T W Reader geological photographs, long excursions 1916 - index, GA 'Carreck Archive'

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T W Reader geological photographs, long excursions 1916 - index, GA 'Carreck Archive'[edit]

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GA012 P806142 Dead Maid Quarry Mere. Excursion to Mere, April 21st 1916. Showing a local passage from the Chert Beds (Upper Greensand or Selbournian Group) to the Grey Chalk (Lower Chalk Group). The phosphate nodules are called Popples here. The name Conrstones is reserved as localisms for Maiden Bradley and Norton Ferris. Added note: Vegetable soil, Yellowish Chalky Earth, Soft Chalk Marl graduating into hard rocky Chalk Marl, Glauconitic Chloritic Marl, Popple Bed, Bed below the Popple Bed, Chert beds.
GA012 P806143 Dead Maid Quarry Mere. Excursion to Mere, April 21st 1916. Showing a local passage from the Chert Beds (Upper Greensand or Selbournian Group) to the Grey Chalk (Lower Chalk Group). See Q.J.G.S. Vol LVII 1901 p116. Added note: Glauconitic Chloritic Marl, Popple Bed.
GA012 P806144 Dead Maid Quarry Mere. Excursion to Mere, April 21st 1916. Spiculiferous Chert. Dead Maid Mere. Added note: I do not think I would call this Spiculiferous Chert because though it might contain Sponge Spicules they are not so abundant as to form a specific feature which induced me to name the higher portion seen at Black Hill and Bay cliffs as spiculiferous in distinction to the chert generally. J.S.
GA012 P806145 Dead Maid Quarry Mere. Excursion to Mere, April 21st 1916. Spiculiferous Chert. Dead Maid Mere.
GA012 P806146 Norwood Quarry. Excursion to Mere, April 21st 1916. Sections in Chalk Marl, Crab Lane, Nr. Mere. This exposure is about 15 or 20 feet above the zone of Stauronema Carteri (Glauconitic Marl). J.S. Added note: The hardband that contained the fossils particularly Turrilites Scheuzei.
GA012 P806147 Norwood Quarry. Excursion to Mere, April 21st 1916. Sections in Chalk Marl, Crab Lane, Nr. Mere. This exposure is about 15 or 20 feet above the zone of Stauronema Carteri (Glauconitic Marl). J.S.
GA012 P806148 Search Farm Quarry, Stourton, Wilts. Excursion to Mere, April 21st 1916. Section in Grey Chalk.
GA012 P806149 Search Farm Quarry, Stourton, Wilts. Excursion to Mere, April 21st 1916. Section in Grey Chalk.
GA012 P806150 Search Farm Quarry, Stourton, Wilts. Excursion to Mere, April 21st 1916. Views from the above quarry. Showing effects of the line of fault and the dislocated knolls of chalk (Castle Hill and Zeals Knoll, with Shaftesbury and Donhead Hills on the horizon line. Added note: Castle Hill, Long Hill, Zeals Knoll.
GA012 P806151 Search Farm Quarry, Stourton, Wilts. Excursion to Mere, April 21st 1916. Views from the above quarry. Search Farm on the Greensand showing another view of the effects of the fault line. Added note: The fault runs in an East to West direction and brings the Greensand and Chalk against the Coral Rag and Kimmeridge Clay.
GA012 P806152 Lower Pit Search Farm. Excursion to Mere, April 21st 1916. Section in the Cornstone Bed. The surface of the water approximately coincides with the base of the Lower Chalk in this district and marks the sub-zonal horizon of Catopygus Columbarius. Added note: Junction line between Lower Chalk and Upper Greensand.
GA012 P806153 Lower Pit Search Farm. Excursion to Mere, April 21st 1916. Section in the Cornstone Bed. The surface of the water approximately coincides with the base of the Lower Chalk in this district and marks the sub-zonal horizon of Catopygus Columbarius.
GA012 P806154 Stourton Church, Stourton, Wilts. Excursion to Mere, April 21st 1916.
GA012 P806155 Stourton. Excursion to Mere, April 21st 1916. The Bristol Cross. Purchased by an ancestor of Sir Henry Hoare, of Stourhead House, Stourton, from the Dean of Bristol, about the close of the 18th Century and after being conveyed over 30 miles by road, re-erected at the entrance to Stourhead Gardens. It was at first strengthened by an iron rod passing through the centre. This has been replaced by one of copper to save the monument. JS.
GA012 P806156 Stourton. Excursion to Mere, April 21st 1916. The Bristol Cross. Purchased by an ancestor of Sir Henry Hoare, of Stourhead House, Stourton, from the Dean of Bristol, about the close of the 18th Century and after being conveyed over 30 miles by road, re-erected at the entrance to Stourhead Gardens. It was at first strengthened by an iron rod passing through the centre. This has been replaced by one of copper to save the monument. JS.
GA012 P806157 The Bristol Cross. Excursion to Mere, April 21st 1916. Stourhead. An artificial lake formed by damming the waters issuing from the fault.
GA012 P806158 The Bristol Cross. Excursion to Mere, April 21st 1916. A peep through the Grotte at Stourhead. The prettiest bit of scenery obtainable here.
GA012 P806159 White Sheet Down. Excursion to Mere, April 22nd 1916. Sections in Middle Chalk with capping of Chalk Rock and Upper Chalk. Fairly fossiliferous. A most interesting point from geological and antequarian points of view.
GA012 P806160 White Sheet Down. Excursion to Mere, April 22nd 1916. Sections in Middle Chalk with capping of Chalk Rock and Upper Chalk. Fairly fossiliferous. A most interesting point from geological and antequarian points of view. Added note: Upper Chalk, Chalk Rock, Middle Chalk.
GA012 P806161 White Sheet Down. Excursion to Mere, April 22nd 1916. A view of the right hand corner of the working. Added note: Upper Chalk 3 ft, Chalk Rock, Middle Chalk.
GA012 P806162 Baycliffe Quarry. Excursion to Mere, April 22nd 1916. The section commences a few feet below the top of the Greensand. The quarry in which the carapace of the crab Microcarina glabra was found by JS. Added note: Surface soil, Marly silt with lumps of grey chert, Layers of Cherty stone, Marly silt with glauconite grains, Speculiferous sandstone, Sand with concretions, Greenish grey glauconite sand, Marly silt.
GA012 P806163 Baycliffe Quarry. Excursion to Mere, April 22nd 1916. Added note: Spiculiferous Beds. See paper by Jukes-Brown [Browne] and JS Scanes, Q.J.B.S. Vol LVII P 106., Chert similar to that seen at Dead Maid Mere.
GA012 P806164 Blackhill Quarry, Longbridge Deverill. Excursion to Mere, April 22nd 1916. Spiculiferous Chert Beds.
GA012 P806165 Blackhill Quarry, Longbridge Deverill. Excursion to Mere, April 22nd 1916. Spiculiferous Chert Beds. Added note: Miss Bennetts Sponges came from this stratum.
GA012 P806166 Hallirhoa Costata. Upper Greensand Warminster. [Excursion to Mere, April 22nd 1916.]
GA012 P806167 Chenendopora Fungiformis. Lamx. Upper Greensand Warminster. [Excursion to Mere, April 22nd 1916.]
GA012 P806168 Doryderma Dichotomum. Benett. Upper Greensand Warminster. [Excursion to Mere, April 22nd 1916.]
GA012 P806169 Doryderma Dichotomum. Benett. Upper Greensand Warminster. [Excursion to Mere, April 22nd 1916.]
GA012 P806170 Norton Ferris. Excursion to Mere, April 22nd 1916. Quarry showing local passage from Upper Greensand to Lower Chalk. Added note: Lower Chalk, Chloritic Marl, Cornstone Bed (here).
GA012 P806171 Norton Ferris. Excursion to Mere, April 22nd 1916. Quarry showing local passage from Upper Greensand to Lower Chalk. Added note: Lower Chalk.
