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'''This document is a transcription from the Geological Survey of Great Britain and Ireland 1897 Summary of Progress. There have been no changes to the original text, though new headings, bullet points and illustrations have been added for this Earthwise version. This issue provides a very useful contemporary account of the history of the Survey as well as detail on methods,  processes and outputs of the  Geological Survey'''
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'''This document is a transcription from the Geological Survey of Great Britain and Ireland 1897 Summary of Progress. There have been no changes to the original text, though new headings, bullet points and illustrations have been added for this Earthwise version.'''
  
 
== Geological Survey of Great Britain and Ireland ==
 
== Geological Survey of Great Britain and Ireland ==
  
 
=== Introduction ===
 
=== Introduction ===
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG01.jpg|thumbnail|Extract of a hand-coloured 1:63,360 scale geological map. Swindon.]]
 
  
 
As no official publication up to the present time has given an account of the origin, history, organisation, methods, and aims of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom, advantage is taken of the opportunity offered by the preparation of the present Summary of Progress to prefix an Introductory Section, in which these particulars may be specially set forth.
 
As no official publication up to the present time has given an account of the origin, history, organisation, methods, and aims of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom, advantage is taken of the opportunity offered by the preparation of the present Summary of Progress to prefix an Introductory Section, in which these particulars may be specially set forth.
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The objects for which the Geological Survey is carried on are of a twofold character, scientific and practical. It is charged with the preparation of a detailed map of the United Kingdom, in which the geological structure of every district is worked out, the boundaries and limits of the various rocks and superficial deposits are traced, and the outcrop of each important seam or vein is represented. Such a map forms the basis for an exact knowledge of the geology of the country, anti is thus of fundamental value in the interests of pure science. It is also intimately connected with many of the most important questions of everyday life. Thus by discriminating and delineating the different kinds of superficial deposits and subsoils, the map provides a basis for the solution of some of the chief problems in agriculture. It affords information which is absolutely necessary in questions of water-supply, drainage, and other sanitary matters. It supplies data required by the engineer in constructing roads and railways, by the architect in providing materials for new buildings, by the mining surveyor in determining the position of new pits and mines.
 
The objects for which the Geological Survey is carried on are of a twofold character, scientific and practical. It is charged with the preparation of a detailed map of the United Kingdom, in which the geological structure of every district is worked out, the boundaries and limits of the various rocks and superficial deposits are traced, and the outcrop of each important seam or vein is represented. Such a map forms the basis for an exact knowledge of the geology of the country, anti is thus of fundamental value in the interests of pure science. It is also intimately connected with many of the most important questions of everyday life. Thus by discriminating and delineating the different kinds of superficial deposits and subsoils, the map provides a basis for the solution of some of the chief problems in agriculture. It affords information which is absolutely necessary in questions of water-supply, drainage, and other sanitary matters. It supplies data required by the engineer in constructing roads and railways, by the architect in providing materials for new buildings, by the mining surveyor in determining the position of new pits and mines.
  
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG02.jpg|thumbnail|Extract of a hand-coloured 1:63,360 scale geological map, Dorset.]]
 
  
 
Besides preparing the map, the Geological Survey constructs detailed sections explanatory of the geological structure of the country; also memoirs descriptive of the geology of the district, represented on the sheets of the map, and larger monographs illustrative of the various geological formations of Britain. It. collects specimens of the minerals, rocks, and fossils of each of the three kingdoms, arranges and describes them, and displays them to the public in the Museums in London, Edinburgh, and Dublin.
 
Besides preparing the map, the Geological Survey constructs detailed sections explanatory of the geological structure of the country; also memoirs descriptive of the geology of the district, represented on the sheets of the map, and larger monographs illustrative of the various geological formations of Britain. It. collects specimens of the minerals, rocks, and fossils of each of the three kingdoms, arranges and describes them, and displays them to the public in the Museums in London, Edinburgh, and Dublin.
  
Besides its contributions to the progress of geology as a science, the Survey from the very beginning of its existence has kept in view the general utility of its operations. It has been constantly called upon by the various public Departments to furnish information in regard to the practical application of geology. The general public, also, has continually sought assistance of a similar kind. Examples of this practical side of the Survey work will be given in a later part of this Report. Each of the three offices in London, Edinburgh, and Dublin has become a centre of reference for information and advice on questions in which a knowledge of the geology of the country is requisite. The following introductory pages contain
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Besides its contributions to the progress of geology as a science, the Survey from the very beginning of its existence has kept in view the general utility of its operations. It has been constantly called upon by the various public Departments to furnish information in regard to the practical application of geology. The general public, also, has continually sought assistance of a similar kind. Examples of this practical side of the Survey work will be given in a later part of this Report. Each of the three offices in London, Edinburgh, and Dublin has become a centre of
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reference for information and advice on questions in which a knowledge of the geology of the country is requisite. The following introductory pages contain
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(1) a brief narrative of the origin and progress of the Geological Survey and of the Museum of Practical Geology, up to the present time.
 
