OR/14/072 3D geological modelling in Europe
|Kessler, H, and Dearden, R. 2014. Scoping study for a Pan-European geological data infrastructure: D 3.4: technical requirements for serving 3D geological models. British Geological Survey, OR/14/072.|
Systematic three-dimensional geological modelling in Europe began in the mid-90s. Since then expertise and methodologies have become sufficiently mature that a more systematic approach to modelling has become possible in some countries.
Notable projects and national modelling programmes include:
- The Geological Survey of the Netherlands (part of TNO http://www.en.geologicalsurvey.nl/) was the first European geological survey to create a national geological framework model, completed in the late 90s. Since then the TNO has moved systematically across the country producing a 3D property model of the shallow subsurface. The history and future of geological modelling at the Geological Survey of the Netherlands is documented by van der Meulen et al (2013).
- The GeoMol project (http://geomol.eu/home/index_html) is a transnational project to model the Alpine Foreland Basins for sustainable planning and use of natural resources. A major challenge for this project is the harmonisation of seismic interpretation methodologies, the agreement on common nomenclature, the sharing of models and data across borders as well as the delivery of models to make them useable. The project is managed by LfU (Bavarian Geological Survey) and has the following member countries:
- Amt der Oberösterreichischen Landesregierung (LandOö)
- Bayerisches Landesamt für Umwelt (LfU)
- Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM)
- Geologische Bundesanstalt Österreich (GBA)
- Geološki zavod Slovenije (GeoZS)
- Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (ISPRA)
- Landesamt für Geologie, Rohstoffe und Bergbau Baden-Württemberg (LGRB)
- Regionalverband Bodensee-Oberschwaben (RVBO)
- Regione Emilia-Romagna, Servizio Geologico, Sismico e dei Suoli (RER-SGSS)
- Regione Lombardia–Direzione Generale Territorio e Urbanistica (RLB)
- Republique et Canton de Genève, Office de l’environnement (DSPE)
- Schweizerisches Bundesamt für Energie (BfE)
- Schweizerisches Bundesamt für Landestopografie (swisstopo)
- Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg (TU BAF)
A summary of the GeoMo project has been published by Gerold Diepolder (http://geomol.eu/home/technique/pdf_pool/Diepolder_GeoMol_Abstract_pag.pdf?lang=2).
- The British Geological Survey has recently completed GB3D a national bedrock fence diagram. The BGS is currently working towards a multi-scaled national geological block model. This will entail the combination and harmonisation of many regional and high resolution models. The GB3D methodology is written up by Mathers et al (2013) and the BGS modelling strategy and systems are described here: http://www.bgs.ac.uk/research/ukgeology/nationalGeologicalModel/home.html http://www.bgs.ac.uk/research/technologies_dmm.html
- The Geological Survey of Denmark (GEUS) is about to complete a 15 year project to map the countries aquifers using SkyTem technology. About 40% of the country has been mapped and 3D hydrostratigraphic models have been developed for these areas. The Survey is now planning to create a nationwide geological model using this data as well as geological maps and boreholes (Joergenson, 2013) (http://isgs.illinois.edu/sites/isgs/files/files/abstracts/Jrgensen.pdf)
- BRGM have a series of geological models across France and are beginning to develop a consistent model for France called the French Geological Reference Platform (http://www.brgm.eu/content/french-geological-reference-platform)
- On behalf of the Flemish government, Vision on Technology (VITO) has built a 3D geological model of Flanders. It is available from http://dov.vlaanderen.be.
- The Lower Saxony Geological Survey (LBEG) has created a 3D geological model called the Geotectonic Atlas of NW Germany and the German North Sea Sector (GTA3D) (http://www.lbeg.niedersachsen.de/portal/live.php?navigation_id=669&article_id=839&_p). It can be accessed via the webpages of the http://nibis.lbeg.de/cardomap3/?L-CUST-Schnitte=DOCKED
- Six nations (Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Poland, the Netherlands and the UK) collaborated to produce a geological model that informed the Southern Permian Basin Atlas. The project was sponsored by the petroleum industry and academia and aimed to systematically describe the onshore and offshore hydrocarbon-related geology, on a system by system basis. The output was a printed map but the images and maps were based on a single geological model, the digital outputs are available through a license (http://www.bgs.ac.uk/research/highlights/2011/spba.html)
- Twelve institutions and authorities collaborated on the Interreg IV Project (GeORG http://www.geopotenziale.org/home/index_html) to explore the geological potential of the deep Upper Rhine Graben. This has resulted in a structural and geothermal model of the Rheingraben, extensive documentation on the workflows has been published here http://www.geopotenziale.org/products/fta/pdf_pool/georg_fta_3_results_de.pdf?lang=1 and the model can be interrogated here http://maps.geopotenziale.eu/?app=georg&lang=en
- The H3O project focuses on the Roer Valley Graben that runs from Germany in a north- westerly direction over the central part of Limburg and the aim of the project is to make a cross-border, up-to-date, three-dimensional geological and hydrogeological model of the Quaternary and Tertiary deposits in the Limburg, Southeast Brabant and Flemish part of this region. http://www.bgr.bund.de/EN/Themen/Wasser/Veranstaltungen/workshop_ihme_2013/post er_13_vernes1.pdf? blob=publicationFile&v=2
- Neftex is a UK based company that uses publically available data to create tectonic and stratigraphic framework for the entire world to support exploration industries. The models are based on sequence stratigraphy and are commercially available: http://www.neftex.com/solutions/earth-model/earth-model/europe
As shown above, the extent to which surveys have modelled the landmass is highly variable. Figure 1 indicates the scale of modelling being undertaken by organisations who responded to the survey in Europe. Almost all surveys questioned are undertaking regional-scale modelling, whilst some also focus on the local scale. Modelling at the national or multi-national scale is less common. Indeed, the multinational scale modelling in Figure 1 is the result of one project (GeoMol).
- Van der Meulen, M, et al (2013) 3D geology in a 2D country: perspectives for geological surveying in the Netherlands. Netherlands Journal of Geosciencees — Geologie en Mijnbouw, 92(4), 217–241.