Editing Carboniferous rocks of upper Nidderdale - an excursion

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Warning: You are not logged in. Your IP address will be publicly visible if you make any edits. If you log in or create an account, your edits will be attributed to your username, along with other benefits.

The edit can be undone. Please check the comparison below to verify that this is what you want to do, and then save the changes below to finish undoing the edit.

This page supports semantic in-text annotations (e.g. "[[Is specified as::World Heritage Site]]") to build structured and queryable content provided by Semantic MediaWiki. For a comprehensive description on how to use annotations or the #ask parser function, please have a look at the getting started, in-text annotation, or inline queries help pages.

Latest revision Your text
Line 16: Line 16:
 
A one-day excursion in two parts requiring transport by car. Part (Locality 1) is at Brimham Rocks, southeast of Pateley Bridge. Part 2 (Localities 2–9) is in Upper Nidderdale, above Lofthouse, beyond which there are no shops or inns. Information about food and toilet facilities is given in the itinerary.
 
A one-day excursion in two parts requiring transport by car. Part (Locality 1) is at Brimham Rocks, southeast of Pateley Bridge. Part 2 (Localities 2–9) is in Upper Nidderdale, above Lofthouse, beyond which there are no shops or inns. Information about food and toilet facilities is given in the itinerary.
  
The area around Scar House (Localities 5–9) is owned by Yorkshire Water. A permit must be sought in advance for groups of more than eight people to visit this area from Yorkshire Water. Ample notice, a minimum of three weeks, should be given for the permit. There is a further restriction on Locality 5: access is only possible from August till February inclusive.
+
The area around Scar House (Localities 5–9) is owned by Yorkshire Water. A permit must be sought in advance for groups of more than eight people to visit this area from Mr R. Baxter, Yorkshire Water, Western House, Western Way, Halifax Road, Bradford, BD6 2LZ. Ample notice, a minimum of three weeks, should be given for the permit. There is a further restriction on Locality 5: access is only possible from August till February inclusive.
  
 
''Note: ''Safety helmets should be worn in the quarry at Locality 5.
 
''Note: ''Safety helmets should be worn in the quarry at Locality 5.
Line 62: Line 62:
 
=== Locality 5, Carle Side Quarries [SE 063 776] ===
 
=== Locality 5, Carle Side Quarries [SE 063 776] ===
  
Walk across the dam to the north side and ascend the old incline to Carle Side Quarries (access restricted to August till February inclusive). The three levels of the quarries were developed in 1920–34 to provide stone for the construction of Scar House Dam, which has a concrete core and masonry face. The dam trench was excavated in the highest Yoredale strata and the Grassington Grit Formation. In their heyday the quarries employed 400 men. Looking southwards, another old quarry visible on Rain Stang was open in 1904–15 to provide stone for the Angram Dam, farther up the valley. Note the great landslip of Woodale Scar beneath this quarry, formed by freeze-thaw at the close of the Devensian glaciation. Also one can see the dramatic right-angled bend of the Nidd 4 km to the east. This may mark the point of capture of the eastward-flowing proto-Nidd by a southward-flowing stream.
+
Walk across the dam to the north side and ascend the old incline to Carle Side Quarries (access restricted to August till February inclusive). The three levels of the quarries were developed in 1920–34 to provide stone for the construction of Scar House Dam, which has a concrete core and masonry face. The dam trench was excavated in the highest Yoredale strata and the Grassington Grit Formation. In their heyday the quarries employed 400 men. Looking southwards, another old quarry visible on Rain Stang was open in 1904–15 to provide stone for the Angram Dam, farther up the valley. Note the great landslip of Woodale Scar beneath this quarry, formed by freeze-thaw at the close of the Devensian glaciation. Also one can see the dramatic right-angled bend of the Nidd 4 km to the east. This may mark the point of capture of the eastward-flowing proto-Nidd by a southward-flowing stream.
  
