OR/15/045 Key literature

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Kendall, R S. 2015. Conceptual cross-sections of superficial deposits in Cardiff . British Geological Survey Internal Report, OR/15/045.

The conceptual cross-sections presented in this report are primarily based on interpretation of the details given in the BGS memoir for the Cardiff district (Waters and Lawrence, 1987[1]) and associated 1:50,000 Superficial Deposits map (BGS, 1989[2]) but are also informed by published papers and observations made in the field and in borehole records.

The first edition of the memoir for Cardiff was published in 1902 (Strahan and Cantrill, 1902[3]) with a second edition (Strahan and Cantrill, 1912[4]) with minor changes in 1912. These memoirs are especially useful for providing details of contemporary excavations which exposed sections in drift.

The third edition was published in 1987 (Waters and Lawrence, 1987[1]) following a program of resurvey and provides a more up to date view on the Superficial Deposits and the landforms of the district. The mapping was contemporaneous with major infrastructure projects such as the new M4 and development of the Culverhouse Cross area of the city which also provided fresh sections in the drift of the district, described in the memoir.

There are a number of other publications which provide background information on the Superficial Deposits of the Cardiff area. Bowen (1970[5]; 1999[6]; 2005[7]) Charlesworth (1929)[8] and David, J W E (1883)[9] all provided regional overviews. J.R.L. Allen produced a number of key papers which focus on the Quaternary history of the Severn Estuary. These include discussions on the late Quaternary stratigraphy of the Gwent Levels (Allen, 2001[10]), Holocene palaeochannels in the Gwent Levels (Allen, 2000[11]) and salt-marsh growth (Allen, 1995[12]). Another key paper by Anderson and Blundell (1965)[13] discusses the distribution of buried channels and their fill of the Cardiff District. Booth et al (2015)[14] provide a description of the processes responsible for the kinds of landforms found in areas of plateau and valley which is how it classifies the Quaternary landscape of the region.


  1. 1.0 1.1 WATERS, R A and LAWRENCE, D J. 1987. Geology of the South Wales Coalfield, Part III, the country around Cardiff. Memoir for 1:50 000 geological sheet 263 (England and Wales) ISBN 0 11 884402 4
  2. BRITISH GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. 1989. Cardiff, England and Wales sheet 263, drift edition. 1:50 000. (Keyworth, Nottingham: British Geological Survey.)
  3. STRAHAN, A and CANTRILL, T C. 1902. Geology of the South Wales Coalfield, Part III, the country around Cardiff. Memoir for 1:50 000 geological sheet 263 (England and Wales)
  4. STRAHAN, A and CANTRILL, T C. 1912. Geology of the South Wales Coalfield, Part III, the country around Cardiff. Memoir for 1:50 000 geological sheet 263 (England and Wales)
  5. BOWEN, D.Q. 1970. South-East and Central Wales, pp197–227 in The Glaciations of Wales and adjoining Regions. Lewis, C A. (Editor). ISBN 1-582-48154-6
  6. BOWEN, D Q. 1999. Wales, pp79–90 in Revised Correlation of Quaternary Deposits in the British Isles. The Geological Society Special Report No. 23. Bowen, D Q. (Editor). ISBN 1-86239-042-8
  7. BOWEN, D Q. 2005. SOUTH Wales, pp145–164 in The Glaciations of Wales and adjacent areas. Lewis, C A and Richards, A E. (Editors). ISBN 1 904396-36-4
  8. CHARLESWORTH, J K. 1929. The South Wales End-Moraine. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society. v85, p335–358.
  9. DAVID, J W E. 1883. One the evidence of glacial action in south Brecknockshire and east Glamorganshire. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, Vol 39, 39–54.
  10. ALLEN, J R L 2001. Late Quaternary stratigraphy in the Gwent Levels (southeast Wales): the subsurface evidence. Proceedings of the Geologsists Association, 112 pp289–315.
  11. ALLEN, J R L. 2000. Late Flandrian (Holocene) tidal palaeochannels, Gwent Levels (Severn Estuary), S W Britain: character, evolution and relation to shore. Marine Geology. 162. Pp353–380.
  12. ALLEN, J R L. 1995. Salt-marsh growth and fluctuating sea level: implications of a simulation model for Flandrian coastal stratigraphy and peat-based sea-level curves. Sedimentary Geology, 100. Pp21–45.
  13. ANDERSON, J G C and BLUNDELL, C R K. 1965. The Sub-Drift Rock-Surface and Buried Valleys of the Cardiff District. Proceedings of the Geological Association, Vol 76, Part 4.
  14. BOOTH, S, MERRITT, J, ROSE, J. 2015. Quaternary Provinces and Domains—a quantative and qualitative description of British Landscape. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association. 126, 163–187