Editing Building stones of Edinburgh - an excursion

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The westernmost part of the Guardian Royal Exchange building (1940) has buff sandstone above its gabbro-faced lower storey. The origin of the sandstone was Heworthburn Quarries in the Millstone Grit from Felling. Durham. The eastern part of the same Guardian Royal Exchange building at the end of George Street continues the black Bon Accord Ht ground floor level with Creetown light grey granite above.
 
The westernmost part of the Guardian Royal Exchange building (1940) has buff sandstone above its gabbro-faced lower storey. The origin of the sandstone was Heworthburn Quarries in the Millstone Grit from Felling. Durham. The eastern part of the same Guardian Royal Exchange building at the end of George Street continues the black Bon Accord Ht ground floor level with Creetown light grey granite above.
  
The Scottish Widows' Fund & Life Assurance and Manpower Service's building (1962) next door, is once again faced with black Bon Accord which continues inside the building in the entrance hall where it is used together with Carrara marble. The upper part of the outside of this building is clad in Derbydene Carboniferous limestone. a grey fossiliferous stone from Matlock in Derbyshire. Large bivalve shells cn be seen even from street level.
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The Scottish Widows' Fund & Life Assurance and Manpower Service's building (1962) next door. is once again faced with black Bon Accord which continues inside the building in the entrunce hall where it is used together with Carrara marble. The upper part of the outside of this building is clad in Derbydene Carboniferous limestone. a grey fossiliferous stone from Matlock in Derbyshire. Large biv~llve shells CHn be seen even from street level.
  
The Standard Life Assurance building (1901) has a large frontage on the corner with the north side of George Street, built of a pale yellow sandstone, polished at ground level, rusticated up to the first cornice and polished above that. The stone is likely to have come from Northumberland and the newer part of the building fronting the square has a sandstone facing, perhaps from Blaxter.
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The Standard Life Assurance building (1901) has a large frontage on the corner with the north side of George Street. built of a pale yellow sandstone. polished at ground level. rusticated up to the first cornice and polished above that. The stone is likely to have come from Northumberland and the newer part of the building fronting the square has a sandstone facing, perhaps from Blaxter.
  
In the centre of the square the monument to Henry Dundas, Viscount Melville was completed in 1821 in Cullalo sandstone. with the statue added in 1828.
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In the centre of the square the monument to Henry Dundas. Viscount Melville was completed in 1821 in Cullalo sandstone. with the statue added in 1828.
  
 
==== St. Andrew Square-north side ====
 
==== St. Andrew Square-north side ====
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The first six houses are original, built between 1770 and 1775, though much altered. No. 21 has a droved ashlar west gable with the basement partly coursed rubble and a front refaced in polished ashlar with an added Doric porch. No. 22 has coursed rubble below, coarsed, squared rubble above and an added Corinthian porch. No. 23 is in greyer polished sandstone with an Ionic porch. No. 24 has yellow sandstone and a Doric porch. No. 25 has a porch in Blaxter-type sandstone, added in 1964. The walls are stuccoed as they would have been when the house was first built. No. 26 shows the original random rubble.
 
The first six houses are original, built between 1770 and 1775, though much altered. No. 21 has a droved ashlar west gable with the basement partly coursed rubble and a front refaced in polished ashlar with an added Doric porch. No. 22 has coursed rubble below, coarsed, squared rubble above and an added Corinthian porch. No. 23 is in greyer polished sandstone with an Ionic porch. No. 24 has yellow sandstone and a Doric porch. No. 25 has a porch in Blaxter-type sandstone, added in 1964. The walls are stuccoed as they would have been when the house was first built. No. 26 shows the original random rubble.
  
The Scottish Equitable building (1899) replaced the other houses in this row, using characteristic purplish grey Doddington sandstone.
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The Scottish Equitable building (1899) replaced the other houses in this row. using characteristic purplish grey Doddington sandstone.
  
