Editing Carboniferous miospore biostratigraphy of the North Sea

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[[File:YGS_CHR_02_CARB_FIG_06.jpg|thumbnail|Figure 6 Correlation of the North Sea Westphalian miospore biozones with the UK sector lithostratigraphy. No vertical scale implied.]]
 
[[File:YGS_CHR_02_CARB_FIG_06.jpg|thumbnail|Figure 6 Correlation of the North Sea Westphalian miospore biozones with the UK sector lithostratigraphy. No vertical scale implied.]]
  
'''By D. McLean, B. Owens, R. Neves'''
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By D. McLean, B. Owens, R. Neves
  
 
From: Pages 13–24 of ''Carboniferous hydrocarbon geology: the southern North Sea and surrounding onshore areas'', edited by J. D. Collinson, D. J. Evans, D. W. Holliday, N. S. Jones. Published as volume 7 in the Occasional Publications series of the Yorkshire Geological Society, © Yorkshire Geological Society 2005.
 
From: Pages 13–24 of ''Carboniferous hydrocarbon geology: the southern North Sea and surrounding onshore areas'', edited by J. D. Collinson, D. J. Evans, D. W. Holliday, N. S. Jones. Published as volume 7 in the Occasional Publications series of the Yorkshire Geological Society, © Yorkshire Geological Society 2005.
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The correlation of lithostratigraphical units between well sections is the fundamental palynostratigraphic methodology in hydrocarbon exploration. Claims that palynology provides only low-resolution biostratigraphy in the offshore Carboniferous (e.g. to stage level; Leeder et al. 1990b) are now seen as untenable (see [[:File:YGS_CHR_02_CARB_FIG_01.jpg|Figure 1]]). Correlation of miospore biozones now equals or exceeds the level of resolution achieved by most other Carboniferous fossil groups, with the notable exception of the ammonoids. Further, the framework provided by the biozones allows more detailed intra-biozonal correlations to be made. These may be based upon relatively short-lived palaeoclimatic or facies signals within the palynological data, or upon data from other disciplines such as geochemistry or wireline log analysis (Leeder et al. 1990b, Besly et al. 1993, Davies & McLean 1996, Pearce et al. 2005). Detailed analysis of closely sampled sections may allow the recognition of palynologically distinctive mud-stone or coal units. Correlation of these has provided the basis for detailed subdivision and correlation of Westphalian reservoir units (e.g. coal seam correlations in the Langsettian and Duckmantian of the Murdoch, Caister and Chiswick fields; and correlation of intra-reservoir units within the Murdoch–Caister reservoir sandstone unit). Case studies have been presented for the Murdoch field in McLean & Murray (1996) and McLean and Davies (1999), and for the Caister field in Ritchie & Pratsides (1993).
 
The correlation of lithostratigraphical units between well sections is the fundamental palynostratigraphic methodology in hydrocarbon exploration. Claims that palynology provides only low-resolution biostratigraphy in the offshore Carboniferous (e.g. to stage level; Leeder et al. 1990b) are now seen as untenable (see [[:File:YGS_CHR_02_CARB_FIG_01.jpg|Figure 1]]). Correlation of miospore biozones now equals or exceeds the level of resolution achieved by most other Carboniferous fossil groups, with the notable exception of the ammonoids. Further, the framework provided by the biozones allows more detailed intra-biozonal correlations to be made. These may be based upon relatively short-lived palaeoclimatic or facies signals within the palynological data, or upon data from other disciplines such as geochemistry or wireline log analysis (Leeder et al. 1990b, Besly et al. 1993, Davies & McLean 1996, Pearce et al. 2005). Detailed analysis of closely sampled sections may allow the recognition of palynologically distinctive mud-stone or coal units. Correlation of these has provided the basis for detailed subdivision and correlation of Westphalian reservoir units (e.g. coal seam correlations in the Langsettian and Duckmantian of the Murdoch, Caister and Chiswick fields; and correlation of intra-reservoir units within the Murdoch–Caister reservoir sandstone unit). Case studies have been presented for the Murdoch field in McLean & Murray (1996) and McLean and Davies (1999), and for the Caister field in Ritchie & Pratsides (1993).
  
