Editing Carboniferous miospore biostratigraphy of the North Sea

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Nomenclature of the biozones is made for ease of use and it avoids the binomial system usual for onshore Carboniferous miospore biozones. The bases of most of the North Sea biozones are defined by stratigraphical range tops, with the defining taxa occurring in the biozone below that which they define. As this may lead to some confusion, the biozones here are not named after miospore taxa, as is conventional, but are numbered sequentially. Standard practice determines that type sections need not be defined for biozones (Hedberg 1976) and these are not designated here. However, the North Sea biozones will be incorporated into a major review of European Carboniferous palynostratigraphy. Standard sections for pan-northwest European biozones will be provided in this new scheme (Clayton et al. 2003).
 
Nomenclature of the biozones is made for ease of use and it avoids the binomial system usual for onshore Carboniferous miospore biozones. The bases of most of the North Sea biozones are defined by stratigraphical range tops, with the defining taxa occurring in the biozone below that which they define. As this may lead to some confusion, the biozones here are not named after miospore taxa, as is conventional, but are numbered sequentially. Standard practice determines that type sections need not be defined for biozones (Hedberg 1976) and these are not designated here. However, the North Sea biozones will be incorporated into a major review of European Carboniferous palynostratigraphy. Standard sections for pan-northwest European biozones will be provided in this new scheme (Clayton et al. 2003).
  
Work by one author (DM) has allowed the recognition of limited and scattered independent (macropalaeontological) control points in cored sections, which provide some calibration of the palynological zonation. Miospore biozones have been determined for the whole of the Carboniferous that occurs in the northern and southern parts of the North Sea ([[:File:YGS_CHR_02_CARB_FIG_01.jpg|Figure 1]]), but the level of stratigraphical resolution of these is variable. To a large extent, stratigraphical resolution is determined by the number of well sections available for study reflecting the stratigraphical distribution of hydrocarbon targets and economic reservoirs. Most of the data are clustered in Westphalian strata (in the northern part of the Southern North Sea Basin ([[:File:YGS_CHR_02_CARB_FIG_05.jpg|Figure 5]]), with lesser amounts in mid- to late Dinantian strata (in the Outer Moray Firth Basin). Data from the Namurian are sufficient to allow a refined and robust biozonation, although data from the pre-Holkerian are provided by only a few well sections, mostly around the margins of the offshore Carboniferous basins. Palynostratigraphy of these older strata is further limited by the existence of Tournaisian sandstone-rich redbed facies (Buchan Formation of Cameron 1993a) which are commonly barren.
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Work by one author (DM) has allowed the recognition of limited and scattered independent (macropalaeontological) control points in cored sections, which provide some calibration of the palynological zonation. Miospore biozones have been determined for the whole of the Carboniferous that occurs in the northern and southern parts of the North Sea ([[:File:YGS_CHR_02_CARB_FIG_01.jpg|Figure 1]]), but the level of stratigraphical resolution of these is variable. To a large extent, stratigraphical resolution is determined by the number of well sections available for study reflecting the stratigraphical distribution of hydrocarbon targets and economic reservoirs. Most of the data are clustered in Westphalian strata (in the northern part of the Southern North Sea Basin ([[:File:YGS_CHR_02_CARB_FIG_05.jpg|Figure 5]]), with lesser amounts in mid- to late Dinantian strata (in the Outer Moray Firth Basin). Data from the Namurian are sufficient to allow a refined and robust biozonation, although data from the preHolkerian are provided by only a few well sections, mostly around the margins of the offshore Carboniferous basins. Palynostratigraphy of these older strata is further limited by the existence of Tournaisian sandstone-rich redbed facies (Buchan Formation of Cameron 1993a) which are commonly barren.
  
 
== 2. North Sea Carboniferous biozones ==
 
== 2. North Sea Carboniferous biozones ==

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