Editing Fluvial sandbody architecture, cyclicity and sequence stratigraphic setting – implications for hydrocarbon reservoirs: the Westphalian C and D of the Osnabrück–Ibbenbüren area, northwest Germany

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First-order cycles are typically hundreds of metres thick (i.e. generally within biostratigraphic control) and are beyond outcrop resolution. They commence with a widely developed sandstone complex ([[:File:YGS_CHR_05_FLUV_FIG_03.jpg|Figure 3]]), the base of which is typically coarse grained and conglomeratic. In relatively proximal locations (east and southeast) these thick multi-storey–multi-lateral complexes (up to several tens of metres thick) form packages of sandstone that are remarkable in their lateral extent; log correlation suggests that they cover areas of hundreds of square kilometres ([[:File:YGS_CHR_05_FLUV_FIG_03.jpg|Figure 3]]). In more distal settings (west and northwest), the percentage of sandstone decreases and the sands are typically finer grained, but still amalgamate at the bases of cycles ([[:File:YGS_CHR_05_FLUV_FIG_03.jpg|Figure 3]], [[:File:YGS_CHR_05_FLUV_FIG_07.jpg|Figure 7]]).
 
First-order cycles are typically hundreds of metres thick (i.e. generally within biostratigraphic control) and are beyond outcrop resolution. They commence with a widely developed sandstone complex ([[:File:YGS_CHR_05_FLUV_FIG_03.jpg|Figure 3]]), the base of which is typically coarse grained and conglomeratic. In relatively proximal locations (east and southeast) these thick multi-storey–multi-lateral complexes (up to several tens of metres thick) form packages of sandstone that are remarkable in their lateral extent; log correlation suggests that they cover areas of hundreds of square kilometres ([[:File:YGS_CHR_05_FLUV_FIG_03.jpg|Figure 3]]). In more distal settings (west and northwest), the percentage of sandstone decreases and the sands are typically finer grained, but still amalgamate at the bases of cycles ([[:File:YGS_CHR_05_FLUV_FIG_03.jpg|Figure 3]], [[:File:YGS_CHR_05_FLUV_FIG_07.jpg|Figure 7]]).
  
Each first-order cycle can usually be further divided into four or five smaller-scale second-order cycles ([[:File:YGS_CHR_05_FLUV_FIG_03.jpg|Figure 3]]). These are usually beyond outcrop resolution, although excellent exposures at Piesberg quarry enabled a near-complete second-order cycle to be examined ([[:File:YGS_CHR_05_FLUV_FIG_04.jpg|Figure 4]], [[:File:YGS_CHR_05_FLUV_FIG_05.jpg|Figure 5]]). A typical second-order cycle comprises a gross upward-fining succession typically 120–200 m thick ([[:File:YGS_CHR_05_FLUV_TAB_05.jpg|Table 5]]). Coarse-grained, often conglomeratic, sandstones form thick sandbody complexes at the base of such cycles, passing upwards into floodplain mudstones and multiple palaeosols (including coal) at the top. These cycles can usually be correlated for tens of kilometres laterally ([[:File:YGS_CHR_05_FLUV_FIG_03.jpg|Figure 3]]).
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Each first-order cycle can usually be further divided into four or five smaller-scale second-order cycles ([[:File:YGS_CHR_05_FLUV_FIG_03.jpg|Figure 3]]). These are usually beyond outcrop resolution, although excellent exposures at Piesberg quarry enabled a near-complete second-order cycle to be examined ([[:File:YGS_CHR_05_FLUV_FIG_04.jpg|Figure 4]], [[:File:YGS_CHR_05_FLUV_FIG_05.jpg|Figure 5]]). A typical second-order cycle comprises a gross upward-fining succession typically 120–200m thick ([[:File:YGS_CHR_05_FLUV_TAB_05.jpg|Table 5]]). Coarse-grained, often conglomeratic, sandstones form thick sandbody complexes at the base of such cycles, passing upwards into floodplain mudstones and multiple palaeosols (including coal) at the top. These cycles can usually be correlated for tens of kilometres laterally ([[:File:YGS_CHR_05_FLUV_FIG_03.jpg|Figure 3]]).
  
 
Third-order cycles produce fining-upwards successions up to about 60 m thick ([[:File:YGS_CHR_05_FLUV_TAB_05.jpg|Table 5]], [[:File:YGS_CHR_05_FLUV_FIG_04.jpg|Figure 4]]). Outcrop studies allowed for the detailed examination of this order of cyclicity. The sedimentary facies show a predictable stacking pattern, characterized by channel-belt-dominated facies in the lower part (82%) and floodplain-dominated facies in the upper part (18%) ([[:File:YGS_CHR_05_FLUV_FIG_04.jpg|Figure 4]], [[:File:YGS_CHR_05_FLUV_FIG_05.jpg|Figure 5]]).
 
Third-order cycles produce fining-upwards successions up to about 60 m thick ([[:File:YGS_CHR_05_FLUV_TAB_05.jpg|Table 5]], [[:File:YGS_CHR_05_FLUV_FIG_04.jpg|Figure 4]]). Outcrop studies allowed for the detailed examination of this order of cyclicity. The sedimentary facies show a predictable stacking pattern, characterized by channel-belt-dominated facies in the lower part (82%) and floodplain-dominated facies in the upper part (18%) ([[:File:YGS_CHR_05_FLUV_FIG_04.jpg|Figure 4]], [[:File:YGS_CHR_05_FLUV_FIG_05.jpg|Figure 5]]).

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