Editing Fife and Angus geology: an excursion guide

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'''Under construction'''
 
{{FifeandAngus}}
 
{{FifeandAngus}}
 
[[File:FANG_FROCOV.jpg|300px|thumbnail|Fife and Angus geology - an excursion. Front cover.]]
 
[[File:FANG_FROCOV.jpg|300px|thumbnail|Fife and Angus geology - an excursion. Front cover.]]
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== [[The Highland Border Complex - Fife and Angus|Chapter 2 The Highland Border Complex]] ==
 
== [[The Highland Border Complex - Fife and Angus|Chapter 2 The Highland Border Complex]] ==
== [[Devonian (Old Red Sandstone) - Fife and Angus|Chapter 3 Devonian (Old Red Sandstone)]] ==
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== [[Devonian (Old Red Sandstone - Fife and Angus|Chapter 3 Devonian (Old Red Sandstone)]] ==
  
 
:[[Devonian (Old Red Sandstone) - Fife and Angus#Lower Old Red Sandstone|Lower Old Red Sandstone]]
 
:[[Devonian (Old Red Sandstone) - Fife and Angus#Lower Old Red Sandstone|Lower Old Red Sandstone]]
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== [[Carboniferous - Fife and Angus|Chapter 4 Carboniferous]] ==
 
== [[Carboniferous - Fife and Angus|Chapter 4 Carboniferous]] ==
  
[[Carboniferous - Fife and Angus#Inverclyde Group|Inverclyde Group]]
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Inverclyde Group
  
[[Carboniferous - Fife and Angus#Strathclyde Group|Strathclyde Group]]
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Strathclyde Group
  
[[Carboniferous - Fife and Angus#Lower Limestone Formation|Lower Limestone Formation]]
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Lower Limestone Formation
  
[[Carboniferous - Fife and Angus#Limestone Coal Formation|Limestone Coal Formation]]
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Limestone Coal Formation
  
[[Carboniferous - Fife and Angus#Upper Limestone Formation|Upper Limestone Formation]]
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Upper Limestone Formation
  
[[Carboniferous - Fife and Angus#Passage Formation|Passage Formation]]
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Passage Formation
  
[[Carboniferous - Fife and Angus#Coal Measures|Coal Measures]]
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Coal Measures
  
[[Carboniferous - Fife and Angus#Carboniferous earth movements|Carboniferous earth movements]]
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Carboniferous earth movements
  
[[Carboniferous - Fife and Angus#Carboniferous intrusive igneous rocks|Carboniferous intrusive igneous rocks]]
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Carboniferous intrusive igneous rocks
  
[[Carboniferous - Fife and Angus#Intrusion mechanism of the Carboniferous|Intrusion mechanism of the Carboniferous]]
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Intrusion mechanism of the Carboniferous
  
[[Carboniferous - Fife and Angus#Permian vents|Permian vents]]
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Permian vents
  
 
== [[Quaternary - Fife and Angus|Chapter 5 Quaternary]] ==
 
== [[Quaternary - Fife and Angus|Chapter 5 Quaternary]] ==
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The eighteen excursions in the guide are designed to cover the salient features of the geology of the area extending north from Kinghorn to Stonehaven. They are numbered from north to south and are intended as whole day and half day excursions, the approximate timing being indicated with each itinerary. Each excursion is illustrated by one or more maps on which the localities to be visited are indicated by numbers. There is a brief description in the text for each locality and each itinerary starts with an indication of the walking distance, purpose of the excursion and the route from St Andrews to the area to be examined.
 
The eighteen excursions in the guide are designed to cover the salient features of the geology of the area extending north from Kinghorn to Stonehaven. They are numbered from north to south and are intended as whole day and half day excursions, the approximate timing being indicated with each itinerary. Each excursion is illustrated by one or more maps on which the localities to be visited are indicated by numbers. There is a brief description in the text for each locality and each itinerary starts with an indication of the walking distance, purpose of the excursion and the route from St Andrews to the area to be examined.
  
The section on the geology of the area indicates which excursions serve to illustrate the different aspects of the geology. Metamorphic rocks can be seen on Excursions [[Edzell and Glen Esk - an excursion|2]] and [[Comrie Igneous Complex - an excursion|4]], and the Highland Boundary Fault together with the Highland Border Complex on Excursions [[Arbroath, Crawton and Stonehaven - an excursion|1]] and [[Edzell and Glen Esk - an excursion|2]]. Among igneous rocks, plutonic rocks can be seen on Excursion 4, sills on Excursions [[Dundee to Perth - an excursion|3]], [[Drumcarrow and Dura Den - an excursion|8]], [[East Lomond - an excursion|16]], [[Bishop Hill - an excursion|17]] and [[Kinghorn–Kirkcaldy - an excursion|18]]; dykes on Excursions [[Arbroath, Crawton and Stonehaven - an excursion|1]], [[Edzell and Glen Esk - an excursion|2]], [[Dundee to Perth - an excursion|3]], [[Rock and Spindle, St Andrews - an excursion|10]], [[St Monans–Ardross - an excursion|13]], [[Ardross–Elie Harbour - an excursion|14]] and [[Kincraig - an excursion|15]]; while lavas are well exposed on Excursions [[Dundee to Perth - an excursion|3]], [[Wormit Shore - an excursion|5]], [[North Fife Hills - an excursion|7]] and [[Kinghorn–Kirkcaldy - an excursion|18]]. Volcanic necks are abundant in Fife and are magnificently exposed on the coast; they can be examined to advantage on Excursions [[North Fife Hills - an excursion|7]], [[Rock and Spindle, St Andrews - an excursion|10]], [[St Monans–Ardross - an excursion|13]], [[Ardross–Elie Harbour - an excursion|14]], [[Kincraig - an excursion|15]] and [[East Lomond - an excursion|16]].
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The section on the geology of the area indicates which excursions serve to illustrate the different aspects of the geology. Metamorphic rocks can be seen on Excursions 2 and 4, and the Highland Boundary Fault together with the Highland Border Complex on Excursions 1 and 2. Among igneous rocks, plutonic rocks can be seen on Excursion 4, sills on Excursions 3, 8, 16, 17 and 18; dykes on Excursions 1, 2, 3, 10, 13, 14 and 15; while lavas are well exposed on Excursions 3, 5, 7 and 18. Volcanic necks are abundant in Fife and are magnificently exposed on the coast; they can be examined to advantage on Excursions 7, 10, 13, 14, 15 and 16.
  
