Editing Craven Fault Zone — Malham to Settle - an excursion

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=== Locality 15 (optional), Victoria Cave [SD 838 650] ===
 
=== Locality 15 (optional), Victoria Cave [SD 838 650] ===
  
Take the footpath between Attermire Scar and Warrendale Knotts northwards for some 850&nbsp;m. ''En route ''consider the fault-controlled topography to the west. The fault bordering Langcliffe Scars has a throw of up to 90&nbsp;m. Climb the scree-strewn slope to the entrance of Victoria Cave. The cliff gives an opportunity for viewing the Gordale Limestone at close quarters. Four emergent (palaeokarstic) surfaces occur over a 17&nbsp;m section of the cliff. The cave is an important site for cave archaeology and Pleistocene geology. Discovered in 1837 (the year of Queen Victoria's coronation) the cave was excavated intermittently over many years, but a major excavation was carried out between 1870 and 1878. Two distinct cave earths were found. The 'Upper' contained Neolithic cultural remains with Romano-British artifacts scattered on the surface, and the 'Lower', separated by a laminated clay and truncated by till at the mouth of the cave, was a Last Interglacial (Ipswichian) bone bed with the remains of nine large mammals including brown bear, spotted hyaena, lion, hippopotamus and narrow-nosed rhinoceros, indicating a use alternating between hyaena den and bear cave. Calcite speleothems enclosing the bones have been dated using the <sup>230</sup>Th/<sup>234</sup>U method and give an age for the fauna in the cave vicinity at or just before 120 000 (± 6000) yrs BP. Return to Locality 14.
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Take the footpath between Attermire Scar and Warrendale Knotts northwards for some 850&nbsp;m. ''En route ''consider the fault-controlled topography to the west. The fault bordering Langcliffe Scars has a throw of up to 90&nbsp;m. Climb the scree-strewn slope to the entrance of Victoria Cave. The cliff gives an opportunity for viewing the Gordale Limestone at close quarters. Four emergent (palaeokarstic) surfaces occur over a 17&nbsp;m section of the cliff. The cave is an important site for cave archaeology and Pleistocene geology. Discovered in 1837 (the year of Queen Victoria's coronation) the cave was excavated intermittently over many years, but a major excavation was carried out between 1870 and 1878. Two distinct cave earths were found. The 'Upper' contained Neolithic cultural remains with Romano-British artifacts scattered on the surface, and the 'Lower', separated by a laminated clay and truncated by till at the mouth of the cave, was a Last Interglacial (Ipswichian) bone bed with the remains of nine large mammals including brown bear, spotted hyaena, lion, hippopotamus and narrow-nosed rhinoceros, indicating a use alternating between hyaena den and bear cave. Calcite speleothems enclosing the bones have been dated using the 230Th/234U method and give an age for the fauna in the cave vicinity at or just before 120 000 (± 6000) yrs BP. Return to Locality 14.
  
 
=== Locality 16, Sugar Loaf Hill [SD 836 638] ===
 
=== Locality 16, Sugar Loaf Hill [SD 836 638] ===

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