Editing Carboniferous (Namurian and Westphalian) of the Cliviger Valley, Todmorden - an excursion

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=== Locality 5 [SD 905 271] ===
 
=== Locality 5 [SD 905 271] ===
  
Coal Clough shows a sharp deviation in its course as it cuts down through a thin sandstone, the Ganister Rock. Several interesting features can be demonstrated at this outcrop which help us to understand Coal Measure deposition. The basal contact of the sandstone is erosive, cutting down into the shale (which here contains siderite nodules) for up to 40 cm. Clearly, sand deposition was preceded by an interval of erosion. Within the lower beds of sandstone there are large 'rafts' of coal, a few centimetres thick and up to 3 m wide. The coal does not represent ''in situ ''growth of plants as there are no roots developed beneath it. However the rafts are too large to have been carried far from their original site of formation. This sandstone probably accumulated in a river channel which was undercutting its peaty banks, causing large pieces to fall into the channel.
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Coal Clough shows a sharp deviation in its course as it cuts down through a thin sandstone, the Ganister Rock. Several interesting features can be demonstrated at this outcrop which help us to understand Coal Measure deposition. The basal contact of the sandstone is erosive, cutting down into the shale (which here contains siderite nodules) for up to 40 cm. Clearly, sand deposition was preceded by an interval of erosion. Within the lower beds of sandstone there are large 'rafts' of coal, a few centimetres thick and up to 3 m wide. The coal does not represent ''in situ ''growth of plants as there are no roots developed beneath it. However the rafts are too large to have been carried far from their original site of formation. This sandstone probably accumulated in a river channel which was undercutting its peaty banks, causing large pieces to fall into the channel.
  
 
=== Locality 6 [SD 904 273] ===
 
=== Locality 6 [SD 904 273] ===
  
If permission has been obtained at Coal Clough Farm, ascend the upper reaches of Coal Clough to where an impressive 100 m long cliff section displays a variety of Coal Measure shales. At the base of the cliff, the Lower Mountain Mine coal seam is developed with a sandstone rib at its centre. This is directly overlain by the Gastrioceras listeri Marine Band, which contains goniatites and several species of bivalve including the spectacular, radially ribbed ''Dunbarella papyracea. ''The marine band contains large bullions (carbonate concretions) which formed early in the burial history of the shale, thereby preserving the goniatites in an uncompacted state. Occasionally the chambers of the goniatites contain a viscous, green oil rather like ''Swarfega, ''presumably the decomposed remains of the goniatite animal itself.
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If permission has been obtained at Coal Clough Farm, ascend the upper reaches of Coal Clough to where an impressive i oo m long cliff section displays a variety of Coal Measure shales. At the base of the cliff, the Lower Mountain Mine coal seam is developed with a sandstone rib at its centre. This is directly overlain by the Gastrioceras listeri Marine Band, which contains goniatites and several species of bivalve including the spectacular, radially ribbed ''Dunbarella papyracea. ''The marine band contains large bullions (carbonate concretions) which formed early in the burial history of the shale, thereby preserving the goniatites in an uncompacted state. Occasionally the chambers of the goniatites contain a viscous, green oil rather like ''Swarfega, ''presumably the decomposed remains of the goniatite animal itself.
  
 
The following sections in Paul Clough can either be examined by returning to Locality 4 or, as described here, by crossing the moorland from Locality 6 to Stiperden House and walking downstream. The dip of the rocks in Paul Clough is rather steep which means that an exceptionally large amount of Namurian stratigraphy can be seen over a relatively short distance.
 
The following sections in Paul Clough can either be examined by returning to Locality 4 or, as described here, by crossing the moorland from Locality 6 to Stiperden House and walking downstream. The dip of the rocks in Paul Clough is rather steep which means that an exceptionally large amount of Namurian stratigraphy can be seen over a relatively short distance.

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