Editing Dinantian and Namurian depositional systems in the southern North Sea

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Warning: You are not logged in. Your IP address will be publicly visible if you make any edits. If you log in or create an account, your edits will be attributed to your username, along with other benefits.

The edit can be undone. Please check the comparison below to verify that this is what you want to do, and then save the changes below to finish undoing the edit.

This page supports semantic in-text annotations (e.g. "[[Is specified as::World Heritage Site]]") to build structured and queryable content provided by Semantic MediaWiki. For a comprehensive description on how to use annotations or the #ask parser function, please have a look at the getting started, in-text annotation, or inline queries help pages.

Latest revision Your text
Line 11: Line 11:
 
[[File:YGS_CHR_04_DINA_FIG_10.jpg|thumbnail|Figure 10 Correlation panels showing the major deep penetrations of Namurian strata in the Southern North Sea Basin. ]]
 
[[File:YGS_CHR_04_DINA_FIG_10.jpg|thumbnail|Figure 10 Correlation panels showing the major deep penetrations of Namurian strata in the Southern North Sea Basin. ]]
 
[[File:YGS_CHR_04_DINA_FIG_11.jpg|thumbnail|Figure 11 An interpreted dipmeter log, shown alongside a gamma log of part of well 43/21-2.]]
 
[[File:YGS_CHR_04_DINA_FIG_11.jpg|thumbnail|Figure 11 An interpreted dipmeter log, shown alongside a gamma log of part of well 43/21-2.]]
[[File:YGS_CHR_04_DINA_FIG_12.jpg|thumbnail|Figure 12 A correlation panel for wells that penetrate typical cyclic Millstone Grit Namurian successions. ]]
+
[[File:YGS_CHR_04_DINA_FIG_12.jpg|thumbnail|Figure 12 A correlation panel for wells that penetrate typical cyclic Millstone Grit Namurian successions. The succession is dominated by upwards-coarsening units and channel sandstones. The bases of cyclothems are commonly marked by a high-gamma mudstone that is likely to be a marine band. The major marine bands are labelled. The identification of those below top Kinderscoutian is tentative.]]
[[File:YGS_CHR_04_DINA_FIG_13.jpg|thumbnail|Figure 13 A cartoon showing the idealized relationships between marine bands (M), upwards-coarsening units, distributary channel sandstones and palaeovalleys in a typical Millstone Grit association.]]
+
[[File:YGS_CHR_04_DINA_FIG_13.jpg|thumbnail|Figure 13 A cartoon showing the idealized relationships between marine bands (M), upwards-coarsening units, distributary channel sandstones and palaeovalleys in a typical Millstone Grit association, as seen in the Pennines and inferred for the Southern North Sea Basin.]]
[[File:YGS_CHR_04_DINA_FIG_14.jpg|thumbnail|Figure 14 Correlation panel of key wells in the Cleveland Basin and offshore Yorkshire.]]
+
[[File:YGS_CHR_04_DINA_FIG_14.jpg|thumbnail|Figure 14 Correlation panel of key wells in the Cleveland Basin and offshore Yorkshire, showing major deepening episodes that may coincide with the development of the northern margin of the Southern North Sea Basin. Ages are only loosely constrained. All wells have gamma and sonic logs with an interpreted lithology.]]
  
 
'''By John D. Collinson'''  
 
'''By John D. Collinson'''  
Line 172: Line 172:
 
The deepest well in the basin probably penetrates only the highest Dinantian strata (Brigantian) and it is therefore impossible to demonstrate when this basin margin developed. It is possible that the early Dinantian saw the shallow-water depositional systems of the block extending southwards without significant change across what is now the basin. Redbeds of latest Devonian or earliest Dinantian age are features of wells onshore and the same sort of extensional subsidence regime probably prevailed offshore at that time. In that case, a phase of intra-Dinantian tectonic activity must have led to the inferred differentiated bathymetry.
 