GA012 P806172 Crockerton, Nr. Warminster, Wilts. Excursion to Mere, April 22nd 1916. Lower Gault Clay (Crockerton Inlier). In the Mere district the Gault is not well exposed as it is only found on the surface as a narrow strip on the outer escarpment and as small inliers which form the bottoms of the deep valleys near Stourton and Crockerton.
GA012 P806173 Crockerton, Nr. Warminster, Wilts. Excursion to Mere, April 22nd 1916. Septaria. Gault Clay. Cockerton [Crockerton].
GA012 P806174 Maiden Bradley Quarry. Excursion to Mere, April 22nd 1916. This quarry supplied the necessary information (strata and fossils) for definitely removing the so-called Warminster Upper-Greensand fauna from the top of the Upper Greensand to the base of the Lower Chalk (J. Scanes, 1916). Added note: Chloritic Marl, Brown fossilifer [fossiliferous] Sand, Cornstones.
GA012 P806175 Maiden Bradley Quarry. Excursion to Mere, April 22nd 1916. This quarry supplied the necessary information (strata and fossils) for definitely removing the so-called Warminster Upper-Greensand fauna from the top of the Upper Greensand to the base of the Lower Chalk (J. Scanes, 1916). Added note: Chalk Marl, Glauconitic Marl, Phosphate Bed.
GA012 P806176 Maiden Bradley Quarry. Excursion to Mere, April 22nd 1916. Cornstones. Maiden Bradley, Wilts.
GA012 P806177 Maiden Bradley Quarry. Excursion to Mere, April 22nd 1916. This view shows the right hand corner of the quarry where the fossil bed comes to the surface and has been disintegrated under atmospheric agencies. Added note: Cornstones and bed below cornstones in process of disintegration.
GA012 P806178 Silton, Dorset, Corallian Beds. Excursion to Mere, April 24th 1916. Compact oolitic shelly limestone correlating with the Trigonia Beds at Weymouth.
GA012 P806179 Silton, Dorset, Corallian Beds. Excursion to Mere, April 24th 1916. Compact oolitic shelly limestone correlating with the Trigonia Beds at Weymouth.
GA012 P806180 Exposure on the North side of Melbury Hill. Excursion to Mere, April 24th 1916. Junction of the Cenomanian and Selbornian. Quarry of North side of Melbury Hill. Added note: All the Chalk ammonites occur here, Ammonites Mantalli and Catopygus columbarius come in, Here the matrix does not respond to Hydrochloric Acid.
GA012 P806181 Exposure on the North side of Melbury Hill. Excursion to Mere, April 24th 1916. Junction of the Cenomanian and Selbornian. Quarry of North side of Melbury Hill. Added note: All the Chalk ammonites occur here, Ammonites Mantalli and Catopygus columbarius come in, Here the matrix does not respond to Hydrochloric Acid.
GA012 P806182 Gillingham, Dorset. Excursion to Mere, April 24th 1916. Section in Kimmeridge Clay.
GA012 P806183 Gillingham, Dorset. Excursion to Mere, April 24th 1916. Section in Kimmeridge Clay.
GA012 P806184 Septaria. Kimmeridge Clay. Gillingham. Excursion to Mere, April 24th 1916.
GA012 P806185 Septaria. Kimmeridge Clay. Gillingham. Excursion to Mere, April 24th 1916.
GA012 P806186 Wolverton Zeals. Excursion to Mere, April 25th 1916. Springs issuing from the lower beds of the Upper Greensand forming a basin used for growing watercress. The whole exposure here is in that part of the Greensand in which Exogyra conica and Neithea quadricostatus are abundant.
GA012 P806187 Wolverton Zeals. Excursion to Mere, April 25th 1916. Springs issuing from the lower beds of the Upper Greensand forming a basin used for growing watercress. The whole exposure here is in that part of the Greensand in which Exogyra conica and Neithea quadricostatus are abundant.
GA012 P806188 Bourton. Excursion to Mere, April 25th 1916. The party in the grounds of Dr. B. Pope Bartlett. [Group photo].
GA012 P806189
GA012 P806190 Sand pit at Penselwood, near Bourton Dorset. Excursion to Mere, April 25th 1916. Section in Upper Greensand. The fine silty sand which comes between the coarser sand in which O. conica and N. quadricostratus (?) occur and the Malmstone which passes into the Gault, below.
GA012 P806191 Sand pit at Penselwood, near Bourton Dorset. Excursion to Mere, April 25th 1916. Section in Upper Greensand. The fine silty sand which comes between the coarser sand in which O. conica and N. quadricostratus (?) occur and the Malmstone which passes into the Gault, below.
GA012 P806192 North Bourton. Excursion to Mere, April 25th 1916. Dip in Upper Corallian beds owing to the Great Fault.
GA012 P806193 North Bourton. Excursion to Mere, April 25th 1916. Dip in Upper Corallian beds owing to the Great Fault.
GA012 P806194 Cucklington. Excursion to Mere, April 25th 1916. Sections in the Pisolite beds of the Corallian.
GA012 P806195 Cucklington. Excursion to Mere, April 25th 1916. Sections in the Pisolite beds of the Corallian.
GA012 P806196 Cucklington. Excursion to Mere, April 25th 1916. Sections in the Pisolite beds of the Corallian.
GA012 P806197 Cucklington. Excursion to Mere, April 25th 1916. Sections in the Pisolite beds of the Corallian.
GA012 P806198 Cucklington. Excursion to Mere, April 25th 1916. Sections in Corallian Beds. The pisolitic layers. Added note: Surface soil, 1. Rubbly large grained oolite 1 ft, 2. Pisolite in a large grained oolite 1 ft, 3. Rubbly oolitic limestone.
GA012 P806199 Cucklington. Excursion to Mere, April 25th 1916. General section of the Corallian Beds, Cucklington. Added note: Handle of hammer 18 inch, 1. Rubbly large grained oolite 1 foot, 2. Pisolite in a large grained oolite 1 foot, 3. Rubbly oolitic limestone, C sculatum freestone, Ampthill Clay 1 ft 2 in, soled blue hearted limestone seen for 6 ft.
GA012 P806200 Cucklington. Excursion to Mere, April 25th 1916. Weathered surfaces of pisolite in a large grained oolitic matrix No. 2 of above.
GA012 P806201 Cucklington. Excursion to Mere, April 25th 1916. Weathered surfaces of pisolite in a large grained oolitic matrix No. 2 of above.
GA012 P806202 Cucklington. Excursion to Mere, April 25th 1916. Escarpment of Coral Rag.
GA012 P806203 Cucklington. Excursion to Mere, April 25th 1916. Escarpment of Coral Rag.
GA012 P806204 Lynchets on Mere Down. Excursion to Mere, April 26th 1916. Said to be the finest in the country. This is the best photograph I have seen of them. Usually the sun-light comes in the wat. JS.
GA012 P806205 Mere Down Chalk Pit. Excursion to Mere, April 26th 1916. Sections showing Chalk Rock and Upper Chalk. Added note: Nodular white chalk with Micrasters, very hard Chalk Rock.
GA012 P806206 Mere Down Chalk Pit. Excursion to Mere, April 26th 1916. Sections showing Chalk Rock and Upper Chalk.
GA012 P806207 Lime Kiln Quarry on the top of Charnage Hill. Excursion to Mere, April 26th 1916. Sections showing Middle Chalk with the Chalk Rock and about 6 ft of Upper Chalk.
GA012 P806208 Lime Kiln Quarry on the top of Charnage Hill. Excursion to Mere, April 26th 1916. Sections showing Middle Chalk with the Chalk Rock and about 6 ft of Upper Chalk.
GA012 P806209 Lime Kiln Quarry on the top of Charnage Hill. Excursion to Mere, April 26th 1916. Sections showing Middle Chalk with the Chalk Rock and about 6 ft of Upper Chalk. Added note: Micraster cor testudinarium zone, Chalk Rock, Holaster planus zone.
GA012 P806210 Lime Kiln Quarry on the top of Charnage Hill. Excursion to Mere, April 26th 1916. Sections showing Middle Chalk with the Chalk Rock and about 6 ft of Upper Chalk.