The development of a higher-resolution miospore biozonation has also allowed more detailed lithostratigraphical interpretations. In particular, the recognition of biozone boundaries associated with some of the principal Westphalian marine bands provides a basis for refined correlations. Note that the Aegiranum, Maltby, Amaliae and Listeri marine bands are not associated with biozone boundaries in the scheme of Clayton et al. (1977), and the same is true for the Cambriense, Aegiranum, Maltby and Amaliae marine bands in the scheme of Maynard et al (1997; [[:File:YGS_CHR_02_CARB_FIG_01.jpg|Figure 1]]). In the current study, emphasis has been placed upon the relationship of palynostratigraphy to the distribution of marine bands, and biozone boundaries identified accordingly. This means that the present scheme has a relatively high-resolution correlation potential. Further, the stratal subdivisions that it provides are likely to be genetically related in a sequence stratigraphical or palaeoclimatological sense.
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The development of a higher-resolution miospore biozonation has also allowed more detailed lithostratigraphical interpretations. In particular, the recognition of biozone boundaries associated with some of the principal Westphalian marine bands provides a basis for refined correlations. Note that the Aegiranum, Maltby, Amaliae and Listeri marine bands are not associated with biozone boundaries in the scheme of Clayton et al. (1977), and the same is true for the Cambriense, Aegiranum, Maltby and Amaliae marine bands in the scheme of Maynard et al (1997; [[:File:YGS_CHR_02_CARB_FIG_01.jpg|Figure 1]]). In the current study, emphasis has been placed upon the relationship of palynostratigraphy to the distribution of marine bands, and biozone boundaries identified accordingly. This means that the present scheme has a relatively high-resolution correlation potential. Further, the stratal subdivisions that it provides are likely to be genetically related in a sequence strati-graphical or palaeoclimatological sense.
  
Application of the scheme in the area on the northern margin of the Southern North Sea Basin has allowed the recognition of a major intra-Westphalian unconformity. Here, sequences towards the centre of the basin preserve a more-or-less complete record of Langsettian, Duckmantian and early to mid-Bolsovian coal-bearing strata overlain by redbeds of late Bolsovian age. To the northeast, the strata immediately beneath the redbeds become older, although palynological evidence from the redbeds indicate that these remain of mid-Bolsovian age. Such age interpretations are difficult to reconcile with the lithostratigraphy of Cameron (1993b), but, in the lithostratigraphy of Besly (2002), the base of the Lower Ketch Formation unconformably overlies the Cleaver and Westoe formations (Figure 5). In well 44/21-3 (Pearce et al. 2005), the Lower Ketch Formation rests on early Bolsovian coal-bearing rocks of the Upper Cleaver Member (''sensu ''Besly 2002). Use of the new biozonation in wells slightly farther north indicates that strata above the horizon of the Aegiranum Marine Band are not preserved, and that the redbeds lie upon late Duckmantian strata. In wells still farther northeast the Ketch Formation shows progressive onlap of the early Duckmantian, Langsettian and Namurian. In such cases the base of the Ketch Formation is evident in the absence of several biozones across the unconformity (Pearce et al. 2005).
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Application of the scheme in the area on the northern margin of the Southern North Sea Basin has allowed the recognition of a major intra-Westphalian unconformity. Here, sequences towards the centre of the basin preserve a more-or-less complete record of Langsettian, Duckmantian and early to mid-Bolsovian coal-bearing strata overlain by redbeds of late Bolsovian age. To the northeast, the strata immediately beneath the redbeds become older, although palynological evidence from the red-beds indicate that these remain of mid-Bolsovian age. Such age interpretations are difficult to reconcile with the lithostratigraphy of Cameron (1993b), but, in the lithostratigraphy of Besly (2002), the base of the Lower Ketch Formation unconformably overlies the Cleaver and Westoe formations (Figure 5). In well 44/21-3 (Pearce et al. 2005), the Lower Ketch Formation rests on early Bolsovian coal-bearing rocks of the Upper Cleaver Member (''sensu ''Besly 2002). Use of the new biozonation in wells slightly farther north indicates that strata above the horizon of the Aegiranum Marine Band are not preserved, and that the red-beds lie upon late Duckmantian strata. In wells still farther northeast the Ketch Formation shows progressive onlap of the early Duckmantian, Langsettian and Namurian. In such cases the base of the Ketch Formation is evident in the absence of several biozones across the unconformity (Pearce et al. 2005).
  