The deepest well in the basin probably penetrates only the highest Dinantian strata (Brigantian) and it is therefore impossible to demonstrate when this basin margin developed. It is possible that the early Dinantian saw the shallow-water depositional systems of the block extending southwards without significant change across what is now the basin. Redbeds of latest Devonian or earliest Dinantian age are features of wells onshore and the same sort of extensional subsidence regime probably prevailed offshore at that time. In that case, a phase of intra-Dinantian tectonic activity must have led to the inferred differentiated bathymetry.
  
A more precise idea of when this movement took place may come by analogy with wells in and around the Cleveland Basin, Cloughton-1, Kirby Misperton-1 and 41/24-2 [[:File:YGS_CHR_04_DINA_FIG_14.jpg|(Figure 14)]]. In well 41/24-2, the section penetrates into inferred Lower Limestone Formation strata, which appear to have a broadly Yoredale cyclic character. This pattern of deposition persists through the Middle Limestone Formation to the base of the Namurian. In the lowest part of the Namurian, a unit some 50 m thick has very high gamma values and is inferred to be a mudstone with well developed marine bands. This interval is overlain by some 85 m of sandstones, apparently with finer-grained interbeds. The lower part of this interval shows an upwards-coarsening upwards-thickening trend. It is sharply overlain by an upwards-coarsening sequence just over 100 m thick, at the top of which are coarse cross-bedded channel sandstones whose age is thought to be late Pendleian, based on uncorroborated ages indicated on the composite log. The lower sandstones, which are not cored, are thought most likely to be turbidites, with a basin-filling slope progradation above. The succession therefore compares quite closely with the Pendleian fill of the Craven Basin. If the inferred stratigraphical breakdown is correct, the main deepening event at this well would appear to have occurred around the Dinantian/Namurian boundary.
+
A more precise idea of when this movement took place may come by analogy with wells in and around the Cleveland Basin, Cloughton-1, Kirby Misperton-1 and 41/24-2 [[:File:YGS_CHR_04_DINA_FIG_14.jpg|(Figure 14)]]. In well 41/24-2, the section penetrates into inferred Lower Limestone Formation strata, which appear to have a broadly Yoredale cyclic character. This pattern of deposition persists through the Middle Limestone Formation to the base of the Namurian. In the lowest part of the Namurian, a unit some 50m thick has very high gamma values and is inferred to be a mudstone with well developed marine bands. This interval is overlain by some 85m of sandstones, apparently with finer-grained interbeds. The lower part of this interval shows an upwards-coarsening upwards-thickening trend. It is sharply overlain by an upwards-coarsening sequence just over 100m thick, at the top of which are coarse cross-bedded channel sandstones whose age is thought to be late Pendleian, based on uncorroborated ages indicated on the composite log. The lower sandstones, which are not cored, are thought most likely to be turbidites, with a basin-filling slope progradation above. The succession therefore compares quite closely with the Pendleian fill of the Craven Basin. If the inferred stratigraphical breakdown is correct, the main deepening event at this well would appear to have occurred around the Dinantian/ Namurian boundary.
  
 
At Cloughton-1, by comparison, the high-gamma mudstones at base Namurian are clearly present, although somewhat thicker. The rest of the Pendleian comprises an upwards-coarsening unit but possible turbidite sandstones within it appear more thinly bedded. Immediately below the high-gamma mudstones are thick sandstones and inferred coal seams suggestive of a delta top setting and again indicating a significant deepening event around the Dinantian/Namurian boundary. The Cloughton-1 well terminated a short distance into the Dinantian so that the earlier history cannot be deduced.
 
At Cloughton-1, by comparison, the high-gamma mudstones at base Namurian are clearly present, although somewhat thicker. The rest of the Pendleian comprises an upwards-coarsening unit but possible turbidite sandstones within it appear more thinly bedded. Immediately below the high-gamma mudstones are thick sandstones and inferred coal seams suggestive of a delta top setting and again indicating a significant deepening event around the Dinantian/Namurian boundary. The Cloughton-1 well terminated a short distance into the Dinantian so that the earlier history cannot be deduced.
  