GA012 P806211 Lime Kiln Quarry on the top of Charnage Hill. Excursion to Mere, April 26th 1916. Added note: Upper Chalk, Chalk Rock, Middle Chalk.
GA012 P806212 Lime Kiln Quarry on the top of Charnage Hill. Excursion to Mere, April 26th 1916. Added note: Upper Chalk, Chalk Rock, Middle Chalk.
GA012 P806213 Settle from the Mains Field from N.E. Settle Excursion. Added note: Railway viaduct, The town.
GA012 P806214 Settle from the Mains Field from N.E. Settle Excursion. Added note: High Hill, The Banks, Castleburgh.
GA012 P806215 Settle from the S.W. Settle Excursion. Added note: Ingleborough, Smearside, Castleburgh, Penyghent, High Hill.
GA012 P806216 Settle from the South. Settle Excursion.
GA012 P806217 The Ribble at Settle. Settle Excursion.
GA012 P806218 Settle from Castleburgh. Settle Excursion. Added note: Giggleswick School.
GA012 P806219 Settle Excursion.
GA012 P806220 Horton in Ribblesdale. Settle Excursion. Penyghent from the West.
GA012 P806221 Horton in Ribblesdale. Settle Excursion. Penyghent from above Thund Pot.
GA012 P806222 Horton in Ribblesdale. Settle Excursion. Penyghent from the moor. Thund Pot in hollow on right.
GA012 P806223 Thirl Pot. Settle Excursion. Bed of the beck that feeds the Pot. In ordinary times the water that runs along this course is lost down swallow holes in its bed and only falls over the edge after very rainy weather.
GA012 P806224 Thirl Pot. Settle Excursion. In the North East corner is a cave where the water can be heard dashing down a subterranean waterfall.
GA012 P806225 Thirl Pot. Settle Excursion. In very wet weather or after a storm the water from the beck falls over the edge on the right and bringing down pebbles in its course strews them over the bottom of the pot.
GA012 P806226 Thirl Pot. Settle Excursion. Occasionally after a severe continuance of rain the underground passages are unable to carry away the water and the pot fills up, it being said locally 'to boil over'.
GA012 P806227 Horton in Ribblesdale. Settle Excursion. During times of intense rain and flood, Hull Pot after filling up and 'boiling over' is unable to carry away all the water that comes down?.
GA012 P806228 Horton in Ribblesdale. Settle Excursion. ..from the hills. It then follows the old bed of its ancient course and along this now dry valley where over the edges of..
GA012 P806229 Horton in Ribblesdale. Settle Excursion. ..these cliffs it descends by various steps to the lowest level and finally makes..
GA012 P806230 Horton in Ribblesdale. Settle Excursion. ..its way along this valley until it enters Douk Ghyll where it falls from the upper corner of its scar.
GA012 P806231 Horton in Ribblesdale. Settle Excursion. Weathered limestone at foot of Penyghent. This limestone is affected by the weather much more than the other rocks of this district and from their condition it is seen that the whole of the limestone surface of the hill has been weathered away to a depth of from two to four feet.
GA012 P806232 Horton in Ribblesdale. Settle Excursion. Weathered limestone at foot of Penyghent. This limestone is affected by the weather much more than the other rocks of this district and from their condition it is seen that the whole of the limestone surface of the hill has been weathered away to a depth of from two to four feet.
GA012 P806233 Horton in Ribblesdale. Settle Excursion. Interior of a water sink or Pot. This limestone having many joints or cracks allows the water draining from the boggy ground above to run through. The water having humic and carbonic acid in solution widens the joints and so allows the water to sink down and emerges at the base of the scar instead of falling over the top.
GA012 P806234 Horton in Ribblesdale. Settle Excursion. A 'scar' below Penyghent. This limestone having many joints or cracks allows the water draining from the boggy ground above to run through. The water having humic and carbonic acid in solution widens the joints and so allows the water to sink down and emerges at the base of the scar instead of falling over the top. Added note: water issues here.
GA012 P806235 Thund Pot. Settle Excursion. The face down which the beck falls. This pot on the flank of Penyghent is of great depth (about 200 feet) and consists of one pot within another.
GA012 P806236 Thund Pot. Settle Excursion. Interior of Thund Pot.
GA012 P806237 Thund Pot. Settle Excursion. The main pot is about 60 feet wide and the oval chasm which receives the water is 15 feet by 6 feet.
GA012 P806238 Thund Pot. Settle Excursion. The water descending this pot reappears near Horton as the Bransgill Beck.
GA012 P806239 Horton in Ribblesdale. Settle Excursion. Bransgill Beck. The water which forms this beck or brook is obtained from the moors by Penyghent. The water descends Thund Pot and reappears at Bransgill.
GA012 P806240 Horton in Ribblesdale. Settle Excursion. Bransgill Beck. The water which forms this beck or brook is obtained from the moors by Penyghent. The water descends Thund Pot and reappears at Bransgill.
GA012 P806241 Horton in Ribblesdale. Settle Excursion. Douk Beck. This water also coming from the same district descends Thirl Pot and in its course crosses diagonally the Thund Pot water in its subterranean journey and reappears at Douk Gill.
GA012 P806242 Horton in Ribblesdale. Settle Excursion. Douk Beck. This water also coming from the same district descends Thirl Pot and in its course crosses diagonally the Thund Pot water in its subterranean journey and reappears at Douk Gill.
GA012 P806243 Arco Wood Quarry. Settle Excursion. In this quarry the Carboniferous Limestone is seen resting unconformably on the Horton Flags. These Flags are sandy mudstones with interbedded grits passing down into more shaly beds in the Austwick Grits. Added note: Carboniferous Limestone, Bedding, Horton Flags.
GA012 P806244 Arco Wood Quarry. Settle Excursion. In this quarry the Carboniferous Limestone is seen resting unconformably on the Horton Flags. These Flags are sandy mudstones with interbedded grits passing down into more shaly beds in the Austwick Grits.
GA012 P806245 Arco Wood Quarry. Settle Excursion. The cleavage divides the beds into large slabs which are much used for gate posts and wall building.
GA012 P806246 Arco Wood Quarry. Settle Excursion. The cleavage divides the beds into large slabs which are much used for gate posts and wall building.
GA012 P806247 Carboniferous limestone quarry at Arco Wood. Settle Excursion. This quarry shows a fine section of the D2 Beds of the Carboniferous limestone. The Carboniferous limestone is divided into two great divisions of which this is the Upper or Kidwellian and belonging to the Dibunophyllum zone. This representing the upper part of that zone or subzone of Lonsdalia, known as D2.
GA012 P806248 Carboniferous limestone quarry at Arco Wood. Settle Excursion. This quarry shows a fine section of the D2 Beds of the Carboniferous limestone. The Carboniferous limestone is divided into two great divisions of which this is the Upper or Kidwellian and belonging to the Dibunophyllum zone. This representing the upper part of that zone or subzone of Lonsdalia, known as D2.
GA012 P806249 Section of Austwick Flags at Helwith Bridge. Settle Excursion. Here is seen the lines of bedding called by the workmen 'rives' which determine the thickness of the flags and the joints called 'backs' which decide their area. 15 feet by 15 feet is the largest slab that can be got. Owing to the 'bate' or line of cleavage the ends have to be sawn off. [Diagram with A, B, C, D] AB line of rive or bedding plane, AC is the bate or cleavage plane.
GA012 P806250 Section of Austwick Flags at Helwith Bridge. Settle Excursion. Here is seen the lines of bedding called by the workmen 'rives' which determine the thickness of the flags and the joints called 'backs' which decide their area. 15 feet by 15 feet is the largest slab that can be got. Owing to the 'bate' or line of cleavage the ends have to be sawn off. [Diagram with A, B, C, D] AB line of rive or bedding plane, AC is the bate or cleavage plane.
GA012 P806251 Ribblehead. [Settle Excursion.] Park Fell and Ingleborough from Gearstones showing mass of limestone, the surrounding portions having weathered away.
GA012 P806252 Ribblehead. [Settle Excursion.] Gale Beck. The highest source of the Ribble flowing through a typical bare and wild limestone country.
