Editing Fluvial sandbody architecture, cyclicity and sequence stratigraphic setting – implications for hydrocarbon reservoirs: the Westphalian C and D of the Osnabrück–Ibbenbüren area, northwest Germany

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Although it is clear that a sea-level linkage could produce the cyclicity described, there is no direct evidence for such a control. Elsewhere in Europe and North America there is good support for Upper Carboniferous base-level changes being driven by glacio-eustatic sea-level rises (Holdsworth & Collinson 1988, Maynard & Leeder 1992, Flint et al. 1995). However, most of this evidence comes from Namurian and early Westphalian strata, and, as discussed previously, the structural setting of northern Germany in the Bolsovian suggests that the Rheic Ocean had closed and that there was no direct marine connection to this basin (Maynard et al. 1997). In an inland basin such as this it is often difficult to be sure of the role that sea level has on facies patterns. If sea level was controlling the local base level, then this must represent a subtle influence that is not represented in the preserved succession by marine facies. No marine or tidal facies were identified from upper Westphalian and Stephanian successions in this area.
 
Although it is clear that a sea-level linkage could produce the cyclicity described, there is no direct evidence for such a control. Elsewhere in Europe and North America there is good support for Upper Carboniferous base-level changes being driven by glacio-eustatic sea-level rises (Holdsworth & Collinson 1988, Maynard & Leeder 1992, Flint et al. 1995). However, most of this evidence comes from Namurian and early Westphalian strata, and, as discussed previously, the structural setting of northern Germany in the Bolsovian suggests that the Rheic Ocean had closed and that there was no direct marine connection to this basin (Maynard et al. 1997). In an inland basin such as this it is often difficult to be sure of the role that sea level has on facies patterns. If sea level was controlling the local base level, then this must represent a subtle influence that is not represented in the preserved succession by marine facies. No marine or tidal facies were identified from upper Westphalian and Stephanian successions in this area.
  
Alternatively, third-order cycles could be driven purely by tectonic processes, possibly linked to short-term episodes of crustal loading (see Miall 1996: 477). However, such a mechanism alone may not produce the high-frequency events required to drive the cyclicity at this scale. Although not well constrained, it is thought likely that these third-order cycles have a timespan comparable with fourth-order sea-level cycles (10<sup>5</sup> years).
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Alternatively, third-order cycles could be driven purely by tectonic processes, possibly linked to short-term episodes of crustal loading (see Miall 1996: 477). However, such a mechanism alone may not produce the high-frequency events required to drive the cyclicity at this scale. Although not well constrained, it is thought likely that these third-order cycles have a timespan comparable with fourth-order sea-level cycles (10 to the power 5 years).
  
 
Hoffman & Grotzinger (1993) suggest that the climatic belt in which an orogen develops influences the tectonic style of the orogen and the architecture of the adjacent foreland basin. Monsoonal belts, such as those that would have characterized Upper Carboniferous times, would be typified by high rates of precipitation, leading to rapid erosional unroofing, deep erosion and the rapid filling of the foreland basin with sediment (Sinclair & Allen 1992, Hoffman & Grotzinger 1993). Drier periods would have less vegetation cover and hence would be characterized by increased erosion of bedrock, which would result in large volumes of material being available for transportation (Schumm 1968, Cecil 1990).
 
Hoffman & Grotzinger (1993) suggest that the climatic belt in which an orogen develops influences the tectonic style of the orogen and the architecture of the adjacent foreland basin. Monsoonal belts, such as those that would have characterized Upper Carboniferous times, would be typified by high rates of precipitation, leading to rapid erosional unroofing, deep erosion and the rapid filling of the foreland basin with sediment (Sinclair & Allen 1992, Hoffman & Grotzinger 1993). Drier periods would have less vegetation cover and hence would be characterized by increased erosion of bedrock, which would result in large volumes of material being available for transportation (Schumm 1968, Cecil 1990).
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Miall, A. D. 1996. ''The geology of fluvial deposits: sedimentary facies, basin analysis, and petroleum geology''. Berlin: Springer.
 
Miall, A. D. 1996. ''The geology of fluvial deposits: sedimentary facies, basin analysis, and petroleum geology''. Berlin: Springer.
  