 
The relationships of the Westphalian biozonation to the lithostratigraphic systems of Cameron (1993b) and Besly (2002) is shown in [[:File:YGS_CHR_02_CARB_FIG_06.jpg|Figure 6]]. Recognition of the biozones allows a level of calibration of the lithostratigraphic units. Importantly, the diachronous nature of the boundaries of the units defined by Cameron (1993b) become readily apparent where they cross biozone boundaries related to major marine bands, for example, where the biozones allow the discrimination of strata below the Aegiranum Marine Band (latest Duckmantian) from those of earliest Bolsovian age above that horizon.
 
The relationships of the Westphalian biozonation to the lithostratigraphic systems of Cameron (1993b) and Besly (2002) is shown in [[:File:YGS_CHR_02_CARB_FIG_06.jpg|Figure 6]]. Recognition of the biozones allows a level of calibration of the lithostratigraphic units. Importantly, the diachronous nature of the boundaries of the units defined by Cameron (1993b) become readily apparent where they cross biozone boundaries related to major marine bands, for example, where the biozones allow the discrimination of strata below the Aegiranum Marine Band (latest Duckmantian) from those of earliest Bolsovian age above that horizon.
  
Some of the boundaries of the lithostratigraphical units of Besly (2002) are defined by major marine bands that can be correlated with the palynostratigraphy ([[:File:YGS_CHR_02_CARB_FIG_01.jpg|Figure 1]]). Recognition of these marine bands, using palynological or other criteria, is key to accurate lithostratigraphic understanding of the Late Carboniferous of the North Sea.
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Some of the boundaries of the lithostratigraphical units of Besly (2002) are defined by major marine bands that can be correlated with the palynostratigraphy ([[:File:YGS_CHR_02_CARB_FIG_01.jpg|Figure 1]]). Recognition of these marine band, using palynological or other criteria, is key to accurate lithostratigraphic understanding of the Late Carboniferous of the North Sea.
  
 
=== 3.4 Low- to medium-resolution interwell correlation ===
 
=== 3.4 Low- to medium-resolution interwell correlation ===
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=== 3.7 Offshore to onshore comparisons ===
 
=== 3.7 Offshore to onshore comparisons ===
  
This study is based upon a wealth of palynostratigraphical data from offshore Carboniferous sections. Synthesis of these indicates similarities and differences between the palynology of the offshore and the onshore basins and shows areas in which the biostratigraphic subdivisions of the onshore Carboniferous strata may be improved. A few examples are given here. Stratigraphically restricted late Viséan palynomorph assemblages from the Forth Approaches Basin contain miospore taxa described from the Carboniferous of the present-day Arctic (Ravn 1991). These have been only rarely described from coeval strata on shore in the Midland Valley of Scotland (Turner & McLean 1999), but have correlation potential and may provide information on vegetation migration pathways and palaeoclimate. Secondly, many distinctive but undescribed miospore taxa are known from the offshore Carboniferous. Similarly, forms described from the Carboniferous of the United States that are rare in the onshore UK, may be relatively common off shore. The stratigraphical potential of these for European palynostratigraphic correlation is gradually becoming appreciated.
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This study is based upon a wealth of palynostratigraphical data from offshore Carboniferous sections. Synthesis of these indicates similarities and differences between the palynology of the offshore and the onshore basins and shows areas in which the biostratigraphic subdivisions of the onshore Carboniferous strata may be improved. A few examples are given here. Strati-graphically restricted late Viséan palynomorph assemblages from the Forth Approaches Basin contain miospore taxa described from the Carboniferous of the present-day Arctic (Ravn 1991). These have been only rarely described from coeval strata on shore in the Midland Valley of Scotland (Turner & McLean 1999), but have correlation potential and may provide information on vegetation migration pathways and palaeoclimate. Secondly, many distinctive but undescribed miospore taxa are known from the offshore Carboniferous. Similarly, forms described from the Carboniferous of the United States that are rare in the onshore UK, may be relatively common off shore. The stratigraphical potential of these for European palynostratigraphic correlation is gradually becoming appreciated.
  