Sedimentary rocks can be seen on almost all the excursions, those of the Lower Old Red Sandstone on Excursions [[Arbroath, Crawton and Stonehaven - an excursion|1]], [[Edzell and Glen Esk - an excursion|2]] and [[Dundee to Perth - an excursion|3]] in particular. The Upper Old Red Sandstone can be seen on Excursions [[Arbroath, Crawton and Stonehaven - an excursion|1]], [[Drumcarrow and Dura Den - an excursion|8]] and [[Bishop Hill - an excursion|17]] mainly; the lowest Carboniferous on Excursions [[Kinkell Braes, St Andrews - an excursion|9]], [[Rock and Spindle, St Andrews - an excursion|10]], [[Kingsbarns–Randerston - an excursion|11]], [[Pittenweem–St Monans - an excursion|12]], [[St Monans–Ardross - an excursion|13]] and [[Bishop Hill - an excursion|17]] and the Carboniferous Lower Limestone Formation on Excursions [[Pittenweem–St Monans - an excursion|12]] and [[Kinghorn–Kirkcaldy - an excursion|18]]. Quaternary sediments are well displayed on Excursions [[Dundee to Perth - an excursion|3]] and [[St Fort–Leuchars - an excursion|6]].
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Sedimentary rocks can be seen on almost all the excursions, those of the Lower Old Red Sandstone on Excursions 1, 2 and 3 in particular. The Upper Old Red Sandstone can be seen on Excursions 1, 8 and 17 mainly; the lowest Carboniferous on Excursions 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 17 and the Carboniferous Lower Limestone Formation on Excursions 12 and 18. Quaternary sediments are well displayed on Excursions 3 and 6.
  
A number of itineraries lead over high ground and these provide good views of the regional geology extending over the north-east part of the Midland Valley of Scotland. Such views are found on Excursions [[Dundee to Perth - an excursion|3]], [[North Fife Hills - an excursion|7]], [[East Lomond - an excursion|16]] and [[Bishop Hill - an excursion|17]].
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A number of itineraries lead over high ground and these provide good views of the regional geology extending over the north-east part of the Midland Valley of Scotland. Such views are found on Excursions 3, 7, 16 and 17.
  
Two excursions are particularly suitable as introductory ones. [[Kinkell Braes, St Andrews - an excursion|Excursion 9]] introduces common sedimentary rock types plus folding and faulting, while [[Rock and Spindle, St Andrews - an excursion|Excursion 10]] displays particularly straightforwardly volcanic necks and their stages of development.
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Two excursions are particularly suitable as introductory ones. Excursion 9 introduces common sedimentary rock types plus folding and faulting, while Excursion 10 displays particularly straightforwardly volcanic necks and their stages of development.
  
 
Which excursions anyone will choose will depend on their interests and time available together with the state of the tide since many excursions are inter-tidal, but the remarks of Sir Archibald Geikie, then Director of the Geological Survey, remain apposite: 'If I were asked to select a region in the British Isles where geology could best be practically taught by constant appeals to evidence in the field, I would with little hesitation recommend the East of Fife as peculiarly adapted for such a purpose. Every teacher of the science appreciates the value of a shore-section where the rocks have been dissected and washed clean and bare by the tides. Round its long stretches of coast-line, the East of Fife presents an almost continuous succession of such sections which for variety, instructiveness, and accessibility have hardly any rivals in the country.' (Geikie, 1902, p iv).
 
Which excursions anyone will choose will depend on their interests and time available together with the state of the tide since many excursions are inter-tidal, but the remarks of Sir Archibald Geikie, then Director of the Geological Survey, remain apposite: 'If I were asked to select a region in the British Isles where geology could best be practically taught by constant appeals to evidence in the field, I would with little hesitation recommend the East of Fife as peculiarly adapted for such a purpose. Every teacher of the science appreciates the value of a shore-section where the rocks have been dissected and washed clean and bare by the tides. Round its long stretches of coast-line, the East of Fife presents an almost continuous succession of such sections which for variety, instructiveness, and accessibility have hardly any rivals in the country.' (Geikie, 1902, p iv).

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