The lower sandstones of the Scar House Formation in the quarries at Carle Side were deposited by voluminous density currents beyond the mouth bar of a river. These are followed on the second level of the quarry by prodelta sand lobes with '''flute marks''' on some bedding planes, shown well in fallen blocks from above a bush high on the face. Ascend the dumps to the highest quarry level where medium-grained channel sandstones are displayed. At the undulating base of the higher channel a '''conglomerate''' with abundant siltstone rip-up '''clasts''' is well seen. Higher strata are thinly bedded mouth bar sandstones, overlain by mudstones. The skyline feature is in Lower Follifoot Grit.
+
The lower sandstones of the Scar House Formation in the quarries at Carle Side were deposited by voluminous density currents beyond the mouth bar of a river. These are followed on the second level of the quarry by prodelta sand lobes with flute marks on some bedding planes, shown well in fallen blocks from above a bush high on the face. Ascend the dumps to the highest quarry level where medium-grained channel sandstones are displayed. At the undulating base of the higher channel a conglomerate with abundant siltstone rip-up clasts is well seen. Higher strata are thinly bedded mouth bar sandstones, overlain by mudstones. The skyline feature is in Lower Follifoot Grit.
  
 
Traverse the hillside westwards from the highest quarry levels along the top of the feature in the Red Scar Grit. Blocks from the upper half of this grit include abundant crinoid columnals and rarely the brachiopod ''Spirifer. ''Walk to the second stream, Stand Syke, which drains to an angular embayment in Scar House Reservoir.
 
Traverse the hillside westwards from the highest quarry levels along the top of the feature in the Red Scar Grit. Blocks from the upper half of this grit include abundant crinoid columnals and rarely the brachiopod ''Spirifer. ''Walk to the second stream, Stand Syke, which drains to an angular embayment in Scar House Reservoir.
Line 70: Line 70:
 
=== Locality 6, Stand Syke [SE 0509 7784] ===
 
=== Locality 6, Stand Syke [SE 0509 7784] ===
  
Here, traces of the Woogill Coal, named after the next major stream east of Carle Side quarries, can be seen in the grit. It has been extensively worked by '''adits''' and some shafts in Colsterdale to the north, ever since the days of Fountains Abbey. Much of the Colsterdale Marine Beds, some 3 m in thickness, are seen, and the Colsterdale Limestone 2 m above the Red Scar Grit is very fossiliferous. The limestone has weathered to an ochreous orange-coloured 'gingerbread' and contains the zonal goniatite ''Cravenoceratoides nitidus, ''besides ''Anthracoceras paucilobum, Dimorphoceras ''and fish remains. Shaly mudstones above the 0.30 m thick limestone have yielded ''Eumorphoceras bisulcatum. ''The 2 m thick mudstones beneath the limestone yield a '''bivalve''' fauna. Descend the hill using the gates (do ''not ''climb the wall) along the rim of Stand Syke, passing cliffs in the Nidderdale Shales which underlie the Red Scar Grit. These beds contain rare thin sandstones and are generally lacking in marine fossils. Join the track and walk east to Scar House Dam. Cross the dam and follow the track on the south side of the reservoir for 350 m.
+
Here, traces of the Woogill Coal, named after the next major stream east of Carle Side quarries, can be seen in the grit. It has been extensively worked by adits and some shafts in Colsterdale to the north, ever since the days of Fountains Abbey. Much of the Colsterdale Marine Beds, some 3 m in thickness, are seen, and the Colsterdale Limestone 2 m above the Red Scar Grit is very fossiliferous. The limestone has weathered to an ochreous orange-coloured 'gingerbread' and contains the zonal goniatite ''Cravenoceratoides nitidus, ''besides ''Anthracoceras paucilobum, Dimorphoceras ''and fish remains. Shaly mudstones above the 0.30 m thick limestone have yielded ''Eumorphoceras bisulcatum. ''The 2 m thick mudstones beneath the limestone yield a bivalve fauna. Descend the hill using the gates (do ''not ''climb the wall) along the rim of Stand Syke, passing cliffs in the Nidderdale Shales which underlie the Red Scar Grit. These beds contain rare thin sandstones and are generally lacking in marine fossils. Join the track and walk east to Scar House Dam. Cross the dam and follow the track on the south side of the reservoir for 350 m.
  