Miall, A. D. 1997. ''The geology of stratigraphic sequences''. Berlin: Springer.  
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Miall, A. D. 1997. ''The geology of stratigraphic sequences''. Berlin: Springer. Morton, A. C., J. C. Claoué-Long, C. R. Hallsworth 2001. Zircon-age and heavy-mineral constraints on provenance of North Sea Carboniferous sandstones. ''Marine and Petroleum Geology ''18, 319–37. Morton, A. C., C. Hallsworth, A. Mosciarello 2005. Interplay between northern and southern sediment sources during Westphalian deposition in the Silverpit Basin, southern North Sea. This volume: 135– 146.
 
 
Morton, A. C., J. C. Claoué-Long, C. R. Hallsworth 2001. Zircon-age and heavy-mineral constraints on provenance of North Sea Carboniferous sandstones. ''Marine and Petroleum Geology ''18, 319–37.  
 
 
 
Morton, A. C., C. Hallsworth, A. Mosciarello 2005. Interplay between northern and southern sediment sources during Westphalian deposition in the Silverpit Basin, southern North Sea. This volume: 135– 146.
 
  
 
Nijman, W. & C. Puigdefabregas 1987. Coarse-grained pointbar structure in a molasse-type fluvial system, Eocene Castisent Sandstone Formation, South Pyrenean Basin. In ''Fluvial sedimentology'', A. D. Miall (ed.), 487–510. Memoir 5, Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, Calgary.
 
Nijman, W. & C. Puigdefabregas 1987. Coarse-grained pointbar structure in a molasse-type fluvial system, Eocene Castisent Sandstone Formation, South Pyrenean Basin. In ''Fluvial sedimentology'', A. D. Miall (ed.), 487–510. Memoir 5, Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists, Calgary.
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Olsen, H. 1990. Astronomical forcing of meandering river behaviour: Milankovitch cycles in Devonian of East Greenland. ''Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology ''79, 99–115.
 
Olsen, H. 1990. Astronomical forcing of meandering river behaviour: Milankovitch cycles in Devonian of East Greenland. ''Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology ''79, 99–115.
  
Rust, B. R. & B. G. Jones 1987. The Hawkesbury Sandstone south of Sydney, Australia: Triassic analogue for the deposit of a large, braided river. ''Journal of Sedimentary Petrology ''57, 222–33.  
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{{anchor|DdeLink7091222513984}} Rust, B. R. & B. G. Jones 1987. The Hawkesbury Sandstone south of Sydney, Australia: Triassic analogue for the deposit of a large, braided river. ''Journal of Sedimentary Petrology ''57, 222–33. Schumm, S. A. 1968. Speculations concerning paleohydrologic controls of terrestrial sedimentation. ''Geological Society of America, Bulletin ''79, 1573–88.
 
 
Schumm, S. A. 1968. Speculations concerning paleohydrologic controls of terrestrial sedimentation. ''Geological Society of America, Bulletin ''79, 1573–88.
 
  
Schumm, S. A. 1977. ''The fluvial system''. New York: John Wiley.
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Rust, B. R.1977. ''The fluvial system''. New York: John Wiley.
  
 
Schuster, S. A. 1968. Karbonstratigraphie nach Bohrlochmessungen. ''Erdöl–Erdgas Zeitschrift ''84, 439–57.
 
Schuster, S. A. 1968. Karbonstratigraphie nach Bohrlochmessungen. ''Erdöl–Erdgas Zeitschrift ''84, 439–57.
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Weltje, G. J., X. D. Meijer, P. L. de Boer 1998. Stratigraphic inversion of siliciclastic basin fills: a note on the distinction between supply signals resulting from tectonic and climatic forcing. ''Basin Research ''10, 129–53.
 
Weltje, G. J., X. D. Meijer, P. L. de Boer 1998. Stratigraphic inversion of siliciclastic basin fills: a note on the distinction between supply signals resulting from tectonic and climatic forcing. ''Basin Research ''10, 129–53.
 
[[category:Carboniferous hydrocarbon resources: the southern North Sea and surrounding onshore areas ]]
 

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