 
== 4. Conclusions ==
 
== 4. Conclusions ==
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== References ==
 
== References ==
  
Besly, B. M. 2002. Late Carboniferous redbeds of the UK southern North Sea viewed in a regional context [abstract: pp. 17–19]. Paper presented at “Hydrocarbon resources of the Carboniferous, southern North Sea and surrounding onshore areas” conference, Yorkshire Geological Society, Sheffield, 2002. This volume: 225–226.  
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Besly, B. M. 2002. Late Carboniferous redbeds of the UK southern North Sea viewed in a regional context [abstract: pp. 17–19]. Paper presented at “Hydrocarbon resources of the Carboniferous, southern North Sea and surrounding onshore areas” conference, Yorkshire Geological Society, Sheffield, 2002. This volume: 225–226. Besly, B. M., S. D. Burley, P. Turner 1993. The late Carboniferous “Barren Red Bed” play of the Silver Pit area, southern North Sea. In ''Petroleum geology of northwest Europe: proceedings of the 4th conference'', J. R. Parker (ed.), 727–40. London: Geological Society. Bruce, D. R. S. & L. Stemmerik 2003. Carboniferous. In ''The millenium atlas: petroleum geology of the central and northern North Sea'', D. Evans, C. Graham, A. Armour, P. Bathurst (eds), 83–9. London: Geological Society.
 
 
Besly, B. M., S. D. Burley, P. Turner 1993. The late Carboniferous “Barren Red Bed” play of the Silver Pit area, southern North Sea. In ''Petroleum geology of northwest Europe: proceedings of the 4th conference'', J. R. Parker (ed.), 727–40. London: Geological Society.  
 
 
 
Bruce, D. R. S. & L. Stemmerik 2003. Carboniferous. In ''The millenium atlas: petroleum geology of the central and northern North Sea'', D. Evans, C. Graham, A. Armour, P. Bathurst (eds), 83–9. London: Geological Society.
 
  
 
Calver, M. A. 1968. Distribution of Westphalian marine faunas in northern England and adjoining areas. ''Yorkshire Geological Society, Proceedings ''37, 1–72.
 
Calver, M. A. 1968. Distribution of Westphalian marine faunas in northern England and adjoining areas. ''Yorkshire Geological Society, Proceedings ''37, 1–72.
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Higgs, K. T., G. Clayton, J. B. Keegan 1988. ''Stratigraphic and systematic palynology of the Tournaisian rocks of Ireland''. Special Paper 7, Geological Survey of Ireland, Dublin.
 
Higgs, K. T., G. Clayton, J. B. Keegan 1988. ''Stratigraphic and systematic palynology of the Tournaisian rocks of Ireland''. Special Paper 7, Geological Survey of Ireland, Dublin.
  
Leeder, M. R., S. R. Boldy, R. Raiswell, R. Cameron 1990a. The Carboniferous of the outer Moray Firth Basin, Quadrants 14 and 15, central North Sea. ''Marine and Petroleum Geology ''7, 29–37.  
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Leeder, M. R., S. R. Boldy, R. Raiswell, R. Cameron 1990a. The Carboniferous of the outer Moray Firth Basin, Quadrants 14 and 15, central North Sea. ''Marine and Petroleum Geology ''7, 29–37. Leeder, M. R., R. Raiswell, H. Al-Biatty, A. McMahon, M. Hardman 1990b. Carboniferous stratigraphy, sedimentation and correlation of well 48/3-3 in the Southern North Sea Basin: integrated use of palynology, natural gamma/sonic logs and carbon/sulphur geochemistry. ''Geological Society of London, Journal ''147, 287–300. Martin, C. A. L., P. A. Doubleday, S. A. Stewart 2002. Upper Carboniferous and Lower Permian tectonostratigraphy on the southern margin of the central North Sea. ''Geological Society of London, Journal ''159, 731–49.
 