At Kirby Misperton-1, the Namurian section compares quite closely with that at Cloughton-1 and 41/24-1. The gamma peaks in the basal mudstone are less conspicuous and the large-scale upwards-coarsening succession of the Pendleian is thicker and has thicker channel sandbodies in its upper part. In contrast, inferred turbidite sandstones in the lower part of the pro-gradation are thin in comparison. The Dinantian strata just below the inferred Dinantian/Namurian boundary are similar to those in the other wells with channel sandstones but no obvious coals. This again suggests a significant deepening event at the Dinantian/Namurian boundary. However, the Dinantian penetration extends for some 1150 m and this provides a unique view of the earlier history of the Cleveland Basin. The latest Dinantian channel sandstones themselves occur at the top of a major fine-grained upwards-coarsening succession, some 300 m thick. Beneath that are some 300 m of thinly interbedded sandstones and finer grained rocks, which in turn overlie a sandy succession within which there are small-scale upwards-coarsening units that probably record minor deltaic progradations. The occurrence of a thick fine-grained upwards-coarsening unit above older deltaics suggests a phase of deepening. There is no control on the age of these deepest Dinantian sediments, but on thickness grounds they are likely to extend back at least well into the Asbian. The earlier phase of deepening could therefore be of Asbian age, but without tighter control on the age of the section in the deeper parts of the well, it is not possible to be more precise.
+
At Kirby Misperton-1, the Namurian section compares quite closely with that at Cloughton-1 and 41/24-1. The gamma peaks in the basal mudstone are less conspicuous and the large-scale upwards-coarsening succession of the Pendleian is thicker and has thicker channel sandbodies in its upper part. In contrast, inferred turbidite sandstones in the lower part of the pro-gradation are thin in comparison. The Dinantian strata just below the inferred Dinantian/Namurian boundary are similar to those in the other wells with channel sandstones but no obvious coals. This again suggests a significant deepening event at the Dinantian/Namurian boundary. However, the Dinantian penetration extends for some 1150m and this provides a unique view of the earlier history of the Cleveland Basin. The latest Dinantian channel sandstones themselves occur at the top of a major fine-grained upwards-coarsening succession, some 300m thick. Beneath that are some 300m of thinly interbedded sandstones and finer grained rocks, which in turn overlie a sandy succession within which there are small-scale upwards-coarsening units that probably record minor deltaic progradations. The occurrence of a thick fine-grained upwards-coarsening unit above older deltaics suggests a phase of deepening. There is no control on the age of these deepest Dinantian sediments, but on thickness grounds they are likely to extend back at least well into the Asbian. The earlier phase of deepening could therefore be of Asbian age, but without tighter control on the age of the section in the deeper parts of the well, it is not possible to be more precise.
  
 
It is clear from well 43/17-2 [[:File:YGS_CHR_04_DINA_FIG_10.jpg|(Figure 10)]] that major deepening had occurred offshore prior to the Brigantian and, therefore, it might be reasonable to speculate that such movements were associated with those that caused the Dinantian deepening in the Cleveland Basin, which are tentatively inferred to be Asbian in age. A phase of well constrained Asbian extension is also recognized in the Craven Basin, although deepening of the sea began earlier here (Kirby et al. 2000). If this age were correct, the deepening in the southern North Sea would be broadly contemporaneous with the deposition of the Scremerston Formation. A consequence of the deeping is that the shallow-water strata of the Scremerston and Lower and Middle Limestone formations of the Mid North Sea High passed into deeper-water facies to the south, possibly with bypassing of sand to contemporaneous turbidite settings. This would compare with the spilling of sand across the Craven faults in the Brigantian to give turbidite units such as the Pendleside Sandstone in the Craven Basin as equivalents of Yoredale deltaic strata on the Askrigg Block. Another consequence is that the pre-deepening Cementstones, Fell Sandstone and the earlier parts of the Scremerston Formation may extend as fluvial and deltaic facies beneath the Southern North Sea Basin. This contrasts with what is seen onshore, where these units are mainly restricted to the Northumberland and Stainmore troughs.
 