GA012 P806253 Ribblehead. [Settle Excursion.] Thornes [Thorns] Ghyll. The Gale Beck after passing Gearstones flows on to Ribblehead where it takes the name of 'the Ribble' flowing in a south and south westerly direction to Preston.
GA012 P806254 Ribblehead. [Settle Excursion.] Thornes [Thorns] Ghyll. The Gale Beck after passing Gearstones flows on to Ribblehead where it takes the name of 'the Ribble' flowing in a south and south westerly direction to Preston.
GA012 P806255 Thornes [Thorns] Gill. [Settle Excursion.] The Gale Beck in making its way down into the valley has cut out a thoroughly typical limestone glen and is a good illustration of the power of a moorland stream in wearing away the limestone strata.
GA012 P806256 Thornes [Thorns] Gill. [Settle Excursion.] The Gale Beck in making its way down into the valley has cut out a thoroughly typical limestone glen and is a good illustration of the power of a moorland stream in wearing away the limestone strata.
GA012 P806257 Thornes [Thorns] Gill. [Settle Excursion.] In this short distance the glen shows us some nice examples of cascade, force, cliff, dell and cave and evidences of frequent flood.
GA012 P806258 Thornes [Thorns] Gill. [Settle Excursion.] In this short distance the glen shows us some nice examples of cascade, force, cliff, dell and cave and evidences of frequent flood.
GA012 P806259 Ling Ghyll [Gill]. [Settle Excursion.] Ling Gill Bridge. The Cam Beck which flows under this bridge rises on Cam Fell and a little way above Selside it joins the waters of the Gale Beck, the two streams thus uniting and forming the Ribble.
GA012 P806260 Ling Ghyll [Gill]. [Settle Excursion.] Ling Gill Bridge. The Cam Beck which flows under this bridge rises on Cam Fell and a little way above Selside it joins the waters of the Gale Beck, the two streams thus uniting and forming the Ribble.
GA012 P806261 Ling Ghyll [Gill]. [Settle Excursion.] Bed of the Cam Beck showing potholes. On Cam Fell where this stream rises is another stream within a few yards flowing in the opposite direction. This water running into the Irish Sea and the other into the North Sea.
GA012 P806262 Ling Ghyll [Gill]. [Settle Excursion.] The Ravine in Ling Gill (or Ghyll). The Cam Beck has cut one of the finest ravines in this district, some of its crags being nearly 300 feet above the water.
GA012 P806263 Chapel Le Dale. [Settle Excursion.] Ingleborough from Chapel le Dale. This is the chief of the Whernside group of hills which include Whernside, Ingleborough and Penyghent. Its height is 2373 feet and its base between 20 and 30 miles in circumference. The mass if of limestone (Carboniferous) resting on Silurian slates and capped by Yoredale rocks and Millstone Grit.
GA012 P806264 Chapel Le Dale. [Settle Excursion.] Ingleborough from Weathercote. This is the chief of the Whernside group of hills which include Whernside, Ingleborough and Penyghent. Its height is 2373 feet and its base between 20 and 30 miles in circumference. The mass if of limestone (Carboniferous) resting on Silurian slates and capped by Yoredale rocks and Millstone Grit.
GA012 P806265 Chapel Le Dale. [Settle Excursion.] Weathercote Cave. In the district between Whernside and Blea Moor the water draining from the high ground forms Little Dale Beck. This stream loses itself through fissures. On its underground journey is seen a large Pot or Cave whose roof has fallen in and where the stream emerges from beneath a cliff and falls in a beautiful force 75 feet in depth. Immediately over the top of the fall a great lump of fallen rock hangs caught and firmly fixed between the two sides of the opening. This is popularly known as 'Mahomets Coffin'.
GA012 P806266 Chapel Le Dale. [Settle Excursion.] Weathercote Cave. In the district between Whernside and Blea Moor the water draining from the high ground forms Little Dale Beck. This stream loses itself through fissures. On its underground journey is seen a large Pot or Cave whose roof has fallen in and where the stream emerges from beneath a cliff and falls in a beautiful force 75 feet in depth. Immediately over the top of the fall a great lump of fallen rock hangs caught and firmly fixed between the two sides of the opening. This is popularly known as 'Mahomets Coffin'.
GA012 P806267 Chapel Le Dale. [Settle Excursion.] The stream seen at Weathercote Cave after flowing for about a mile in a subterranean bed issues from crevices in the limestone, this being known as God's Bridge.
GA012 P806268 Chapel Le Dale. [Settle Excursion.] Raven Scar. On the Eastern side of the Hawes and Ingleton road is seen the fine section of Carboniferous limestone known as Raven Scar.
GA012 P806269 Chapel Le Dale. [Settle Excursion.] Twisleton Scar. On the Western side of the Hawes and Ingleton road beyond the beck the face is of Carboniferous limestone and goes by the name of Twisleton Scar.
GA012 P806270 Chapel Le Dale. [Settle Excursion.] Twisleton Scar End. The Twisleton Scars on the edge of Scales Moor forms a spur of Whernside and divide the two valleys of the 'Doe or Dale Beck' and the 'Twiss or Thornton Beck'.
GA012 P806271 Ravenscar. Chapel le Dale. Settle Excursion. The valley of the Doe or The Dale as it is usually known is a slightly concave valley about 3 miles long with a long line of white limestone scars rising to a height of 1300 or 1400 feet above sea level. They occur more or less in terraces one a little behind the other the topmost one being about 700 feet above the river.
GA012 P806272 Ravenscar. Chapel le Dale. Settle Excursion. The valley of the Doe or The Dale as it is usually known is a slightly concave valley about 3 miles long with a long line of white limestone scars rising to a height of 1300 or 1400 feet above sea level. They occur more or less in terraces one a little behind the other the topmost one being about 700 feet above the river.
GA012 P806273 Ravenscar. Chapel le Dale. Settle Excursion. Cave below Ravenscar North of Dale Barn East side of Chapel le Dale. The rain falling on the plateau above the scars finds its way along joints and descends to the base of the Mountain Limestone eating out channels in the underlying schists and forming caves in the vertical schists as well as in the limestone. The Green Slates are Precambrian - Ingleton Series.
GA012 P806274 Ravenscar. Chapel le Dale. Settle Excursion. Cave below Ravenscar North of Dale Barn East side of Chapel le Dale. The rain falling on the plateau above the scars finds its way along joints and descends to the base of the Mountain Limestone eating out channels in the underlying schists and forming caves in the vertical schists as well as in the limestone. The Green Slates are Precambrian - Ingleton Series. Added note: Grey limestone, Limestone with fragments of green slates, Green Slate series in a vertical position.
GA012 P806275 Easegill Force. [Settle Excursion.] Jenkins Beck is a small stream flowing from East to West a little South of Ingleton. At some time in its history it was an underground river but in the coarse of time the cave was worn away so that the roof was destroyed, thus forming a beautiful ravine with precipitous sides. A massive bar of rock forming a solid natural bridge spans the chasm down which the water falls a depth of about 30 feet and known as Easegill Force. .
GA012 P806276 Easegill Force. [Settle Excursion.] Jenkins Beck is a small stream flowing from East to West a little South of Ingleton. At some time in its history it was an underground river but in the coarse of time the cave was worn away so that the roof was destroyed, thus forming a beautiful ravine with precipitous sides. A massive bar of rock forming a solid natural bridge spans the chasm down which the water falls a depth of about 30 feet and known as Easegill Force. .
GA012 P806277 Easegill Force. [Settle Excursion.] Jenkins Beck is a small stream flowing from East to West a little South of Ingleton. At some time in its history it was an underground river but in the coarse of time the cave was worn away so that the roof was destroyed, thus forming a beautiful ravine with precipitous sides. A massive bar of rock forming a solid natural bridge spans the chasm down which the water falls a depth of about 30 feet and known as Easegill Force. .
