 13 months of NH3 diffusion tubes||SWS, 2010b and Rigare (assorted dates)||NRW data||Wales|
|Cors Fochno||Raised bog||Environmental Change Network (ECN)
5 years of PC bulk data, 13 months of NH3 diffusion tubes
|Rigare reports for NRW||NRW data||Wales|
|Yr Wyddfa||acidic grassland and heath||Environmental Change Network (ECN)||Emmett et al. 2011||Wales|
|Rhuabon Moor||Moorland||Impacts of nitrogen, management and intervention on moorland. Application of N and P||UKREATE.defra.gov.uk||Wales|
|Pwllpeiran||Acidic grassland and heath||Nitrogen addition experiments to determine interaction between grazing pressure and nitrogen deposition||UKREATE.defra.gov.uk||Wales|
|Cwm Cadlan||wet calcaerous grassland||Environmental Change Network (ECN)||Emmett et al. 2011||Wales|
|Newborough Warren||dune grassland and humid dune slacks||Environmental Change Network (ECN); impacts of nitrogen management and intervention; chronosequence studies. Nitrogen budget. Source apportionment for local NH3 atmospheric sources||Numerous reports e.g. Stratford, 2006||Emmett et al. 2011 NVC maps 1980s and 1990s; Jones et al. 2008; Plassmann et al. 2009; Jones et al. 2013.||Wales|
|Ogof Ffynnon Ddu||limestone pavements and cave system||Environmental Change Network (ECN)||No||Emmett et al .2011||Wales|
|Oxwich||Humid dune slacks||Environmental Change Network (ECN)||Grey literature held by NRW||Emmett et al. 2011||Wales|
|Rhos Llawr Cwrt||bog grassland oak woodland||Environmental Change Network (ECN)||Emmett et al . 2011||Wales|
|Crymlyn Bog||Quaking bog transition mire alkaline fen||Nutrient Source Apportionment study||Grey literature held by NRW||Environment Agency Wales, 2004 & 2005
Selection of potential study site for Phase 2 investigation
No strict methodology has been applied to proposing potential sites for the phase 2 work, however the following points have been considered;
- Is there an existing conceptual model for the site?
- Is there NVC data for the site?
- Is there existing on site water level and quality data?
- Has the critical load or threshold value been exceeded?
- What is the distance to an established atmospheric chemistry monitoring station?
- Do the sites present variability in terms of type and setting?
- Are there willing local experts who will assist with future investigations?
Potential sites are listed in Table 8.
|GWDTE||Country||Type||Setting||WFD Threshold Value||Critical Load||Conceptual Model||NVC data||Distance to existing atmospheric monitoring point|
|Wynunbury Moss||England||Lowland bog||Lowland||Not exceeded||Exceed||Yes||Yes||20 km|
|Fens Whixhall & Bettisfield Mosses||England/Wales||Fens||Lowland||Not exceeded||Exceed||Yes||Yes||On site|
|Newbald Becksies||England||Base rich marsh and wet natural grassland||Lowland||Not exceeded||Exceed||Yes||Yes||>50 km|
|Askham Bogs||England||Riased bog and fen||Lowland||Not exceeded||Exceed||No||Yes||10 km|
|Merthyr Mawr||Wales||Humid Dune||Lowland coastal||Exceed||Exceed||Yes||Yes||>50 km*|
|Newborough Warren||Wales||Humid Dune||Lowland coastal||Not exceeded||Exceed||Yes||Yes||>50 km*|
|Aberffraw||Wales||Humid Dune||Lowland coastal||Not exceeded||Exceed||Yes||Yes||>50 km*|
|Cors Bodeilo & Cors Eddreiniog||Wales||Alkaline and Calcareous Fens||lowland||Exceed||Exceed||Yes||Yes||>50 km|
|Cors Carron (Tregaron Bog)||Wales||Riased Bog||Upland||Not exceeded||Exceed||Yes||Yes||<10 Km|
* Nitrogen budget for atmospheric deposition available.
