Editing Carboniferous rocks of upper Nidderdale - an excursion

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=== Locality 2, Lofthouse [SE 1005 7358] ===
 
=== Locality 2, Lofthouse [SE 1005 7358] ===
  
Immediately uphill take a path from the left side of the road to a footbridge over the River Nidd. Exposures in Middle Limestone form the foundations of the bridge. Proceed up the west bank for 60 m to view a cliff in the uppermost 4 m of the Middle Limestone, overlain by 1.35 m of mudstone, containing a rib of limestone near the top. The mudstone contains small '''brachiopods''', '''bryozoa''' and '''crinoid''' columnals. Some 140 m upstream from the footbridge the mudstone is 1 m thick, still with a limestone layer. At both points the Five Yard Limestone is exposed above, with '''cherty''' beds in the upper portion. Proceed a further 60 m to a waterfall in Five Yard Limestone and exit to the private road. Walk up the road until a coppice flanks the road on the right. Enter the field by a gate 60 m before the wood and descend to the River Nidd. The Three Yard Limestone with grains of green '''glauconite''' can be seen in the river bed, but the underlying mudstones are not well exposed. Within the wood are exposures of the lowest beds of the Grassington Grit, a coarse-grained cross-bedded sandstone. Southwards from here, the Grassington Grits are well developed, but they pass into mudstones with thin sandstone to the north, along the flanks of nearby Coverdale. Return along the private road and cross the footbridge into Lofthouse.
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Immediately uphill take a path from the left side of the road to a footbridge over the River Nidd. Exposures in Middle Limestone form the foundations of the bridge. Proceed up the west bank for 60 m to view a cliff in the uppermost 4 m of the Middle Limestone, overlain by 1.35 m of mudstone, containing a rib of limestone near the top. The mudstone contains small brachiopods, bryozoa and crinoid columnals. Some 140 m upstream from the footbridge the mudstone is 1 m thick, still with a limestone layer. At both points the Five Yard Limestone is exposed above, with cherty beds in the upper portion. Proceed a further 60 m to a waterfall in Five Yard Limestone and exit to the private road. Walk up the road until a coppice flanks the road on the right. Enter the field by a gate 60 m before the wood and descend to the River Nidd. The Three Yard Limestone with grains of green glauconite can be seen in the river bed, but the underlying mudstones are not well exposed. Within the wood are exposures of the lowest beds of the Grassington Grit, a coarse-grained cross-bedded sandstone. Southwards from here, the Grassington Grits are well developed, but they pass into mudstones with thin sandstone to the north, along the flanks of nearby Coverdale. Return along the private road and cross the footbridge into Lofthouse.
  
 
=== Locality 3, How Stean Gorge [SE 094 735] ===
 
=== Locality 3, How Stean Gorge [SE 094 735] ===
  
Turn right towards Middlesmoor at the junction at the foot of Lofthouse village. A left turn to How Stean Gorge and caves is signposted. There is an admission charge. The feature of interest is a deep gorge with safe walkways for viewing the deeply fretted cliffs in the upper beds of the Middle Limestone ([[:File:YGS_YORKROCK_FIG_05_02.jpg|Figure 5.2]]). An underground stream can be seen on the south bank emerging from the cave known as How Stean Tunnel. On the north bank is the entrance to Tom Taylor's cave, through which it is possible to walk 180 m and emerge near the car park. However the cave is not lit and torches are needed. Further extensive caves, suitable only for expert exploration, are shown on the plan which can be purchased at the cafe (toilets available).
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Turn right towards Middlesmoor at the junction at the foot of Lofthouse village. A left turn to How Stean Gorge and caves is signposted. There is an admission charge. The feature of interest is a deep gorge with safe walkways for viewing the deeply fretted cliffs in the upper beds of the Middle Limestone ([[:File:YGS_YORKROCK_FIG_05_02.jpg|Figure 5.2]]). An underground stream can be seen on the south bank emerging from the cave known as How Stean Tunnel. On the north bank is the entrance to Tom Taylor's cave, through which it is possible to walk 180 m and emerge near the car park. However the cave is not lit and torches are needed. Further extensive caves, suitable only for expert exploration, are shown on the plan which can be purchased at the cafe (toilets available).
  
 
=== Locality 4, [SE 0992 7647] ===
 
=== Locality 4, [SE 0992 7647] ===

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