GA012 P806278 Easegill Force. [Settle Excursion.] Jenkins Beck is a small stream flowing from East to West a little South of Ingleton. At some time in its history it was an underground river but in the coarse of time the cave was worn away so that the roof was destroyed, thus forming a beautiful ravine with precipitous sides. A massive bar of rock forming a solid natural bridge spans the chasm down which the water falls a depth of about 30 feet and known as Easegill Force. .
GA012 P806279 Thornton or Kingsdale Beck. [Settle Excursion.] Swilla Bottom. The river here has many fine pools with a rocky bed and long stony rapids with walls towering to a height of 200 feet and more of Carboniferous limestone.
GA012 P806280 Thornton or Kingsdale Beck. [Settle Excursion.] Swilla Bottom. The river here has many fine pools with a rocky bed and long stony rapids with walls towering to a height of 200 feet and more of Carboniferous limestone.
GA012 P806281 Thornton or Kingsdale Beck. [Settle Excursion.] This stream crosses the two Craven faults, at Ingleton it flows over the Coal Measures then crosses a band of Carboniferous limestone at the Southern fault and at the Northern fault this limestone is brought against the Ordovician.
GA012 P806282 Thornton or Kingsdale Beck. [Settle Excursion.] Pecca. This stream crosses the two Craven faults, at Ingleton it flows over the Coal Measures then crosses a band of Carboniferous limestone at the Southern fault and at the Northern fault this limestone is brought against the Ordovician.
GA012 P806283 Pecca Falls. [Settle Excursion.] The ravine from the bridge. The beds of slate which are here exposed belong to the pre-Caradoc of the Ingleton series and are tilted at a very high angle so as to stand almost vertically. The slate here is of a better quality than that in other parts of this district. It is a fine texture, greenish grey in colour, but often tinted with brown or purple shades. A non fossiliferous granular variety intervening between the beds as nodules or bands is known locally by the name of Galliard. The planes of cleavage are almost identical with those of the bedding.
GA012 P806284 Pecca Falls. [Settle Excursion.] The twin falls. The beds of slate which are here exposed belong to the pre-Caradoc of the Ingleton series and are tilted at a very high angle so as to stand almost vertically. The slate here is of a better quality than that in other parts of this district. It is a fine texture, greenish grey in colour, but often tinted with brown or purple shades. A non fossiliferous granular variety intervening between the beds as nodules or bands is known locally by the name of Galliard. The planes of cleavage are almost identical with those of the bedding.
GA012 P806285 Pecca Falls. [Settle Excursion.] The upper falls. The beds of slate which are here exposed belong to the pre-Caradoc of the Ingleton series and are tilted at a very high angle so as to stand almost vertically. The slate here is of a better quality than that in other parts of this district. It is a fine texture, greenish grey in colour, but often tinted with brown or purple shades. A non fossiliferous granular variety intervening between the beds as nodules or bands is known locally by the name of Galliard. The planes of cleavage are almost identical with those of the bedding.
GA012 P806286 Pecca Falls. [Settle Excursion.] Pecca slates. The beds of slate which are here exposed belong to the pre-Caradoc of the Ingleton series and are tilted at a very high angle so as to stand almost vertically. The slate here is of a better quality than that in other parts of this district. It is a fine texture, greenish grey in colour, but often tinted with brown or purple shades. A non fossiliferous granular variety intervening between the beds as nodules or bands is known locally by the name of Galliard. The planes of cleavage are almost identical with those of the bedding.
GA012 P806287 Thornton Force. [Settle Excursion.] After leaving the Pecca Falls, the beck is seen to be running through comparatively open country with limestone hills around.
GA012 P806288 Thornton Force. [Settle Excursion.] This is a characteristic fall of the limestone country. The stream having cut its way through the upper part of a perpendicular wall of rock which still remains sheer on both sides.
GA012 P806289 Thornton Force. [Settle Excursion.] The limestone is here seen lying unconformably on the slate with a bed of conglomerate intervening and consisting of rolled Silurian pebbles.
GA012 P806290 Thornton Force. [Settle Excursion.] The fall is between 30 and 40 feet in height and owing to the disintegration of the conglomerate a shelf of rock has been formed behind the cascade, known as the Palace of the Water Nymph.
GA012 P806291 Ingleton. [Settle Excursion.] The Ingleton great limestone quarry is situated on the western side of the Doe or Dale Beck. This is interesting as showing the mass of Carboniferous limestone brought in between the two Craven faults. On the south the Coal Measures are brought against the limestone while at the North fault the limestone is seen to adjoin the Precambrian slates.
GA012 P806292 Ingleton. [Settle Excursion.] The Ingleton great limestone quarry is situated on the western side of the Doe or Dale Beck. This is interesting as showing the mass of Carboniferous limestone brought in between the two Craven faults. On the south the Coal Measures are brought against the limestone while at the North fault the limestone is seen to adjoin the Precambrian slates.
GA012 P806293 Ingleton. [Settle Excursion.] This excavation exposes a remarkable section of a patch of coal with its underclay resting evenly upon Carboniferous limestone which also in a brecciated form covers the eroded surface. This appears to be very difficult to explain but Dr. Marr thinks that it may be a portion of the Coal Measures forced into the limestone as a thrust plane during the movement producing the South Craven Fault.
GA012 P806294 Ingleton. [Settle Excursion.] This excavation exposes a remarkable section of a patch of coal with its underclay resting evenly upon Carboniferous limestone which also in a brecciated form covers the eroded surface. This appears to be very difficult to explain but Dr. Marr thinks that it may be a portion of the Coal Measures forced into the limestone as a thrust plane during the movement producing the South Craven Fault. Added note: Limestone, N. Fault line, Precambrian slates, Line of N. fault.
GA012 P806295 Ingleton. [Settle Excursion.] Northern face of quarry on the Eastern bank of the Ingleton or Dale Beck. The Ingleton Green Slates and Grits cover a considerable area on the floor of the valley of Chapel-le-Dale to the North of the northern branch of the Craven Fault. This southernmost band is continued into Kingsdale where it has been quarried on the Western side of the stream close to Pecca Bridge.
GA012 P806296 Ingleton. [Settle Excursion.] Northern face of quarry on the Eastern bank of the Ingleton or Dale Beck. The Ingleton Green Slates and Grits cover a considerable area on the floor of the valley of Chapel-le-Dale to the North of the northern branch of the Craven Fault. This southernmost band is continued into Kingsdale where it has been quarried on the Western side of the stream close to Pecca Bridge.
GA012 P806297 Ingleton. [Settle Excursion.] These slates are far older than the Ordovician and from their internal evidence they wil no doubt be found to be one of the Precambrian groups, the Torridonian or Longmyndian. Added note: Eastern face.
GA012 P806298 Ingleton. [Settle Excursion.] Southern face of slate in quarry near fault on Eastern side of the Ingleton or Dale Beck. These slates are far older than the Ordovician and from their internal evidence they wil no doubt be found to be one of the Precambrian groups, the Torridonian or Longmyndian.
GA012 P806299 Ingleton. [Settle Excursion.] View looking South-west from entrance of gorge of the Ingleton or Dale Beck. The North Craven Fault running N. East and S. West in middle foreground. Added note: Carb. Limestone, Fault, Precambrian slates.
GA012 P806300 Ingleton. [Settle Excursion.] Falls above the Cat Leap on stream running over the limestone on the Craven Fault to join the Dale Beck.
GA012 P806301 Ingleton. [Settle Excursion.] Pecca Bridge over the Troiss or Thornton Beck showing the same band of slates as in the view above.
GA012 P806302 Ingleton. [Settle Excursion.] Rapids on Dale Beck over the Precambrian slates Ingleton.
GA012 P806303 Ingleton. [Settle Excursion.] Backstone Ghyll Gorge. The Dale Beck has a very rapid fall and the vertical beds of grits and slates has been cut by it into long deep gorges through which the river runs with considerable rapidity. The rocks on either side rising to a height of 50 or 60 ft. The effect of the Craven Fault is seen here to great advantage as not a fragment of limestone remains on this portion of the slate embanked river.