It is clear from well 43/17-2 [[:File:YGS_CHR_04_DINA_FIG_10.jpg|(Figure 10)]] that major deepening had occurred offshore prior to the Brigantian and, therefore, it might be reasonable to speculate that such movements were associated with those that caused the Dinantian deepening in the Cleveland Basin, which are tentatively inferred to be Asbian in age. A phase of well constrained Asbian extension is also recognized in the Craven Basin, although deepening of the sea began earlier here (Kirby et al. 2000). If this age were correct, the deepening in the southern North Sea would be broadly contemporaneous with the deposition of the Scremerston Formation. A consequence of the deeping is that the shallow-water strata of the Scremerston and Lower and Middle Limestone formations of the Mid North Sea High passed into deeper-water facies to the south, possibly with bypassing of sand to contemporaneous turbidite settings. This would compare with the spilling of sand across the Craven faults in the Brigantian to give turbidite units such as the Pendleside Sandstone in the Craven Basin as equivalents of Yoredale deltaic strata on the Askrigg Block. Another consequence is that the pre-deepening Cementstones, Fell Sandstone and the earlier parts of the Scremerston Formation may extend as fluvial and deltaic facies beneath the Southern North Sea Basin. This contrasts with what is seen onshore, where these units are mainly restricted to the Northumberland and Stainmore troughs.
Line 212: Line 212:
 
Chadwick, R. A., D. W. Holliday, S. Holloway, A. G. Hulbert 1995. ''The structure and evolution of the Northumberland–Solway Basin and adjacent areas''. Subsurface Memoir, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham.
 
Chadwick, R. A., D. W. Holliday, S. Holloway, A. G. Hulbert 1995. ''The structure and evolution of the Northumberland–Solway Basin and adjacent areas''. Subsurface Memoir, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham.
  
Collinson, J. D. 1988. Controls on Namurian sedimentation in the Central Province basins of northern England. In ''Sedimentation in a synorogenic basin complex: the Upper Carboniferous of northwest Europe'', B. M. Besly & G. Kelling (eds), 85–101. Glasgow: Blackie.  
+
Collinson, J. D. 1988. Controls on Namurian sedimentation in the Central Province basins of northern England. In ''Sedimentation in a synorogenic basin complex: the Upper Carboniferous of northwest Europe'', B. M. Besly & G. Kelling (eds), 85–101. Glasgow: Blackie. Collinson J. D., O. J. Martinsen, B. Bakken, A. Kloster 1991. Early fill of the western Irish Namurian Basin: a complex relationship between turbidites and deltas. ''Basin Research ''3, 223–42.
 
 
Collinson J. D., O. J. Martinsen, B. Bakken, A. Kloster 1991. Early fill of the western Irish Namurian Basin: a complex relationship between turbidites and deltas. ''Basin Research ''3, 223–42.
 
  
 
Collinson, J. D., C. M. Jones, G. A. Blackbourn, B. M. Besly, G. M. Archard, A. H. McMahon 1993. Carboniferous depositional systems of the southern North Sea. In ''Petroleum geology of northwest Europe: proceedings of the 4th conference'', J. R. Parker (ed.), 677– 87. London: Geological Society.
 
Collinson, J. D., C. M. Jones, G. A. Blackbourn, B. M. Besly, G. M. Archard, A. H. McMahon 1993. Carboniferous depositional systems of the southern North Sea. In ''Petroleum geology of northwest Europe: proceedings of the 4th conference'', J. R. Parker (ed.), 677– 87. London: Geological Society.
Line 220: Line 218:
 
Coward, M. P. 1990. The Precambrian, Caledonian and Variscan framework of northwest Europe. In ''Tectonic events responsible for Britain’s oil and gas reserves'', R. P. F. Hardman & J. Brooks (eds), 1–34. Special Publication 55, Geological Society, London.
 