=== Locality 7, The stream 50 m east of Scar House Gill [SE 0638 7654] ===
+
=== Locality 7, The stream 50 m east of Scar House Gill [SE 0638 7654] ===
  
The stream 50 m east of Scar House Gill [SE 0638 7654] exposes the Cockhill Marine Band, 1.65 m of very dark mudstone containing bivalves, notably ''Caneyella membranacea ''and ''Posidonia vetusta, ''at the base of the Nidderdale Shales. The zone goniatite ''Cravenoceras cowlingense ''occurs sparsely in the mudstone, and as three-dimensional specimens in limestone nodules near the middle of the mudstone. Other forms, reminiscent of a Yoredale-type fauna, occur in the mudstones, notably crinoid columnals and small zaphrentoid corals.
+
The stream 50 m east of Scar House Gill [SE 0638 7654] exposes the Cockhill Marine Band, 1.65 m of very dark mudstone containing bivalves, notably ''Caneyella membranacea ''and ''Posidonia vetusta, ''at the base of the Nidderdale Shales. The zone goniatite ''Cravenoceras cowlingense ''occurs sparsely in the mudstone, and as three-dimensional specimens in limestone nodules near the middle of the mudstone. Other forms, reminiscent of a Yoredale-type fauna, occur in the mudstones, notably crinoid columnals and small zaphrentoid corals.
  
Cross westwards into Scar House Gill, where the marine band is less well exposed but includes the nodular limestone with goniatites. The overlying Nidderdale Shales consist of 72 m of almost continuously exposed mudstones with a few thin bands of fine-grained sandstone. There are no '''seatearth''' bands and fossils are scattered plant debris. Above, the Red Scar Grit is in two leaves. The lower leaf is a feldspathic sandstone with seatearth bands near the top, overlain by 0.04 m of attenuated Woogill Coal. The mudstones immediately above the coal yield ''Lingula. ''The upper leaf of the Red Scar Grit is a cross-bedded medium-grained compact sandstone with scattered crinoid columnals weathering out as voids.
+
Cross westwards into Scar House Gill, where the marine band is less well exposed but includes the nodular limestone with goniatites. The overlying Nidderdale Shales consist of 72 m of almost continuously exposed mudstones with a few thin bands of fine-grained sandstone. There are no seatearth bands and fossils are scattered plant debris. Above, the Red Scar Grit is in two leaves. The lower leaf is a feldspathic sandstone with seatearth bands near the top, overlain by 0.04 m of attenuated Woogill Coal. The mudstones immediately above the coal yield ''Lingula. ''The upper leaf of the Red Scar Grit is a cross-bedded medium-grained compact sandstone with scattered crinoid columnals weathering out as voids.
  
 
=== Locality 8, [SE 0680 7737] ===
 
=== Locality 8, [SE 0680 7737] ===
  
Traverse eastwards along the lip of Nidderdale for 600 m with a fine view across the valley to Carle Side quarries. On the horizon to the north are two '''outliers''' in Libishaw Sandstone (mid-Namurian), Great Haw and South Haw. En route, cambering effects can be seen on the valley edge, where clefts have opened up behind tilting bodies of sandstone [SE 0680 7737]. Where the track to Middlesmoor intersects the traverse, the two leaves of the Red Scar Grit are well exposed and split by the 0.90 m thick Woogill Coal, worked here by adit. Just east of the track, the upper leaf of the grit is nearly 9 m thick, double the thickness in Scar House Gill and characterized by cross-bedding sets 9 m high and channels within the rock unit. Return downhill to the Scar House car park, using the track.
+
Traverse eastwards along the lip of Nidderdale for 600 m with a fine view across the valley to Carle Side quarries. On the horizon to the north are two outliers in Libishaw Sandstone (midNamurian), Great Haw and South Haw. En route, cambering effects can be seen on the valley edge, where clefts have opened up behind tilting bodies of sandstone [SE 0680 7737]
 +
 