 
==== Queen Street ====
 
==== Queen Street ====
  
The National Portrait Gallery (1890). reached down North St. Andrew Street. was the first large building in Edinburgh to use New Red Sandstone, quarried from Moat near Carlisle and Corsehill at Annan. The main walls are in regular, coursed. rock-faced rubble. while the flanking buttresses. window dressings and doors are of polished ashlar in which dune-bedding can be seen. The paired windows on the first floor level have grey coarse-grained granite pillars in the arches. The red sandstone has suffered from erosion and has been necessary to remove the corner spirelets. The restoration. due to be completed by 1991, includes rebuilding the spirelets using red sandstone saved from a former Caledonian Railway viaduct in Leith and from the specially re-opened Corsehill Quarry.
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The National Portrait Gallery (1890). reached down North St. Andrew Street. was the first large building in Edinburgh to use New Red Sandstone. quarried from Moat near Carlisle and Corsehill at Annan. The main walls are in regular. coursed. rock-faced rubble. while the flanking buttresses. window dressings and doors are of polished ashlar in which dune-bedding can be seen. The paired windows on the first floor level have grey coarse-grained granite pillars in the arches. The red sandstone has suffered from erosion and has been necessary to remove the corner spirelets. The restoration. due to be completed by 1991. includes rebuilding the spirelets using red sandstone saved from a former Caledonian Railway viaduct in Leith and from the specially re-opened Corsehill Quarry.
  
 
==== St. Andrew Square-east side ====
 
==== St. Andrew Square-east side ====
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No. 35 and No. 36 were built as a pavilion for Dundas House from a polished light micaceous sandstone. full of black silty streaks or feaks.
 
No. 35 and No. 36 were built as a pavilion for Dundas House from a polished light micaceous sandstone. full of black silty streaks or feaks.
  
Dundas House (1774). now head office of the Royal Bank of Scotland, was built of Hailes Sandstone from Redhall Quarry as a private house for Sir Laurence Dundas. A feature of this house is the remarkable domed ceiling over the main concourse of the bank. Outside, on the right of the building, weathering has picked out cross-lamination in the sandstone.
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Dundas House (1774). now head office of the Royal Bank of Scotland, was built of Hailes Sandstone from Redhall Quarry as a private house for Sir Laurence Dundas. A feature of this house is the remarkable domed ceiling over the main concourse of the bank. Outside. on the right of the building, weathering has picked out cross-lamination in the sandstone.
  
The Bank of Scotland building to the south. completed in 1852 for the British Linen Bank, is an elaborate structure in Binny Sandstone, rusticated up to balcony level.
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The Bank of Scotland building to the south. completed in 1852 for the British Linen Bank. is an elaborate structure in Binny Sandstone, rusticated up to balcony level.
  
The Royal Bank of Scotland next to it was originally the head office of the National Bank of Scotland (1936) and is faced up to the first floor level with a rusticated yellowish sandstone from Darney in the north of England. Along the base is a grey granite from Rubislaw, Aberdeen, containing felspar laths and large black xenoliths.
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The Royal Bank of Scotland next to it was originally the head office of the National Bank of Scotland (1936) and is faced up to the first floor level with a rusticated yellowish sandstone from Darney in the north of England. Along the base is a grey granite from Rubislaw. Aberdeen. containing felspar laths and large black xenoliths.
  
 
==== St. Andrew Square-south side ====
 
==== St. Andrew Square-south side ====
  
One of the most striking of the modern buildings in the square is the Scottish Provident Institution building (1961). which makes impressive use of a grey Italian gneiss, likely to have come from Novara.
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One of the most striking of the modern buildings in the square is the Scottish Provident Institution building (1961). which makes impressive use of a grey Italian gneiss. likely to have come from Novara.
  
 
On the south-cast corner of the square the former Prudential Office (1895) is faced with New Red Sandstone from Dumfriesshire while the lower part, up to the springers of the window arches uses Peterhead granite.
 
On the south-cast corner of the square the former Prudential Office (1895) is faced with New Red Sandstone from Dumfriesshire while the lower part, up to the springers of the window arches uses Peterhead granite.
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==== Princes Street-south side ====
 
==== Princes Street-south side ====
  
From the foot of South St. Andrew Street is an impressive view of the 60 m high Scott Monument (1846) built of Binny Sandstone and extensively restored in the 1970's using Permian sandstone from Clashach Quarry. Hopeman in Moray and a very little Blaxter stone. It stands tribute to the famous author, Sir Walter Scott, whose statue has been carved of Carrara marble by Sir John Steell.
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From the foot of South SI. Andrew Street is an impressive view of the 60 m high Scott Monument (1846) built of Binny Sandstone and extensively restored in the 1970's using Permian sandstone from Clashach Quarry. Hopeman in Moray and a very little Blaxter stone. It stands tribute to the famous author, Sir Walter Scott, whose statue has been carved of Carrara marble by Sir John Steell.
  