Coward, M. P. 1990. The Precambrian, Caledonian and Variscan framework of northwest Europe. In ''Tectonic events responsible for Britain’s oil and gas reserves'', R. P. F. Hardman & J. Brooks (eds), 1–34. Special Publication 55, Geological Society, London.
  
Day J. B. W. 1970. ''Geology of the country around Bewcastle''. Memoir, Sheet 12 (England and Wales), Geological Survey of Great Britain.  
+
Day J. B. W. 1970. ''Geology of the country around Bewcastle''. Memoir, Sheet 12 (England and Wales), Geological Survey of Great Britain. Donato, J. A. & J. Megson 1990. A buried granite batholith beneath the East Midland Shelf of the Southern North Sea Basin. ''Geological Society of London, Journal ''147, 133–40.
 
 
Donato, J. A. & J. Megson 1990. A buried granite batholith beneath the East Midland Shelf of the Southern North Sea Basin. ''Geological Society of London, Journal ''147, 133–40.
 
  
 
Donato, J. A., W. Martindale, M. C. Tully 1983. Buried granites within the Mid North Sea High. ''Geological Society of London, Journal ''140, 825–37.
 
Donato, J. A., W. Martindale, M. C. Tully 1983. Buried granites within the Mid North Sea High. ''Geological Society of London, Journal ''140, 825–37.
Line 230: Line 226:
 
Dunham K. C. & A. A. Wilson 1985. ''Geology of the North Pennine Orefield'', vol. 2: ''Stainmore to Craven''. Economic Memoir of the British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham.
 
Dunham K. C. & A. A. Wilson 1985. ''Geology of the North Pennine Orefield'', vol. 2: ''Stainmore to Craven''. Economic Memoir of the British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham.
  
Earp, J. R., D. Magraw, E. G. Poole, D. H. Land, A. J. Whiteman 1961. ''Geology of the country around Clitheroe and Nelson''. Memoir, , Sheet 68 (England and Wales), Geological Survey of Great Britain.  
+
Earp, J. R., D. Magraw, E. G. Poole, D. H. Land, A. J. Whiteman 1961. ''Geology of the country around Clitheroe and Nelson''. Memoir, , Sheet 68 (England and Wales), Geological Survey of Great Britain. Elliott, T. 1976. Sedimentary sequences from the Upper Limestone Group of Northumberland. ''Scottish Journal of Geology ''12, 115–24. Fraser, A. J. & R. L. Gawthorpe 1990. Tectono-stratigraphic development and hydrocarbon habitat of the Carboniferous in northern England. In ''Tectonic events responsible for Britain’s oil and gas reserves'', R. F. P. Hardman & J. Brooks (eds), 49–86. Special Publication 55, Geological Society, London.
 
 
Elliott, T. 1976. Sedimentary sequences from the Upper Limestone Group of Northumberland. ''Scottish Journal of Geology ''12, 115–24.  
 
 
 
Fraser, A. J. & R. L. Gawthorpe 1990. Tectono-stratigraphic development and hydrocarbon habitat of the Carboniferous in northern England. In ''Tectonic events responsible for Britain’s oil and gas reserves'', R. F. P. Hardman & J. Brooks (eds), 49–86. Special Publication 55, Geological Society, London.
 
  
 
Gardiner, A. R. 1984. A braided-river sheet sandstone in the Lower Limestone Group of the Northumberland Basin [abstract: 105–107]. Paper presented at “European Dinantian environments” conference, Manchester, April 1984.
 