 
Leeder, M. R., R. Raiswell, H. Al-Biatty, A. McMahon, M. Hardman 1990b. Carboniferous stratigraphy, sedimentation and correlation of well 48/3-3 in the Southern North Sea Basin: integrated use of palynology, natural gamma/sonic logs and carbon/sulphur geochemistry. ''Geological Society of London, Journal ''147, 287–300.  
 
 
 
Martin, C. A. L., P. A. Doubleday, S. A. Stewart 2002. Upper Carboniferous and Lower Permian tectonostratigraphy on the southern margin of the central North Sea. ''Geological Society of London, Journal ''159, 731–49.
 
  
 
Maynard, J. R. & R. E. Dunay 1999. Reservoirs of the Dinantian (Lower Carboniferous) play of the southern North Sea. In ''Petroleum geology of northwest Europe: proceedings of the 4th conference'', A. J. Fleet & S. A. R. Boldy (eds), 729–46. London: Geological Society.
 
Maynard, J. R. & R. E. Dunay 1999. Reservoirs of the Dinantian (Lower Carboniferous) play of the southern North Sea. In ''Petroleum geology of northwest Europe: proceedings of the 4th conference'', A. J. Fleet & S. A. R. Boldy (eds), 729–46. London: Geological Society.
  
Maynard, J. R, W. Hofmann, R. E. Dunay, P. N. Bentham, K. P. Dean, I. Watson 1997. The Carboniferous of western Europe: the development of a petroleum system. ''Petroleum Geoscience ''3, 97–115.  
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Maynard, J. R, W. Hofmann, R. E. Dunay, P. N. Bentham, K. P. Dean, I. Watson 1997. The Carboniferous of western Europe: the development of a petroleum system. ''Petroleum Geoscience ''3, 97–115. McLean, D. 1993. ''A palynostratigraphic classification of the Westphalian of the Southern North Sea Carboniferous Basin''. PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.
 
 
McLean, D. 1993. ''A palynostratigraphic classification of the Westphalian of the Southern North Sea Carboniferous Basin''. PhD thesis, University of Sheffield.
 
 
 
McLean, D. 1995a. A palynostratigraphic classification of the Westphalian of the Southern North Sea Carboniferous Basin [abstract]. Paper presented at “Stratigraphic advances in the offshore Devonian and Carboniferous rocks, UKCS and adjacent onshore areas” conference, Geological Society, London, 1995.
 
  
McLean, D. 1995b. Provenance of reworked palynomorphs from the Green-moor Rock (Langsettian, Late Carboniferous) near Sheffield, England. ''Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology ''89, 305–317.  
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Maynard, J. R, W. 1995a. A palynostratigraphic classification of the Westphalian of the Southern North Sea Carboniferous Basin [abstract]. Paper presented at “Stratigraphic advances in the offshore Devonian and Carboniferous rocks, UKCS and adjacent onshore areas” conference, Geological Society, London, 1995.
  
McLean, D. & J. I. Chisholm 1996. Reworked palynomorphs as provenance indicators in the Yeadonian of the Pennine Basin. ''Yorkshire Geological Society, Proceedings ''51, 141–51.
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Maynard, J. R, W. 1995b. Provenance of reworked palynomorphs from the Green-moor Rock (Langsettian, Late Carboniferous) near Sheffield, England. ''Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology ''89, 305–317. McLean, D. & J. I. Chisholm 1996. Reworked palynomorphs as provenance indicators in the Yeadonian of the Pennine Basin. ''Yorkshire Geological Society, Proceedings ''51, 141–51.
  
 
McLean, D. & S. J. Davies 1999. Constraints on the application of palynology to the correlation of Euramerican Late Carboniferous clastic hydrocarbon reservoirs. In ''Biostratigraphy in production and development geology'', R. W. Jones & M. D. Simmons (eds), 201– 218. Special Publication 152, Geological Society, London.
 