Also on the south side of Princes Street is the newly completed Waverley Market in pale grey flame-textured Portuguese granite, with large white felspars. This stone already shows signs of oxidation on the west side exposed to the weather.
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Also on the south side of Princes Street is the newly completed Waverley Market in pale grey flame-textured Portuguese granite. with large white felspars. This stone already shows signs of oxidation on the west side exposed to the weather.
  
 
==== Princes Street-east end ====
 
==== Princes Street-east end ====
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Robert Adam's Register House was begun in 1774. After careful examination of local building stones. Adam chose Craigleith Sandstone and Hailes Sandstone. Interruptions owing to cash shortage and the Napoleonic War delayed completion until 1834 by which time Binny Sandstone was in vogue. Cleaning in 1969 has revealed the yellowish appearance of the latter stone. The ashlar is rusticated to first floor level and polished above. Extensions in 1882 used sandstone from Longannet in Fife. The bronze statue of the Duke of Wellington by Steell rears up on a plinth of Peterhead granite.
 
Robert Adam's Register House was begun in 1774. After careful examination of local building stones. Adam chose Craigleith Sandstone and Hailes Sandstone. Interruptions owing to cash shortage and the Napoleonic War delayed completion until 1834 by which time Binny Sandstone was in vogue. Cleaning in 1969 has revealed the yellowish appearance of the latter stone. The ashlar is rusticated to first floor level and polished above. Extensions in 1882 used sandstone from Longannet in Fife. The bronze statue of the Duke of Wellington by Steell rears up on a plinth of Peterhead granite.
  
Across the street, the North British Railway Hotel was completed in 1902 in cream Prudham sandstone. a stone seen to better advantage in the distance in the recently cleaned Scotsman Building (1902) at the south end of the North Bridge.
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Across the street, the North British Railway Hotel was completed in 1902 in cream Prudham sandstone. a stone seen to better advantage in the distance in the recently cleaned Scotsman Building (1902) at the south end ofthe North Bridge.
  
The Renaissance style Post Office (1866) was originally built of Binny Sandstone, but has been enlarged twice. In 1890 the back, to the south, was doubled in the same stone, but purplish Doddington stone was used for an extension to the south-west and for another floor completed in 1909.
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The Renaissance style Post Office (1866) was originally built of Binny Sandstone. but has been enlarged twice. In 1890 the back. to the south. was doubled in the same stone. but purplish Doddington stone was used for an extension to the south-west and for another floor completed in 1909.
  
 
==== Waterloo Place-Regent Road ====
 
==== Waterloo Place-Regent Road ====
  
Almost all the stone for Waterloo Place (1822) came from Hailes Quarry. but many buildings have since been refaced with another sandstone. Waterloo Place connects Princes Street with Calton Hill across the ice-gouged Low Calton ravine by means of the Regent Bridge (1819), a Napoleonic War Memorial constructed in Craigmillar stone.
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Almost all the stone for Waterloo Place (1822) came from Hailes Quarry. but many buildings have since been refaced with another sandstone. Waterloo Place connects Princes Street with Calton Hill across the ice-gouged Low Calton ravine by means of the Regent Bridge (1819). a Napoleonic War Memorial constructed in Craigmillar stone.
  
The Governor's House is the only part of the old Calton Gaol still standing. It was built of Hermand sandstone from the Upper Oil Shale Group in West Lothian. St. Andrew's House, on the site of the rest of the Calton Gaol, was completed just before the Second World War, by which time little stone was quarried in Edinburgh. It was cheaper to transport polished sandstone from Darney as facing panels for this steel-framed building. Darney blends with other Edinburgh monuments and buildings and is resistant to grime. Fine light grey Creetown granite was chosen from the walls along Regent Road and for the mullions of the main staircase windows. Black Bon Accord granite was used for decorative work at other entrances and windows.
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The Governor's House is the only part of the old Calton Gaol still standing. It was built of Hermand sandstone from the Upper Oil Shale Group in West Lothian. St. Andrew's House, on the site of the rest of the Calton Gaol. was completed just before the Second World War. by which time little stone was quarried in Edinburgh. It was cheaper to transport polished sandstone from Darney as facing panels for this steel-framed building. Darney blends with other Edinburgh monuments and buildings and is resistant to grime. Fine light grey Creetown granite was chosen from the walls along Regent Road and for the mullions of the main staircase windows. Black Bon Accord granite was used for decorative work at other entrances and windows.
  
 
==== Calton Hill ====
 
==== Calton Hill ====

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