Gardiner, A. R. 1984. A braided-river sheet sandstone in the Lower Limestone Group of the Northumberland Basin [abstract: 105–107]. Paper presented at “European Dinantian environments” conference, Manchester, April 1984.
Line 266: Line 258:
 
Martinsen, O. J. 1989. Styles of soft-sediment deformation on a Namurian (Carboniferous) delta slope, western Irish Namurian Basin, Ireland. In ''Deltas: sites and traps for fossil fuels'', M. K. G. Whateley & K. T. Pickering (eds), 167–177. Special Publication 41, Geological Society, London.
 
Martinsen, O. J. 1989. Styles of soft-sediment deformation on a Namurian (Carboniferous) delta slope, western Irish Namurian Basin, Ireland. In ''Deltas: sites and traps for fossil fuels'', M. K. G. Whateley & K. T. Pickering (eds), 167–177. Special Publication 41, Geological Society, London.
  
Martinsen, O. J., J. D. Collinson, B. K. Holdsworth 1995. Millstone Grit cyclicity revisited, II: sequence stratigraphy and sedimentary responses to changes of relative sea-level. In ''Sedimentary facies analysis'', A. G. Plint (ed.), 305–327. Oxford: Blackwell Science.  
+
Martinsen, O. J., J. D. Collinson, B. K. Holdsworth 1995. Millstone Grit cyclicity revisited, II: sequence stratigraphy and sedimentary responses to changes of relative sea-level. In ''Sedimentary facies analysis'', A. G. Plint (ed.), 305–327. Oxford: Blackwell Science. Maynard, J. R. & R. E. Dunay 1999. Reservoirs of the Dinantian (Lower Carboniferous) play of the southern North Sea. In ''Petroleum geology of northwest Europe: proceedings of the 5th conference'', A. J. Fleet & S. A. R. Boldy (eds), 729–45. London: Geological Society.
 
 
Maynard, J. R. & R. E. Dunay 1999. Reservoirs of the Dinantian (Lower Carboniferous) play of the southern North Sea. In ''Petroleum geology of northwest Europe: proceedings of the 5th conference'', A. J. Fleet & S. A. R. Boldy (eds), 729–45. London: Geological Society.
 
  
 
Miller, J. & R. F. Grayson 1982. The geological context of Waulsortian facies in northern England. In ''Symposium on the paleoenvironmental setting and distribution of the Waulsortian facies'', K. Bolton, H. R. Lane, D. V. Lemone (eds), 17–33. El Paso, Texas: El Paso Geological Society and University of Texas at El Paso.
 
Miller, J. & R. F. Grayson 1982. The geological context of Waulsortian facies in northern England. In ''Symposium on the paleoenvironmental setting and distribution of the Waulsortian facies'', K. Bolton, H. R. Lane, D. V. Lemone (eds), 17–33. El Paso, Texas: El Paso Geological Society and University of Texas at El Paso.
Line 286: Line 276:
 
Reading, H. G. 1964. A review of the factors affecting the sedimentation of the Millstone Grit (Namurian) in the central Pennines. In ''Deltaic and shallow marine sedimentation'', L. M. J. U. Van Straaten (ed.), 340–46. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
 
Reading, H. G. 1964. A review of the factors affecting the sedimentation of the Millstone Grit (Namurian) in the central Pennines. In ''Deltaic and shallow marine sedimentation'', L. M. J. U. Van Straaten (ed.), 340–46. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  
Reynolds, A. D. 1992. Storm, wave and tide-dominated sedimentation in the Dinantian Middle Limestone Group, Northumberland Basin. ''Yorkshire Geological Society, Proceedings ''49, 135–48.  
+
Reynolds, A. D. 1992. Storm, wave and tide-dominated sedimentation in the Dinantian Middle Limestone Group, Northumberland Basin. ''Yorkshire Geological Society, Proceedings ''49, 135–48. Ridd, M. F., D. B. Walker, J. M. Jones 1970. A deep borehole at Harton on the margin of the Northumberland Trough. ''Yorkshire Geological Society, Proceedings ''38, 75–103.
 
