Editing Chalk of Flamborough Head - an excursion

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=== Locality 3, South Landing [TA 231 693] ===
 
=== Locality 3, South Landing [TA 231 693] ===
  
Flamborough Chalk Formation (South Landing Member), ''Hagenowia rostrata ''Biozone (23 m). Take Landings Road from Flamborough to South Landing where there are parking, picnic and toilet facilities. Descend to the beach along the road used for launching boats. The ravine is very similar to Danes Dyke and is probably formed along a fault line. The bay is cut in massive-bedded flintless chalk. The index fossil is very rare and the small echinoid ''Hagenowia blackmorei ''is found instead. Other fossils include echinoids, belemnites and sponges.
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Flamborough Chalk Formation (South Landing Member), ''Hagenowia rostrata ''Biozone (23 m).
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Take Landings Road from Flamborough to South Landing where there are parking, picnic and toilet facilities. Descend to the beach along the road used for launching boats. The ravine is very similar to Danes Dyke and is probably formed along a fault line. The bay is cut in massive-bedded flintless chalk. The index fossil is very rare and the small echinoid ''Hagenowia blackmorei ''is found instead. Other fossils include echinoids, belemnites and sponges.
  
 
It is not recommended to continue further east on the beach towards Flamborough. The coastal path should be taken to Selwicks Bay.
 
It is not recommended to continue further east on the beach towards Flamborough. The coastal path should be taken to Selwicks Bay.
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Flamborough and Burnham Chalk Formations, ''Hagenowia rostrata ''Biozone. Take the B1259 from Flamborough to the car park by the lighthouse (with cafe, gift shop and toilets), noting the older lighthouse on the golf course. Chalk does not make a good building stone and this is one of the few Flamborough buildings made of it. Walk to the top of the steps to view the bay. The vertical chalk cliffs contrast with the grass-covered slopes of the glacial drift, which support a great variety of animal and plant life, especially orchids. Walk down to the top of the new steps. At low tide the geology of the bay is well displayed, as are marine erosion features, especially the prominent stack (known locally as Adam).
 
Flamborough and Burnham Chalk Formations, ''Hagenowia rostrata ''Biozone. Take the B1259 from Flamborough to the car park by the lighthouse (with cafe, gift shop and toilets), noting the older lighthouse on the golf course. Chalk does not make a good building stone and this is one of the few Flamborough buildings made of it. Walk to the top of the steps to view the bay. The vertical chalk cliffs contrast with the grass-covered slopes of the glacial drift, which support a great variety of animal and plant life, especially orchids. Walk down to the top of the new steps. At low tide the geology of the bay is well displayed, as are marine erosion features, especially the prominent stack (known locally as Adam).
  
Descend to the beach (best at low water). The chalk is cut by the Selwicks Bay Fault, downthrowing about 20 m to the north, and part of the Howardian–Flamborough Fault Zone that runs east–west across the Wolds and marks the reactivated edge of the Market Weighton Block. The main fault zone is marked by a large mass of '''fault breccia''', cemented by crystalline '''calcite'''. The complex nature of the bay is best revealed on the wave-cut platform by walking north across the bay starting at the prominent brown flint band that marks the junction of the flintless Flamborough and flinty Burnham Formations. The fault breccia is a complex structure of fractured blocks with several stages of tension and compression indicated by cross-cutting calcite '''veins'''. On the north side of the bay the Flamborough Chalk Formation is steeply dipping away from the fault towards the small stream, where the beds are truncated by another, low-angle fault which can easily be traced across the wave-cut platform. On the south side of the bay, the Burnham Chalk Formation reappears in a cove known as Monk Hole. All around the bay, small faults and joints, with both horizontal and vertical '''slickensiding''' and calcite veins, criss-cross the chalk cliffs and beach, resulting from reactivated movement along the deep-seated faults. Within the chalk, compressional features can be seen, notably above the warning sign at the entrance to Monk Hole. Marine erosion has eroded along the weaker fault lines in the otherwise hard chalk to create a wide range of coastal features such as caves, coves, arches and stacks. '''These should only be explored on a falling tide'''. Fossils are uncommon in the hard crystalline chalk but include echinoids and belemnites.
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Descend to the beach (best at low water). The chalk is cut by the Selwicks Bay Fault, downthrowing about 20 m to the north, and part of the Howardian–Flamborough Fault Zone that runs east–west across the Wolds and marks the reactivated edge of the Market Weighton Block. The main fault zone is marked by a large mass of fault breccia, cemented by crystalline calcite. The complex nature of the bay is best revealed on the wave-cut platform by walking north across the bay starting at the prominent brown flint band that marks the junction of the flintless Flamborough and flinty Burnham Formations. The fault breccia is a complex structure of fractured blocks with several stages of tension and compression indicated by cross-cutting calcite veins. On the north side of the bay the Flamborough Chalk Formation is steeply dipping away from the fault towards the small stream, where the beds are truncated by another, low-angle fault which can easily be traced across the wave-cut platform. On the south side of the bay, the Burnham Chalk Formation reappears in a cove known as Monk Hole. All around the bay, small faults and joints, with both horizontal and vertical slickensiding and calcite veins, criss-cross the chalk cliffs and beach, resulting from reactivated movement along the deep-seated faults. Within the chalk, compressional features can be seen, notably above the warning sign at the entrance to Monk Hole. Marine erosion has eroded along the weaker fault lines in the otherwise hard chalk to create a wide range of coastal features such as caves, coves, arches and stacks. '''These should only be explored on a falling tide'''. Fossils are uncommon in the hard crystalline chalk but include echinoids and belemnites.
  
The beach has many erratics, including semi-precious '''agates''' and '''cornelians'''. A purple sand often accumulates in patches and is largely composed of '''garnet'''.
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The beach has many erratics, including semi-precious agates and cornelians. A purple sand often accumulates in patches and is largely composed of garnet.
  
 
Return to the car park or walk north along the cliff to Thornwick and North Landing. All cliff walks display magnificent coastal features, with a wide variety of nesting birds in spring and summer.
 
Return to the car park or walk north along the cliff to Thornwick and North Landing. All cliff walks display magnificent coastal features, with a wide variety of nesting birds in spring and summer.

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