 +
Where the track to Middlesmoor intersects the traverse, the two leaves of the Red Scar Grit are well exposed and split by the 0.90 m thick Woogill Coal, worked here by adit. Just east of the track, the upper leaf of the grit is nearly 9 m thick, double the thickness in Scar House Gill and characterized by cross-bedding sets 9 m high and channels within the rock unit. Return downhill to the Scar House car park, using the track.
  
 
Look upwards to the scar in the lower leaf of the Red Scar Grit, which contains undulating channel systems. Above the cliff are vast boulders from the upper leaf which have detached due to the cambering effects observed earlier.
 
Look upwards to the scar in the lower leaf of the Red Scar Grit, which contains undulating channel systems. Above the cliff are vast boulders from the upper leaf which have detached due to the cambering effects observed earlier.
Line 86: Line 88:
 
=== Locality 9 [SE 046 766] ===
 
=== Locality 9 [SE 046 766] ===
  
Walk along the road towards Angram Reservoir (cars are not permitted along this stretch) and descend to the south bank of Scar House Reservoir, 300 m down-valley from the Angram Dam. Care is needed, because the exposure is close to the bank of Scar House Reservoir. The sequence consists of 3 m of fossiliferous shaly mudstones with '''siderite''' nodules, overlain by 5.4 m of unfossiliferous shaly mudstones, capped by 3.6 m of Three Yard Limestone. This is the type locality of the '''trilobite''' ''Weberides barkei, ''usually found as headshields, tails or body segments, rather than complete specimens. Also present are zaphrentid corals, bryozoa and a variety of brachiopods and bivalves.
+
Walk along the road towards Angram Reservoir (cars are not permitted along this stretch) and descend to the south bank of Scar House Reservoir, 300 m down-valley from the Angram Dam. Care is needed, because the exposure is close to the bank of Scar House Reservoir. The sequence consists of 3 m of fossiliferous shaly mudstones with siderite nodules, overlain by 5.4 m of unfossiliferous shaly mudstones, capped by 3.6 m of Three Yard Limestone. This is the type locality of the trilobite ''Weberides barkei, ''usually found as headshields, tails or body segments, rather than complete specimens. Also present are zaphrentid corals, bryozoa and a variety of brachiopods and bivalves.
  
Return to the car park, with views along the road of Scar House Dam, the great landslips below Woodale Scar and finally the major bend in the River Nidd 4 km downstream.
+
Return to the car park, with views along the road of Scar House Dam, the great landslips below Woodale Scar and finally the major bend in the River Nidd 4 km downstream.
  
 
== [[Yorkshire rocks and landscape: a field guide#Glossary|Glossary]] ==
 
== [[Yorkshire rocks and landscape: a field guide#Glossary|Glossary]] ==

Please note that all contributions to Earthwise may be edited, altered, or removed by other contributors. If you do not want your writing to be edited mercilessly, then do not submit it here.
You are also promising us that you wrote this yourself, or copied it from a public domain or similar free resource (see Earthwise:Copyrights for details). Do not submit copyrighted work without permission!

Cancel Editing help (opens in new window)

  [] · [[]] · [[|]] · {{}} · · “” ‘’ «» ‹› „“ ‚‘ · ~ | °   · ± × ÷ ² ³ ½ · §
[[Category:]] · [[:File:]] · <code></code> · <syntaxhighlight></syntaxhighlight> · <includeonly></includeonly> · <noinclude></noinclude> · #REDIRECT[[]] · <translate></translate> · <languages/> · ==References== · {{reflist}} · ==Footnote== · {{reflist|group=note}} · <ref group=note> · __notoc__ · {{DEFAULTSORT:}} <div class="someclass noprint"></div> {{clear}} <br>