GA012 P806304 Ingleton. [Settle Excursion.] Backstone Ghyll Gorge. The Dale Beck has a very rapid fall and the vertical beds of grits and slates has been cut by it into long deep gorges through which the river runs with considerable rapidity. The rocks on either side rising to a height of 50 or 60 ft. The effect of the Craven Fault is seen here to great advantage as not a fragment of limestone remains on this portion of the slate embanked river.
GA012 P806305 Ingleton. [Settle Excursion.] Backstone Ghyll Gorge. The Dale Beck has a very rapid fall and the vertical beds of grits and slates has been cut by it into long deep gorges through which the river runs with considerable rapidity. The rocks on either side rising to a height of 50 or 60 ft. The effect of the Craven Fault is seen here to great advantage as not a fragment of limestone remains on this portion of the slate embanked river.
GA012 P806306 Ingleton. [Settle Excursion.] Backstone Ghyll Gorge. The Dale Beck has a very rapid fall and the vertical beds of grits and slates has been cut by it into long deep gorges through which the river runs with considerable rapidity. The rocks on either side rising to a height of 50 or 60 ft. The effect of the Craven Fault is seen here to great advantage as not a fragment of limestone remains on this portion of the slate embanked river.
GA012 P806307 Ingleton. Beezley Falls. [Settle Excursion.] Ingleton or Dale Beck. From this point on the North Craven Fault to Gods Bridge above the Beezley Falls is the extent of the Precambrian rocks - about 2 miles.
GA012 P806308 Ingleton. Beezley Falls. [Settle Excursion.] Triple Spout. In this 2 miles the stream has cut its bed over a series of rocks the upturned edges of which is 10000 ft thick.
GA012 P806309 Ingleton. Beezley Falls. [Settle Excursion.] The Lower Falls. Professor Bonney drew attention to the fragments of crystalline and gneissose rocks in these beds showing that the Archaean rocks from which this material was derived must have been close at hand, the fragments indicating a rapid deposition in shaller water. The Archaean massif being probably at no great depth.
GA012 P806310 Ingleton. Beezley Falls. [Settle Excursion.] Snow Falls. Professor Bonney drew attention to the fragments of crystalline and gneissose rocks in these beds showing that the Archaean rocks from which this material was derived must have been close at hand, the fragments indicating a rapid deposition in shaller water. The Archaean massif being probably at no great depth.
GA012 P806311 Scaleber Glen. [Settle Excursion.] Scaleber Glen lies on an elbow made by a sharp bend of the Craven Fault where the Carboniferous limestone is brought against the Millstone Grit.
GA012 P806312 Scaleber Glen. [Settle Excursion.] Scaleber Glen lies on an elbow made by a sharp bend of the Craven Fault where the Carboniferous limestone is brought against the Millstone Grit.
GA012 P806313 Scaleber Glen. [Settle Excursion.] Scaleber Force has a fall of about 40 feet over a scar of Carboniferous limestone.
GA012 P806314 Attermire. [Settle Excursion.] The Attermire Rocks owe their existence to the Craven Fault. The Southern Craven Fault runs from Ingleton through Clapham and Austwick to Settle forming the Giggleswick Scars. Thence it continues in a due easterly direction by these Attermire Scars through Malham and across Wharfedale and dying out on the moors between Pateley Bridge and Ripon.
GA012 P806315 Attermire. [Settle Excursion.] The Attermire Rocks owe their existence to the Craven Fault. The Southern Craven Fault runs from Ingleton through Clapham and Austwick to Settle forming the Giggleswick Scars. Thence it continues in a due easterly direction by these Attermire Scars through Malham and across Wharfedale and dying out on the moors between Pateley Bridge and Ripon.
GA012 P806316 Attermire. [Settle Excursion.] The limestone forming these scars consists of a hard compact series of calcareous beds mostly of a light grey or bluish colour without division by shales or clay. From a study of the zonal fossils Mr Cosmo Johns states that the limestone at the foot of these scars is practically at the base of the series.
GA012 P806317 Attermire. [Settle Excursion.] The limestone forming these scars consists of a hard compact series of calcareous beds mostly of a light grey or bluish colour without division by shales or clay. From a study of the zonal fossils Mr Cosmo Johns states that the limestone at the foot of these scars is practically at the base of the series.
GA012 P806318 Attermire. [Settle Excursion.] The Scars principally face the South West and the dip of the strata is about 10o towards the Northeast. The marshy ground in the foreground was once the beds of a tarn which probably gave the scar its name - utter or outer-mere.
GA012 P806319 Attermire. [Settle Excursion.] The Scars principally face the South West and the dip of the strata is about 10o towards the Northeast. The marshy ground in the foreground was once the beds of a tarn which probably gave the scar its name - utter or outer-mere.
GA012 P806320 Attermire. [Settle Excursion.] Stockdale Lane. Showing the line of fault. Here we have the limestones on the left forming abrupt cliffs or scars and the Millstone Grit forming rounded hills on the other.
GA012 P806321 Attermire. [Settle Excursion.] Stockdale Lane. Showing the line of fault. Here we have the limestones on the left forming abrupt cliffs or scars and the Millstone Grit forming rounded hills on the other. Added note: Rye Loaf Hill, 1794 ft.
GA012 P806322 Giggleswick Scars. [Settle Excursion.] Giggleswick Scars from Buckhaw Brow. This fine wall of rock for about a mile in length stretches in a slightly curved line from N.W. to S.E. The Millstone Grit (seen on the right) originally covered the limestone with the Yoredale Series between. Thus the displacement is considered to amount to about 3000 feet.
GA012 P806323 Giggleswick Scars. [Settle Excursion.] Giggleswick Scars from Buckhaw Brow. This fine wall of rock for about a mile in length stretches in a slightly curved line from N.W. to S.E. The Millstone Grit (seen on the right) originally covered the limestone with the Yoredale Series between. Thus the displacement is considered to amount to about 3000 feet.
GA012 P806324 Giggleswick Scars. [Settle Excursion.] The flat land at the foot of the Scars used formerly to be covered by a sheet of water. The tarn having no doubt existed from glacial times but about 80 years ago it was drained off and made into pasture land.
GA012 P806325 Giggleswick Scars. [Settle Excursion.] The flat land at the foot of the Scars used formerly to be covered by a sheet of water. The tarn having no doubt existed from glacial times but about 80 years ago it was drained off and made into pasture land.
GA012 P806326 Giggleswick. [Settle Excursion.] Millstone Grit forms these small hills while beyond the fault line rises the Limestone scars. Added note: Line of fault.
GA012 P806327 Giggleswick. [Settle Excursion.] Canoe found in the bed of the Giggleswick Tarn.
GA012 P806328 Giggleswick. [Settle Excursion.]
GA012 P806329 Giggleswick. [Settle Excursion.] Spring issuing from the base of the Giggleswick Scar.
GA012 P806330 Giggleswick Scars. [Settle Excursion.] This grand mass of limestone owes its appearance here to the South Craven Fault. The course of the road marking the line of fault.
GA012 P806331 Giggleswick Scars. [Settle Excursion.] This photograph was taken from the golf course which is on the Millstone Grit but the pavilion is on the Carboniferous Limestone.
GA012 P806332 Giggleswick Scars. [Settle Excursion.] The Ebbing and Flowing Well. About 1 1/2 miles from Settle at the foot of the Scar is the only well of its kind in England viz an intermittent spring. The ebb and flow has been observed from very early times and a great deal of tradition has grown up round it.
GA012 P806333 Giggleswick Scars. [Settle Excursion.] The Ebbing and Flowing Well. About 1 1/2 miles from Settle at the foot of the Scar is the only well of its kind in England viz an intermittent spring. The ebb and flow has been observed from very early times and a great deal of tradition has grown up round it.
GA012 P806334 Giggleswick. [Settle Excursion.] Ebbing and Flowing Well. The trough of the well is almost square being from front to back 34 from side to side 36 inches and 24 inches deep. The water from the spring enters from an opening at the back 10 inches long and 3 inches deep but in times of heavy rain it also comes in from the upper openings.