 
Ridd, M. F., D. B. Walker, J. M. Jones 1970. A deep borehole at Harton on the margin of the Northumberland Trough. ''Yorkshire Geological Society, Proceedings ''38, 75–103.
 
  
 
Riley, N. J., J. Claoué-Long, A. C. Higgins, B. Owens, A. Spears, L. Taylor, W. J. Varker 1995. Geochronometry and geochemistry of the European Mid-Carboniferous boundary global stratotype proposal, Stonehead Beck, North Yorkshire, UK. ''Annales de la Societé Géologique de Belgique ''116, 275–89.
 
Riley, N. J., J. Claoué-Long, A. C. Higgins, B. Owens, A. Spears, L. Taylor, W. J. Varker 1995. Geochronometry and geochemistry of the European Mid-Carboniferous boundary global stratotype proposal, Stonehead Beck, North Yorkshire, UK. ''Annales de la Societé Géologique de Belgique ''116, 275–89.
Line 302: Line 290:
 
Trewin, N. H. & B. K. Holdsworth 1973. Sedimentation in the lower Namurian rocks of the North Staffordshire Basin. ''Yorkshire Geological Society, Proceedings ''39, 371–408.
 
Trewin, N. H. & B. K. Holdsworth 1973. Sedimentation in the lower Namurian rocks of the North Staffordshire Basin. ''Yorkshire Geological Society, Proceedings ''39, 371–408.
  
Turner, B. R. & M. Munro 1987. Channel formation and migration by mass-flow processes in the Lower Carboniferous fluviatile Fell Sandstone Group, northeast England. ''Sedimentology ''34, 107–122.  
+
Turner, B. R. & M. Munro 1987. Channel formation and migration by mass-flow processes in the Lower Carboniferous fluviatile Fell Sandstone Group, northeast England. ''Sedimentology ''34, 107–122. Turner, B. R., P. L. Younger, C. E. Fordham 1993. Fell Sandstone Group lithostratigraphy southwest of Berwick-upon-Tweed: implications for the regional development of the Fell Sandstone. ''Yorkshire Geological Society, Proceedings ''49, 269–81.
 
 
Turner, B. R., P. L. Younger, C. E. Fordham 1993. Fell Sandstone Group lithostratigraphy southwest of Berwick-upon-Tweed: implications for the regional development of the Fell Sandstone. ''Yorkshire Geological Society, Proceedings ''49, 269–81.
 
  
 
Turner, N. & E. Spinner 1992. Palynological evidence for the early Namurian age of the “Millstone Grit” and Upper Limestone Group around Longhoughton Steel, Northumberland. ''Yorkshire Geological Society, Proceedings ''49, 11–22.
 
Turner, N. & E. Spinner 1992. Palynological evidence for the early Namurian age of the “Millstone Grit” and Upper Limestone Group around Longhoughton Steel, Northumberland. ''Yorkshire Geological Society, Proceedings ''49, 11–22.

Please note that all contributions to Earthwise may be edited, altered, or removed by other contributors. If you do not want your writing to be edited mercilessly, then do not submit it here.
You are also promising us that you wrote this yourself, or copied it from a public domain or similar free resource (see Earthwise:Copyrights for details). Do not submit copyrighted work without permission!

Cancel Editing help (opens in new window)

  [] · [[]] · [[|]] · {{}} · · “” ‘’ «» ‹› „“ ‚‘ · ~ | °   · ± × ÷ ² ³ ½ · §
[[Category:]] · [[:File:]] · <code></code> · <syntaxhighlight></syntaxhighlight> · <includeonly></includeonly> · <noinclude></noinclude> · #REDIRECT[[]] · <translate></translate> · <languages/> · ==References== · {{reflist}} · ==Footnote== · {{reflist|group=note}} · <ref group=note> · __notoc__ · {{DEFAULTSORT:}} <div class="someclass noprint"></div> {{clear}} <br>

Template used on this page: