Editing Fife and Angus geology: an excursion guide

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{{FifeandAngus}}
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'''Under construction'''
 
[[File:FANG_FROCOV.jpg|300px|thumbnail|Fife and Angus geology - an excursion. Front cover.]]
 
[[File:FANG_FROCOV.jpg|300px|thumbnail|Fife and Angus geology - an excursion. Front cover.]]
 
== Contents ==
 
== Contents ==
  
:[[Fife and Angus geology: an excursion guide#Preface|Preface]]
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Preface
  
:[[Fife and Angus geology: an excursion guide#Acknowledgements|Acknowledgements]]
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Acknowledgements
  
:[[Fife and Angus geology: an excursion guide#Introduction|Introduction]]
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Introduction
  
:[[Fife and Angus geology: an excursion guide#Geographical setting|Geographical setting]]
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Geographical setting
  
:[[Fife and Angus geology: an excursion guide#Geological setting|Geological setting]]
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Geological setting
  
:[[Fife and Angus geology: an excursion guide#Scope of the guide and further references|Scope of the guide and further references]]
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Scope of the guide and further references
  
:[[Fife and Angus geology: an excursion guide#The Geological Code of Conduct|The Geological Code of Conduct]]
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The Geological Code of Conduct
  
:[[Fife and Angus geology: an excursion guide#Tides|Tides]]
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Tides
  
:[[Fife and Angus geology: an excursion guide#Geology of the area|Geology of the area]]
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Geology of the area
  
== [[Dalradian - Fife and Angus|Chapter 1 Dalradian]] ==
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== [[ Dalradian - Fife and Angus|Chapter 1 Dalradian]] ==
  
:[[Dalradian - Fife and Angus#Structure|Structure]]
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Structure
  
:[[Dalradian - Fife and Angus#Metamorphism|Metamorphism]]
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Metamorphism
  
 
== [[The Highland Border Complex - Fife and Angus|Chapter 2 The Highland Border Complex]] ==
 
== [[The Highland Border Complex - Fife and Angus|Chapter 2 The Highland Border Complex]] ==
 
== [[Devonian (Old Red Sandstone) - Fife and Angus|Chapter 3 Devonian (Old Red Sandstone)]] ==
 
== [[Devonian (Old Red Sandstone) - Fife and Angus|Chapter 3 Devonian (Old Red Sandstone)]] ==
  
:[[Devonian (Old Red Sandstone) - Fife and Angus#Lower Old Red Sandstone|Lower Old Red Sandstone]]
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Lower Old Red Sandstone
  
:[[Devonian (Old Red Sandstone) - Fife and Angus#Earth movements of Middle Old Red Sandstone age|Earth movements of Middle Old Red Sandstone age]]
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Earth movements of Middle Old Red Sandstone age
  
:[[Devonian (Old Red Sandstone) - Fife and Angus#Upper Old Red Sandstone|Upper Old Red Sandstone]]
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Upper Old Red Sandstone
  
 
== [[Carboniferous - Fife and Angus|Chapter 4 Carboniferous]] ==
 
== [[Carboniferous - Fife and Angus|Chapter 4 Carboniferous]] ==
  
[[Carboniferous - Fife and Angus#Inverclyde Group|Inverclyde Group]]
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Inverclyde Group
  
[[Carboniferous - Fife and Angus#Strathclyde Group|Strathclyde Group]]
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Strathclyde Group
  
[[Carboniferous - Fife and Angus#Lower Limestone Formation|Lower Limestone Formation]]
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Lower Limestone Formation
  
[[Carboniferous - Fife and Angus#Limestone Coal Formation|Limestone Coal Formation]]
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Limestone Coal Formation
  
[[Carboniferous - Fife and Angus#Upper Limestone Formation|Upper Limestone Formation]]
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Upper Limestone Formation
  
[[Carboniferous - Fife and Angus#Passage Formation|Passage Formation]]
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Passage Formation
  
[[Carboniferous - Fife and Angus#Coal Measures|Coal Measures]]
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Coal Measures
  
[[Carboniferous - Fife and Angus#Carboniferous earth movements|Carboniferous earth movements]]
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Carboniferous earth movements
  
[[Carboniferous - Fife and Angus#Carboniferous intrusive igneous rocks|Carboniferous intrusive igneous rocks]]
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Carboniferous intrusive igneous rocks
  
[[Carboniferous - Fife and Angus#Intrusion mechanism of the Carboniferous|Intrusion mechanism of the Carboniferous]]
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Intrusion mechanism of the Carboniferous
  
[[Carboniferous - Fife and Angus#Permian vents|Permian vents]]
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Permian vents
  
 
== [[Quaternary - Fife and Angus|Chapter 5 Quaternary]] ==
 
== [[Quaternary - Fife and Angus|Chapter 5 Quaternary]] ==
  
:[[Quaternary - Fife and Angus#Glaciers|Glaciers]]
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Glaciers
  
:[[Quaternary - Fife and Angus#Till|Till]]
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Till
  
:[[Quaternary - Fife and Angus#Meltwater features|Meltwater features]]
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Meltwater features
  
:[[Quaternary - Fife and Angus#Raised beaches|Raised beaches]]
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Raised beaches
 
 
:[[Quaternary - Fife and Angus#The late-glacial and postglacial history of the area|The late-glacial and postglacial history of the area]]
 
  
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The late-glacial and postglacial history of the area
 
== Descriptive itineraries ==
 
== Descriptive itineraries ==
 
=== [[Arbroath, Crawton and Stonehaven - an excursion|Excursion 1 Arbroath, Crawton and Stonehaven (half day)]] ===
 
=== [[Arbroath, Crawton and Stonehaven - an excursion|Excursion 1 Arbroath, Crawton and Stonehaven (half day)]] ===
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=== [[Kingsbarns–Randerston - an excursion|Excursion 11 Kingsbarns–Randerston (half day)]] ===
 
=== [[Kingsbarns–Randerston - an excursion|Excursion 11 Kingsbarns–Randerston (half day)]] ===
 
=== [[Pittenweem–St Monans - an excursion|Excursion 12 Pittenweem–St Monans (half day)]] ===
 
=== [[Pittenweem–St Monans - an excursion|Excursion 12 Pittenweem–St Monans (half day)]] ===
:[[Pittenweem–St Monans - an excursion#Part 1. The Strathclyde Group|Part 1. The Strathclyde Group]]
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==== Part 1. The Strathclyde Group ====
:[[Pittenweem–St Monans - an excursion#Part 2. The Lower Limestone Formation|Part 2. The Lower Limestone Formation]]
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==== Part 2. The Lower Limestone Formation ====
 
 
 
=== [[St Monans–Ardross - an excursion|Excursion 13 St Monans–Ardross (half day)]] ===
 
=== [[St Monans–Ardross - an excursion|Excursion 13 St Monans–Ardross (half day)]] ===
 
=== [[Ardross–Elie Harbour - an excursion|Excursion 14 Ardross–Elie Harbour (half day)]] ===
 
=== [[Ardross–Elie Harbour - an excursion|Excursion 14 Ardross–Elie Harbour (half day)]] ===
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Over the years gentle but persistent encouragement to produce a new edition came from Douglas Grant and many other friends and colleagues and I am grateful to them all for this, as I am to my wife for reading and rereading the manuscript over a considerable period. The manuscript was put on the word processor by Sue Canfield and Margaret Connolly with patience and understanding. The maps and tables were entirely redrafted or are new, the work of Graeme Sandeman and Janet Mykura of the Cartographic and Graphic Services of the School of Geography and Geology, University of St Andrews.
 
Over the years gentle but persistent encouragement to produce a new edition came from Douglas Grant and many other friends and colleagues and I am grateful to them all for this, as I am to my wife for reading and rereading the manuscript over a considerable period. The manuscript was put on the word processor by Sue Canfield and Margaret Connolly with patience and understanding. The maps and tables were entirely redrafted or are new, the work of Graeme Sandeman and Janet Mykura of the Cartographic and Graphic Services of the School of Geography and Geology, University of St Andrews.
 
== Acknowledgements ==
 
 
I am grateful for the financial support of North East Fife 1 District Council, the Edinburgh Geological Society, the Geological Society of Glasgow, and the Geology Department of the University of St Andrews.
 
 
Itineraries in the guidebook are based partly on the literature referred to after each excursion, partly on the author's own field work and partly on information freely supplied over many years by his colleagues, past and present, in the Department of Geography and Geology, St Andrews University. The chapter on the Quaternary has benefited greatly from the advice of Professor C. Ballantyne. Earlier editions benefited from discussions with Professor E. H. Francis and Messrs I. H. Forsyth and J. I. Chisholm of the Geological Survey when they were re-mapping much of East Fife for the North Berwick and Arbroath map sheets for the Geological Survey. For this revised edition, David Walker walked almost all the excursion itineraries and I am grateful for his helpful comments.
 
 
The following maps are based, at least in part, on previously published work: [[Media:FANG_MAP_02.jpg|(Map 2)]], [[Media:FANG_MAP_03.jpg|(Map 3)]], [[Media:FANG_MAP_04.jpg|(Map 4)]], [[Media:FANG_MAP_07.jpg|(Map 7)]], [[Media:FANG_MAP_12.jpg|(Map 12)]], [[Media:FANG_MAP_21.jpg|(Map 21)]], [[Media:FANG_MAP_22.jpg|(Map 22)]] and [[Media:FANG_MAP_23.jpg|(Map 23)]] on maps of the Geological Survey; [[Media:FANG_MAP_05.jpg|(Map 5)]] on the work of D. Peacock; [[Media:FANG_MAP_06.jpg|(Map 6)]] on the work of B. Harte; maps [[Media:FANG_MAP_08.jpg|(Map 8)]] and [[Media:FANG_MAP_09.jpg|(Map 9)]] on the manuscript maps of the late W. T. Harry; [[Media:FANG_MAP_11.jpg|(Map 11)]] on the work of C. Rice; [[Media:FANG_MAP_14.jpg|(Map 14)]] on a map of D. Balsillie; [[Media:FANG_MAP_15.jpg|(Map 15)]] is after S. R. Kirk and [[Media:FANG_MAP_18.jpg|(Map 18)]] and [[Media:FANG_MAP_19.jpg|(Map 19)]] after Francis and Hopgood.
 
 
[[Media:FANG_PLA_06.jpg|(Plate 6)]] is reproduced by permission of the Director, British Geological Survey: Crown copyright reserved.
 
  
 
== Introduction ==
 
== Introduction ==
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Stratheden is also underlain by soft Upper Old Red Sandstone sediments and is bounded to the north by the more resistant Lower Old Red Sandstone lavas of the North Fife Hills. The southern slopes are composed of Carboniferous rocks, which are also relatively soft. These, however, are protected from erosion by the large Midland Valley Sill which forms such scarp features as Walton Hill near Cupar, the Lomond Hills and Bishop Hill. Standing above this scarp are the peaks of the East and West Lomonds, twin volcanic necks, now little more than deeply eroded stumps.
 
Stratheden is also underlain by soft Upper Old Red Sandstone sediments and is bounded to the north by the more resistant Lower Old Red Sandstone lavas of the North Fife Hills. The southern slopes are composed of Carboniferous rocks, which are also relatively soft. These, however, are protected from erosion by the large Midland Valley Sill which forms such scarp features as Walton Hill near Cupar, the Lomond Hills and Bishop Hill. Standing above this scarp are the peaks of the East and West Lomonds, twin volcanic necks, now little more than deeply eroded stumps.
  
Much of the higher ground between St Andrews and Leven is also capped by dolerite sills, but Kellie Law, Largo Law and Kincraig at Elie are three other old volcanic necks, see [[Media:FANG_MAP_02.jpg|(Map 2)]].
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Much of the higher ground between St Andrews and Leven is also capped by dolerite sills, but Kellie Law, Largo Law and Kincraig at Elie are three other old volcanic necks (see (Map 2)).
  
 
The low ground between Largo and Kirkcaldy is underlain by Upper Carboniferous Coal Measures, soft rocks with few natural exposures, but giving rise to good farm land. Westwards high ground reappears behind Kinghorn and Burntisland where it is due largely to volcanic rocks, both lavas and necks of old volcanoes of Lower Carboniferous age. Benarty, south of Loch Leven, is capped by a continuation of the Midland Valley Sill bordering the south side of Stratheden. The prominent headland at North Queensferry at the north end of the Forth bridges is also part of the Midland Valley Sill, while the Isle of May at the entrance to the Firth of Forth is a teschenite sill.
 
The low ground between Largo and Kirkcaldy is underlain by Upper Carboniferous Coal Measures, soft rocks with few natural exposures, but giving rise to good farm land. Westwards high ground reappears behind Kinghorn and Burntisland where it is due largely to volcanic rocks, both lavas and necks of old volcanoes of Lower Carboniferous age. Benarty, south of Loch Leven, is capped by a continuation of the Midland Valley Sill bordering the south side of Stratheden. The prominent headland at North Queensferry at the north end of the Forth bridges is also part of the Midland Valley Sill, while the Isle of May at the entrance to the Firth of Forth is a teschenite sill.
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The British Regional Geology Handbooks ''The Midland Valley'' by I. B. Cameron and D. Stephenson (1985) and ''The Grampian Highlands'' by G. S. Johnstone (1966), both published by HMSO, contain abundant references and are revised from time to time. For a treatment of the whole country the ''Geology of Scotland'' edited by G. Y. Craig (1991) is comprehensive and has long lists of references. Readers not familiar with geological terminology are referred to the Penguin or other geological dictionaries. The names of fossils have been kept to an elementary level deliberately in the belief that names such as Productus are more meaningful to the non-specialist. Full faunal lists for most of the fossil localities in Fife are to be found in the publications of the Geological Survey, e.g. ''Geology of East Fife'' (Forsyth and Chisholm 1977).
 
The British Regional Geology Handbooks ''The Midland Valley'' by I. B. Cameron and D. Stephenson (1985) and ''The Grampian Highlands'' by G. S. Johnstone (1966), both published by HMSO, contain abundant references and are revised from time to time. For a treatment of the whole country the ''Geology of Scotland'' edited by G. Y. Craig (1991) is comprehensive and has long lists of references. Readers not familiar with geological terminology are referred to the Penguin or other geological dictionaries. The names of fossils have been kept to an elementary level deliberately in the belief that names such as Productus are more meaningful to the non-specialist. Full faunal lists for most of the fossil localities in Fife are to be found in the publications of the Geological Survey, e.g. ''Geology of East Fife'' (Forsyth and Chisholm 1977).
  
[[Media:FANG_MAP_01.jpg|(Map 1)]] indicates the location of the 18 excursions. Coastal excursions almost all require mid- to low tide and for Excursion 15 (Kincraig) low tide is essential for access.
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Map 1 indicates the location of the 18 excursions. Coastal excursions almost all require mid- to low tide and for Excursion 15 (Kincraig) low tide is essential for access.
  
 
== Tides ==
 
== Tides ==
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The eighteen excursions in the guide are designed to cover the salient features of the geology of the area extending north from Kinghorn to Stonehaven. They are numbered from north to south and are intended as whole day and half day excursions, the approximate timing being indicated with each itinerary. Each excursion is illustrated by one or more maps on which the localities to be visited are indicated by numbers. There is a brief description in the text for each locality and each itinerary starts with an indication of the walking distance, purpose of the excursion and the route from St Andrews to the area to be examined.
 
The eighteen excursions in the guide are designed to cover the salient features of the geology of the area extending north from Kinghorn to Stonehaven. They are numbered from north to south and are intended as whole day and half day excursions, the approximate timing being indicated with each itinerary. Each excursion is illustrated by one or more maps on which the localities to be visited are indicated by numbers. There is a brief description in the text for each locality and each itinerary starts with an indication of the walking distance, purpose of the excursion and the route from St Andrews to the area to be examined.
  
The section on the geology of the area indicates which excursions serve to illustrate the different aspects of the geology. Metamorphic rocks can be seen on Excursions [[Edzell and Glen Esk - an excursion|2]] and [[Comrie Igneous Complex - an excursion|4]], and the Highland Boundary Fault together with the Highland Border Complex on Excursions [[Arbroath, Crawton and Stonehaven - an excursion|1]] and [[Edzell and Glen Esk - an excursion|2]]. Among igneous rocks, plutonic rocks can be seen on Excursion 4, sills on Excursions [[Dundee to Perth - an excursion|3]], [[Drumcarrow and Dura Den - an excursion|8]], [[East Lomond - an excursion|16]], [[Bishop Hill - an excursion|17]] and [[Kinghorn–Kirkcaldy - an excursion|18]]; dykes on Excursions [[Arbroath, Crawton and Stonehaven - an excursion|1]], [[Edzell and Glen Esk - an excursion|2]], [[Dundee to Perth - an excursion|3]], [[Rock and Spindle, St Andrews - an excursion|10]], [[St Monans–Ardross - an excursion|13]], [[Ardross–Elie Harbour - an excursion|14]] and [[Kincraig - an excursion|15]]; while lavas are well exposed on Excursions [[Dundee to Perth - an excursion|3]], [[Wormit Shore - an excursion|5]], [[North Fife Hills - an excursion|7]] and [[Kinghorn–Kirkcaldy - an excursion|18]]. Volcanic necks are abundant in Fife and are magnificently exposed on the coast; they can be examined to advantage on Excursions [[North Fife Hills - an excursion|7]], [[Rock and Spindle, St Andrews - an excursion|10]], [[St Monans–Ardross - an excursion|13]], [[Ardross–Elie Harbour - an excursion|14]], [[Kincraig - an excursion|15]] and [[East Lomond - an excursion|16]].
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The section on the geology of the area indicates which excursions serve to illustrate the different aspects of the geology. Metamorphic rocks can be seen on Excursions 2 and 4, and the Highland Boundary Fault together with the Highland Border Complex on Excursions 1 and 2. Among igneous rocks, plutonic rocks can be seen on Excursion 4, sills on Excursions 3, 8, 16, 17 and 18; dykes on Excursions 1, 2, 3, 10, 13, 14 and 15; while lavas are well exposed on Excursions 3, 5, 7 and 18. Volcanic necks are abundant in Fife and are magnificently exposed on the coast; they can be examined to advantage on Excursions 7, 10, 13, 14, 15 and 16.
  
Sedimentary rocks can be seen on almost all the excursions, those of the Lower Old Red Sandstone on Excursions [[Arbroath, Crawton and Stonehaven - an excursion|1]], [[Edzell and Glen Esk - an excursion|2]] and [[Dundee to Perth - an excursion|3]] in particular. The Upper Old Red Sandstone can be seen on Excursions [[Arbroath, Crawton and Stonehaven - an excursion|1]], [[Drumcarrow and Dura Den - an excursion|8]] and [[Bishop Hill - an excursion|17]] mainly; the lowest Carboniferous on Excursions [[Kinkell Braes, St Andrews - an excursion|9]], [[Rock and Spindle, St Andrews - an excursion|10]], [[Kingsbarns–Randerston - an excursion|11]], [[Pittenweem–St Monans - an excursion|12]], [[St Monans–Ardross - an excursion|13]] and [[Bishop Hill - an excursion|17]] and the Carboniferous Lower Limestone Formation on Excursions [[Pittenweem–St Monans - an excursion|12]] and [[Kinghorn–Kirkcaldy - an excursion|18]]. Quaternary sediments are well displayed on Excursions [[Dundee to Perth - an excursion|3]] and [[St Fort–Leuchars - an excursion|6]].
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Sedimentary rocks can be seen on almost all the excursions, those of the Lower Old Red Sandstone on Excursions 1, 2 and 3 in particular. The Upper Old Red Sandstone can be seen on Excursions 1, 8 and 17 mainly; the lowest Carboniferous on Excursions 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 17 and the Carboniferous Lower Limestone Formation on Excursions 12 and 18. Quaternary sediments are well displayed on Excursions 3 and 6.
  
A number of itineraries lead over high ground and these provide good views of the regional geology extending over the north-east part of the Midland Valley of Scotland. Such views are found on Excursions [[Dundee to Perth - an excursion|3]], [[North Fife Hills - an excursion|7]], [[East Lomond - an excursion|16]] and [[Bishop Hill - an excursion|17]].
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A number of itineraries lead over high ground and these provide good views of the regional geology extending over the north-east part of the Midland Valley of Scotland. Such views are found on Excursions 3, 7, 16 and 17.
  
Two excursions are particularly suitable as introductory ones. [[Kinkell Braes, St Andrews - an excursion|Excursion 9]] introduces common sedimentary rock types plus folding and faulting, while [[Rock and Spindle, St Andrews - an excursion|Excursion 10]] displays particularly straightforwardly volcanic necks and their stages of development.
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Two excursions are particularly suitable as introductory ones. Excursion 9 introduces common sedimentary rock types plus folding and faulting, while Excursion 10 displays particularly straightforwardly volcanic necks and their stages of development.
  
 
Which excursions anyone will choose will depend on their interests and time available together with the state of the tide since many excursions are inter-tidal, but the remarks of Sir Archibald Geikie, then Director of the Geological Survey, remain apposite: 'If I were asked to select a region in the British Isles where geology could best be practically taught by constant appeals to evidence in the field, I would with little hesitation recommend the East of Fife as peculiarly adapted for such a purpose. Every teacher of the science appreciates the value of a shore-section where the rocks have been dissected and washed clean and bare by the tides. Round its long stretches of coast-line, the East of Fife presents an almost continuous succession of such sections which for variety, instructiveness, and accessibility have hardly any rivals in the country.' (Geikie, 1902, p iv).
 
Which excursions anyone will choose will depend on their interests and time available together with the state of the tide since many excursions are inter-tidal, but the remarks of Sir Archibald Geikie, then Director of the Geological Survey, remain apposite: 'If I were asked to select a region in the British Isles where geology could best be practically taught by constant appeals to evidence in the field, I would with little hesitation recommend the East of Fife as peculiarly adapted for such a purpose. Every teacher of the science appreciates the value of a shore-section where the rocks have been dissected and washed clean and bare by the tides. Round its long stretches of coast-line, the East of Fife presents an almost continuous succession of such sections which for variety, instructiveness, and accessibility have hardly any rivals in the country.' (Geikie, 1902, p iv).

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