- MONTEITH, D, SHERRIN, L, HENRYS, P, ROSE, R, HALFORD, A, SMART, S, and EVANS, C. 2012a. Monitoring of acidifying and eutrophifying deposition and ecological parameters at seven vulnerable Natura 2000 sites in England and Wales. First Report to the Power Station and Refinery Operators. Center for Ecology and Hydrology.
- MONTEITH, D, SHERRIN, L, HENRYS, P, ROSE, R, HALFORD, A, SMART, S, and EVANS, C. 2012b. Monitoring of vegetation and bulk soil measurements at seven vulnerable Natura 2000 sites in England and Wales. Third Report to the Power Station and Refinery Operators. Center for Ecology and Hydrology.
- EMMET, B A, ROWE, E C, STEVENS, C J, GOWING, D J, HENRYS, P A, MASKELL, L C, and SMART, S M. 2011. Interpretation of evidence of nitrogen impacts on vitiation in relation to UK biodiversity objectives. JNCC Report No. 449.
- CLARKE, D, and SANITWONG NA AYUTTAYA, SARINYA (2010) Predicted effects of climate change, vegetation and tree cover on dune slack habitats at Ainsdale on the Sefton Coast, UK. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 14, (2), 115–125.
- HOGG, P, SQUIRES. P, and FITTER, A H. 1995. Acidification, nitrogen deposition and rapid vegetation change in a shall valley mire in Yorkshire. Biological Conservation 71, 145–153.
- SWS. 2010a. River basin planning through targeted investigations on selected Welsh Groundwater Dependent Terrestrial Ecosystems - Cors Bodeilio and Merthyr Mawr. Schlumburger Water Services Report 1-274/R3 for Environment Agency.
- JONES, M L M, PILKINGTON, M G, HEALEY, M, NORRIS, D A, BRITTAIN, S A, TANG, S Y, JONES, M, and REYNOLDS, B. 2005. Determining a nitrogen budget for Merthyr Mawr sand dune system. Report for the Countryside Council for Wales. CCW Ref: FC 72-02-59, CEH Project Number: CO2352NEW.
- JONES, M L M, REYNOLDS, D, BRITTAIN, S A, NORRIS, D A, RHINDS, P M, and JONES, R E. 2006. Complex hydrological controls on wet dune slacks: the importance of local variability. Science of the total environment. 372 pp. 266–277.
- SWS (2010b). Desk study Cors Erddreiniog Investigations on selected Welsh Groundwater Dependent Terrestrial Ecosystems (GWDTEs). Schlumberger Water Services. Report 1-274/R3 for Environment Agency.
- STRATFORD, C. 2006. Review of hydrological reports for Newborough Warren, Anglesey. CEH report. http://www.forestry.gov.uk/pdf/NewboroughReviewFinalReport.pdf/$FILE/NewboroughReviewFinalReport.pdf
- JONES, M L M, SOWERBY, A, WILLIAMS, D L, and JONES, R E. 2008. Factors controlling soil development in sand dunes: evidence from a coastal dune soil chronosequence. Plant and Soil 307, 219–234.
- PLASSMANN, K, EDWARDS-JONES, G, JONES, M L M. 2009. The effects of low levels of nitrogen deposition and grazing on dune grassland. Science of the Total Environment 407, 1391–1404.
- JONES, L, NIZAM, M S, REYNOLDS, B, BAREHAM, S, and OXLEY, E R B. 2013. Upwind impacts of ammonia from an intensive poultry unit. Environmental Pollution 180, 221–228.
- ENVIRONMENT AGENCY WALES. 2004. Nutrient and other chemical loads to and from the Crymlyn Bog candidate Special Area of Conservation. Internal Report Report Ref: EATW/04/01.
- ENVIRONMENT AGENCY WALES. 2005. Summary of the assessment of levels and loads of air pollutants and the nutrient source apportionment at Crymlyn Bog candidate Special Areas of Conservation. Version 3. September 2005. pp.44.
- HEADLEY, A. 2004. Crymlin Bog SSSI, South Wales: Impacts of consented discharges and other sources of nutrient enrichment on cSAC qualifying habitats. Report To Environment Agency Wales.