Editing Case Study Zimbabwe Family Well Upgrading

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===Conclusion===
 
===Conclusion===
  
It is clear that the concept of self-supply is very much alive in Zimbabwe, and if anything has only strengthened in recent years when official water supply programmes have declined in the difficult political and economic circumstances. Where community supplies do not function effectively, family-owned water sources have become the only means of survival for many.  
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It is clear that the concept of self-supply is very much alive in Zimbabwe, and if anything has only strengthened in recent years when official water supply programmes have declined in the difficult political and economic circumstances. Where community supplies do not function effectively, family-owned water sources have become the only means of survival for many. The formal Family Well Upgrading Programme of the 1990s expanded improved water supplies to many more people across the country, and led to additional benefits beyond immediate domestic water supply. Informal development and upgrading of family wells is not currently monitored in Zimbabwe but is likely to be continuing across the country. The exact number of privately owned wells today is not known, but may be in excess of 200,000, serving over 1 million people in total. The development of private groundwater supplies is happening not only in rural areas but also in cities, where huge numbers of privately owned boreholes have been drilled in response to the failure of municipal water supplies to deliver water at all, or to deliver water that meets international standards. The unregulated expansion of private groundwater abstraction in densely populated urban areas may face its own problems relating to water quality and sustainability of supply. It remains to be seen how family self-supply of water will continue developing across Zimbabwe in future.  
 
 
The formal Family Well Upgrading Programme of the 1990s helped to expand improved water supplies to many more people across the country, and led to additional benefits beyond immediate domestic water supply. Informal development and upgrading of family wells is not currently monitored in Zimbabwe but is likely to be continuing across the country. The exact number of privately owned wells today is not known, but may be in excess of 200,000, serving over 1 million people in total. The development of private groundwater supplies is happening not only in rural areas but also in cities, where huge numbers of privately owned boreholes have been drilled in response to the failure of municipal water supplies to deliver water at all, or to deliver water that meets international standards. The unregulated expansion of private groundwater abstraction in densely populated urban areas may face its own problems relating to water quality and sustainability of supply. It remains to be seen how family self-supply of water will continue developing across Zimbabwe in future.  
 
  
  

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