GA012 P806335 Giggleswick. [Settle Excursion.] Ebbing and Flowing Well. The trough of the well is almost square being from front to back 34 from side to side 36 inches and 24 inches deep. The water from the spring enters from an opening at the back 10 inches long and 3 inches deep but in times of heavy rain it also comes in from the upper openings.
GA012 P806336 Giggleswick. [Settle Excursion.] On each side of the trough there is an iron grating and 7 1/2 inches below the bars is a round hole 1 1/2 inches in diameter. These photographs show the ebb and flow. In the first and third the water is high and in 3 minutes after the second and fourth were taken showing the lower openings exposed. When working vigourously the water rises to the bars a distance of 7 1/2 inches.
GA012 P806337 Giggleswick. [Settle Excursion.] On each side of the trough there is an iron grating and 7 1/2 inches below the bars is a round hole 1 1/2 inches in diameter. These photographs show the ebb and flow. In the first and third the water is high and in 3 minutes after the second and fourth were taken showing the lower openings exposed. When working vigourously the water rises to the bars a distance of 7 1/2 inches.
GA012 P806338 Clapham. [Settle Excursion.] Entrance to the Ingleborough or Clapham Cave. This cave is situated at the foot of an imposing breast of rock about 70 or 80 feet high and has been known of know time immemorial. It has never been covered up by a bed of screes, as formerly a very great deal more water than is now the case issued from it and thus the low wide entrance was kept clear.
GA012 P806339 Clapham. [Settle Excursion.] Entrance to the Ingleborough or Clapham Cave. This cave is situated at the foot of an imposing breast of rock about 70 or 80 feet high and has been known of know time immemorial. It has never been covered up by a bed of screes, as formerly a very great deal more water than is now the case issued from it and thus the low wide entrance was kept clear.
GA012 P806340 Clapham. [Settle Excursion.] The large quantity of water that used to flow from the cave now flows out at a lower level a short distance away and forms this beck or stream.
GA012 P806341 Clapham. [Settle Excursion.] The water sink above Gaping Ghyll down which the water runs that flows through the cave and makes the stream seen in the previous print. Added note: Fissure down which the water flows.
GA012 P806342 Gaping Ghyll, Ingleborough. [Settle Excursion.] Gaping Ghyll. This is situated on the moors just below Ingleborough and is not easy to find but as Mr Jonhson says when you have found it you will probably say that is was only by a miracle that you did not walk into it.
GA012 P806343 Gaping Ghyll, Ingleborough. [Settle Excursion.] The Neck. This opening is partly enveloped by a steep bank which is level with the moor and the bottom is found at a depth of 360 feet.
GA012 P806344 Gaping Ghyll, Ingleborough. [Settle Excursion.] Bed of stream that has formed the pot. Springs having their origin on the side of Ingleborough and flood water from heavy rains flow down this coarse [course] and falling over the edge of the foreground disappear in the darkness of the pot.
GA012 P806345 Gaping Ghyll, Ingleborough. [Settle Excursion.] The Pot descends for about 270 feet and the [then] opens out into an immense chamber 450 feet long 130 ft wide and 100 feet high.
GA012 P806346 Trow Gyhll. [Settle Excursion.] The stream coming from Ingleborough and sinking down Gaping Ghyll is called the Fell Back. Ages ago this stream flowed right over where Gaping Ghyll is now (which was probably only a swallow hole or a subterranean pit but whose roof afterwards fell in) and dashed down this ravine forming a waterfall.
GA012 P806347 Trow Gyhll. [Settle Excursion.] The stream coming from Ingleborough and sinking down Gaping Ghyll is called the Fell Back. Ages ago this stream flowed right over where Gaping Ghyll is now (which was probably only a swallow hole or a subterranean pit but whose roof afterwards fell in) and dashed down this ravine forming a waterfall.
GA012 P806348 Trow Gyhll. [Settle Excursion.] The stream coming from Ingleborough and sinking down Gaping Ghyll is called the Fell Back. Ages ago this stream flowed right over where Gaping Ghyll is now (which was probably only a swallow hole or a subterranean pit but whose roof afterwards fell in) and dashed down this ravine forming a waterfall.
GA012 P806349 Trow Gyhll. [Settle Excursion.] The stream coming from Ingleborough and sinking down Gaping Ghyll is called the Fell Back. Ages ago this stream flowed right over where Gaping Ghyll is now (which was probably only a swallow hole or a subterranean pit but whose roof afterwards fell in) and dashed down this ravine forming a waterfall.
GA012 P806350 Trow Gyhll. [Settle Excursion.] In remote ages the volume of water which rushed down this ravine must in times of flood have presented a sublime spectable.
GA012 P806351 Trow Gyhll. [Settle Excursion.] But in course of time it found its way underground and instead of coming down as a waterfall it flowed from this cave.
GA012 P806352 Trow Gyhll. [Settle Excursion.] Later on, the ever widening Gaping Ghyll swallowed up all the water which eventually found a lower level reappearing at Clapham Cave and leaving this old over-ground course now quite dry.
GA012 P806353 Trow Gyhll. [Settle Excursion.] Later on, the ever widening Gaping Ghyll swallowed up all the water which eventually found a lower level reappearing at Clapham Cave and leaving this old over-ground course now quite dry.
GA012 P806354 Norber. [Settle Excursion.] Screes on Norber Brow. These screes are the effect of weather on the cliffs. They are the fragments that have during past ages been chipped from the face of the scars by the action of frost and the storms of winter.
GA012 P806355 Norber. [Settle Excursion.] Screes on Norber Brow. These screes are the effect of weather on the cliffs. They are the fragments that have during past ages been chipped from the face of the scars by the action of frost and the storms of winter.
GA012 P806356 Norber. [Settle Excursion.] Austwick from the South showing the high ground of Norber on the right.
GA012 P806357 Norber. [Settle Excursion.] Austwick Beck looking South West. The footbridge is made from slabs of Horton Flags (Silurian) quarried at Helwith Bridge.
GA012 P806358 Norber. [Settle Excursion.] Distant view of Austwick looking North. Norber lies between Clapdale and Crummackdale and one mile from Austwick being a Hill formed of Grey Limestone rising to 1330 ft.
GA012 P806359 Norber. [Settle Excursion.] Norber Brow showing Silurian Boulders. The peculiarity of this hill is the immense number of Silurian rock boulders that are scattered over this elevated plateau.
GA012 P806360 Norber. [Settle Excursion.] The edge of Norber Brow. The boulders lie on the lower plateau that looks across to Moughton and their colour being dark they show up very distinctly on the light limestone.
GA012 P806361 Norber. [Settle Excursion.] View from Norber showing in the foreground Silurian boulders. The bunch of trees in the centre indicate the spot where a spring breaks out at the base of the limestone.
GA012 P806362 Norber. [Settle Excursion.] During the Ice Age this district was covered with glaciers which tore up masses of rock from their parent beds and carried them for great distances.
GA012 P806363 Norber. [Settle Excursion.] The beds from which these Silurian boulders were torn was the ridge stretching across the valley from the Norber to the Moughton heights.
GA012 P806364 Norber. [Settle Excursion.] As these boulders effervesce with Hydrochloric Acid it shows that they belong to the calcareous beds of the Silurian and are referable to the Coniston-Bala series.
GA012 P806365 Norber. [Settle Excursion.] This ridge is thickly strewn with these boulders many being of enormous size and have been brought up 250 feet above their place of origin.
GA012 P806366 Norber. [Settle Excursion.] The largest blocks are about 18 feet in length and 7 to 9 ft in height and are strewn over this ground for about 3/4 of a mile. The largest is estimated to weigh 30 or 40 tons.
GA012 P806367 Norber. [Settle Excursion.] They are seen scattered at random on the verge of the plateau and the slopes below in queer positions and grotesque attitudes.
GA012 P806368 Norber. [Settle Excursion.] The larger number are very jagged and angular in form but many have been worn smooth and rounded and are found standing on little pedestals about 2 feet above the level of the ground.
GA012 P806369 Norber. [Settle Excursion.] These pedestals show that the limestone has been protected when it has been covered by the boulder but the remainder has been weathered down for that distance.