McLean, D. & S. J. Davies 1999. Constraints on the application of palynology to the correlation of Euramerican Late Carboniferous clastic hydrocarbon reservoirs. In ''Biostratigraphy in production and development geology'', R. W. Jones & M. D. Simmons (eds), 201– 218. Special Publication 152, Geological Society, London.
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Pearce, T. J., J. Martin, B. Besly, D. McLean 2002. Correlation of Coal Measures sequences from the Staffordshire coalfield based on the geochemical identification of marine bands – implications for the correlation of similar sequences in the southern North Sea [abstract: pp. 63–4]. Paper presented at “Hydrocarbon resources of the Carboniferous, southern North Sea and adjacent areas” conference'', ''Yorkshire Geological Society, Sheffield, 2002.
 
Pearce, T. J., J. Martin, B. Besly, D. McLean 2002. Correlation of Coal Measures sequences from the Staffordshire coalfield based on the geochemical identification of marine bands – implications for the correlation of similar sequences in the southern North Sea [abstract: pp. 63–4]. Paper presented at “Hydrocarbon resources of the Carboniferous, southern North Sea and adjacent areas” conference'', ''Yorkshire Geological Society, Sheffield, 2002.
  
Pearce, T. J., D. McLean, D. Wray, D. K. Wright, C. J. Jeans, E. W. Mearns 2005. Stratigraphy of the Upper Carboniferous Schooner Formation, southern North Sea: chemostratigraphy, mineralogy, palynology and Sm–Nd isotope analysis. This volume: 165–182.  
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Pearce, T. J., D. McLean, D. Wray, D. K. Wright, C. J. Jeans, E. W. Mearns 2005. Stratigraphy of the Upper Carboniferous Schooner Formation, southern North Sea: chemostratigraphy, mineralogy, palynology and Sm–Nd isotope analysis. This volume: 165–182. Ravn, R. L. 1991. ''Miospores from the Kekiktuk Formation (Lower Carboniferous), Endicott field area, Alaska North Slope''. Contribution 27, American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists,
 
 
Ravn, R. L. 1991. ''Miospores from the Kekiktuk Formation (Lower Carboniferous), Endicott field area, Alaska North Slope''. Contribution 27, American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists,
 
  
 
Riley, N. J. 1993. Dinantian (Lower Carboniferous) biostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy in the British Isles. ''Geological Society of London, Journal ''150, 427–46.
 
Riley, N. J. 1993. Dinantian (Lower Carboniferous) biostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy in the British Isles. ''Geological Society of London, Journal ''150, 427–46.
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Van de Laar, J. G. M. & W. J. J. Fermont 1990. The impact of marine transgressions on palynofacies: the Carboniferous Aegir Marine Band in borehole Kemperkoul-1. ''Mededelingen Rijks Geologische Dienst ''45, 75–89.
 
Van de Laar, J. G. M. & W. J. J. Fermont 1990. The impact of marine transgressions on palynofacies: the Carboniferous Aegir Marine Band in borehole Kemperkoul-1. ''Mededelingen Rijks Geologische Dienst ''45, 75–89.
  
Van de Laar, J. G. M. & C. J. Van der Zwan 1996. Palynostratigraphy and palynofacies reconstruction of the Upper Carboniferous of borehole “De Lutte–6” (East Twente, The Netherlands). ''Mededelingen Rijks Geologische Dienst ''55, 61–82.
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Van de Laar, J. G. M. & C. J. Van der Zwan 1996. Palynostratigraphy and palynofacies reconstruction of the Upper Carboniferous of borehole “De Lutte–6” (East Twente, The Netherlands). ''Mededelingen Rijks Geologische Dienst ''55, 61–82
  
 
== {{anchor|UnoMark27651222513984}} Appendix: Alphabetical list of cited palynomorph names ==
 
== {{anchor|UnoMark27651222513984}} Appendix: Alphabetical list of cited palynomorph names ==
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''Zonalosporites magnus ''(Venkatachala) Ravn 1986
 
''Zonalosporites magnus ''(Venkatachala) Ravn 1986
 
[[category:Carboniferous hydrocarbon resources: the southern North Sea and surrounding onshore areas ]]
 

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