GA012 P806370 Norber. [Settle Excursion.] To explain why these Silurian rocks should be found above the Carboniferous limestone it has been suggested that the glacier passing down Crummuckdale [Crummackdale] and carrying these rocks frozen into it must have been driven over the shoulder of Norber by the ice sheet behind it and as the ice disappeared by melting it left these boulders stranded on the limestone plateau.
GA012 P806371 Norber. [Settle Excursion.] To explain why these Silurian rocks should be found above the Carboniferous limestone it has been suggested that the glacier passing down Crummuckdale [Crummackdale] and carrying these rocks frozen into it must have been driven over the shoulder of Norber by the ice sheet behind it and as the ice disappeared by melting it left these boulders stranded on the limestone plateau.
GA012 P806372 Malham. [Settle Excursion.] Malham Tarn. Owing to the Craven Fault the Silurian beds form a basin which collects the water and forms this solitary lake which is 3 miles in circumference and forms the largest sheet of water in Yorkshire. Added note: Carb. Limestone, Silurian, Carb. Limestone.
GA012 P806373 Malham. [Settle Excursion.] Malham Cove. This great precipice is on the upthrow side of the Craven Fault and is a magnificent example of the Spring Heads which recess the hills in the Carboniferous limestone.
GA012 P806374 Malham. [Settle Excursion.] This is considered to be the most beautiful if not highest piece of perpendicular limestone rock in the world being 288 feet from base to summit.
GA012 P806375 Malham. [Settle Excursion.] The Cove faces the South and forms a half circle. The water that formerly fell over the face now issues from a cave at the base and forms the source of the River Aire.
GA012 P806376 Malham. [Settle Excursion.] View of the former river bed above the Cove. Ages ago the water which flowed from Malham Tarn cut the river bed and fell over the edge of Malham Cove but it now travels by subterranian [subterranean] routes.
GA012 P806377 Malham. [Settle Excursion.] The valley below the Cove. The stream coming from the Cove unites with the Gordale Beck and another flowing from the west forms the River Aire which runs through Leeds.
GA012 P806378 Malham. [Settle Excursion.] On the high ground the limestone is always more or less weathered and shows the effect of rain and frost much more than the other rocks [a]round.
GA012 P806379 Malham. [Settle Excursion.] The joints have been widened into minature gorges and canyons which give a good illustration of the solvent power of carbonic acid in the water.
GA012 P806380 Jannets Foss. [Settle Excursion.] The Gordale Beck here plunges over a bed of hard limestone and the exposure of the hard water to the air has resulted in the formation of a fine tufa screen, behind which it is possible to enter a miniature Cave of the Winds. Tradition says that a tribe of fairies with Jannet or Gennet as the Queen used to meet here and thus gives it its name.
GA012 P806381 Jannets Foss. [Settle Excursion.] The Gordale Beck here plunges over a bed of hard limestone and the exposure of the hard water to the air has resulted in the formation of a fine tufa screen, behind which it is possible to enter a miniature Cave of the Winds. Tradition says that a tribe of fairies with Jannet or Gennet as the Queen used to meet here and thus gives it its name.
GA012 P806382 Goredale. [Settle Excursion.] This chasm is perhaps the most impressive piece of limestone scenery in Britain. The walls being 400 feet in height and on one side they overhang to extent of perhaps 20 feet.
GA012 P806383 Goredale. [Settle Excursion.] This chasm is perhaps the most impressive piece of limestone scenery in Britain. The walls being 400 feet in height and on one side they overhang to extent of perhaps 20 feet.
GA012 P806384 Goredale. [Settle Excursion.] This great chasm in the moutain was gradually formed by the slow and resistless power of running water charged with Carbonic Acid.
GA012 P806385 Goredale. [Settle Excursion.] At an early period this groge was a long cavern containing an underground stream but the roof has now fallen in.
GA012 P806386 Goredale. [Settle Excursion.] By its erosive and solvent action the water eats its way into the limestone thus showing how the roof of the cavern has been destroyed.
GA012 P806387 Goredale. [Settle Excursion.] A notable feature in this gorge is the occurrence of a bed of limestone in which there is a close set system of platy joints running in a direction parallel to the closely adjacent though invisible South Craven Fault. Added note: Limestone with platy joints.
GA012 P806388 Brimham Rocks. [Settle Excursion.] The Brimham Rocks occupy a moorland plateau about 60 acres in extent and are 990 feet above sea level, thus their name 'Brim' a high place and 'Ham' a dwelling.
GA012 P806389 Brimham Rocks. [Settle Excursion.] These rocks which are huge masses of stone some 20 to over 100 tons in weight are of every conceivable shape and are named after various animal and inanimate objects. Added note: The Frog and Tortoise.
GA012 P806390 Brimham Rocks. [Settle Excursion.] They are the remains of a thick bed of coarse sandstone or grit being the 'Third or Roaches grits' in the Middle Millstone Grit series and having a thickness of 100 to 300 feet.
GA012 P806391 Brimham Rocks. [Settle Excursion.] The beginning of the processes by which they have assumed their present shape was the time when the valley was formed and leaving this mural escarpment. Added note: The Druids writing table.
GA012 P806392 Brimham Rocks. [Settle Excursion.] These rocks show the wasting power of the atmosphere wonderfully well - the softer matter in the little laminations of the current bedding become an easy prey to frost, water, and the wind.
GA012 P806393 Brimham Rocks. [Settle Excursion.] The weather works out and enlarges the perpendicular hollows along the joints, and horizontal cavities along the bedding planes, and by rounding off the corners gives the mass the appearance of a stack of sacks.
GA012 P806394 Brimham Rocks. [Settle Excursion.] In other cases the process of subaerial denudation gradually finishes off the work by wearing away the bases and causing a slow but certain destruction of all the material that may be exposed. Added note: The Mushroom Rock.
GA012 P806395 Brimham Rocks. [Settle Excursion.] Those that are left are but the monuments showing the enormous amount that has been gradually broken up and carried away thus presenting a scene of rugged and unique grandeur.
GA012 P806396 Brimham Rocks. [Settle Excursion.] The Rhinoceros.
GA012 P806397 Brimham Rocks. [Settle Excursion.] The Idol Rock. This is the most wonderful of the weathered rocks in this group. Some persons have stoutly maintained that this was carved by the Druids from its peculiar shape but there is nothing to warrant it. It stands 20 feet high and 48 feet in circumference while its base rests on a pivot of only 12 inches in diameter.
GA012 P806398 Brimham Rocks. [Settle Excursion.] The Baboons Head.
GA012 P806399 Brimham Rocks. [Settle Excursion.] A stack. There have been no alterations in the forms of these masses during our historic period to any perceptible extent. It is conjectured that the rigours of the glacial period was the prime cause of their formation.
GA012 P806400 Brimham Rocks. [Settle Excursion.] The Cottage Loaf. Many of these rocks are covered with mosses and lichens and the tops covered with a peaty deposit on which is found little bunches of Heath or Ling.
GA012 P806401 Brimham Rocks. [Settle Excursion.] The Druids Head. Many of these rocks are covered with mosses and lichens and the tops covered with a peaty deposit on which is found little bunches of Heath or Ling.
GA012 P806402 Brimham Rocks. [Settle Excursion.] This shows a line of jointing which cuts through this group and has greatly helped the corroding blasts from the North Sea and the Atlantic to break them up.
GA012 P806403 Brimham Rocks. [Settle Excursion.] The Dancing Bear.
GA012 P806404 Brimham Rocks. [Settle Excursion.] As the height of the tallest of these masses is 20 feet, it shows that the whole of the surrounding strata has been denuded to that amount. Added note: The Idol Rock, Boat Rock, Yoke of Oxen.
GA012 P806405 Brimham Rocks. [Settle Excursion.] As the height of the tallest of these masses is 20 feet, it shows that the whole of the surrounding strata has been denuded to that amount. Added note: The Anvil, Cheese-wring.
GA012 P806406 Brimham Rocks. [Settle Excursion.] The Pivot Rock.