(1) a brief narrative of the origin and progress of the Geological Survey and of the Museum of Practical Geology, up to the present time.
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(2) a description of the various kinds of work carried on by the Survey in the field, in the office, and in the museum, with an account of the publications, issued and in preparation, by the establishment.
 
(2) a description of the various kinds of work carried on by the Survey in the field, in the office, and in the museum, with an account of the publications, issued and in preparation, by the establishment.
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== The Origin and History of the Survey and Museum ==
 
== The Origin and History of the Survey and Museum ==
  
 
=== Henry T. De La Beche and the origins of the Survey ===
 
=== Henry T. De La Beche and the origins of the Survey ===
[[File:P575728.jpg|thumbnail|Henry Thomas De La Beche 1796 - 1855. Appointed director General 1835. Fellow of the Royal Society 1819; President of the Geological Society 1847-49; Knighted 1848; Awarded Woolaston Medal 1855.]]
 
  
 
The Geological Survey of the United Kingdom and the Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn Street, owe their origin to Henry Thomas De la Beche, one of the most illustrious geologists of this century. After various geological researches prosecuted early in life on the Continent and in the south of England, he eventually undertook a more detailed examination of the rocks of Devon and Cornwall. Supplying himself with the maps of the Ordnance Survey, on the scale of one inch to a mile, he began to map the geological structure of that part of the country. This labour was carried out with his own hands and at his own charges. As it advanced, be was led to perceive that it might possess great public importance in regard to the development of the mineral resources of the kingdom. An accurate delineation of the courses of the mineral veins, coalseams, and other helpful substances contained among the rocks beneath the surface, and of the bearings of the faults that· dislocate and shift them, could hardly fail to prove of much practical value as well as of scientific interest. After he had made some progress with his self-imposed task, De la Beche was induced to apply to the Government of the day for recognition and assistance. The Ordnance Survey, indeed, under the enlightened supervision of Colonel Colby, had already encouraged the surveyors of its staff to keep a record of their observations respecting the relations between variations in the topography of the land and changes in the characters of the rocks underneath. In this manner the geology of the district mound Ludlow, together with that of the Forest of Dean and the central parts of Herefordshire, had been with more or less precision traced upon the Ordnance sheets * [Proc. Gcol. Soc. vol. i. p. 447.] De la Beche represented to the authorities that the work on which he was engaged would be much more efficiently carried out if it were conjoined with that of the general trigonometrical survey of the whole country, which was then in progress. His views were eventually approved of, and in the year 1832 he was appointed by the Board of Ordnance to affix geological colours to the maps of Devonshire, with portions of Somerset, Dorset and Cornwall. By the spring of 1834 he was able to publish four sheets of the geological map of the county of Devon, whereon the general geological structure was depicted with a minuteness and beauty of execution such as had not before been equalled. Three additional sheets of the Ordnance Survey were completed by the end of that year, while another was nearly finished.
 
The Geological Survey of the United Kingdom and the Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn Street, owe their origin to Henry Thomas De la Beche, one of the most illustrious geologists of this century. After various geological researches prosecuted early in life on the Continent and in the south of England, he eventually undertook a more detailed examination of the rocks of Devon and Cornwall. Supplying himself with the maps of the Ordnance Survey, on the scale of one inch to a mile, he began to map the geological structure of that part of the country. This labour was carried out with his own hands and at his own charges. As it advanced, be was led to perceive that it might possess great public importance in regard to the development of the mineral resources of the kingdom. An accurate delineation of the courses of the mineral veins, coalseams, and other helpful substances contained among the rocks beneath the surface, and of the bearings of the faults that· dislocate and shift them, could hardly fail to prove of much practical value as well as of scientific interest. After he had made some progress with his self-imposed task, De la Beche was induced to apply to the Government of the day for recognition and assistance. The Ordnance Survey, indeed, under the enlightened supervision of Colonel Colby, had already encouraged the surveyors of its staff to keep a record of their observations respecting the relations between variations in the topography of the land and changes in the characters of the rocks underneath. In this manner the geology of the district mound Ludlow, together with that of the Forest of Dean and the central parts of Herefordshire, had been with more or less precision traced upon the Ordnance sheets * [Proc. Gcol. Soc. vol. i. p. 447.] De la Beche represented to the authorities that the work on which he was engaged would be much more efficiently carried out if it were conjoined with that of the general trigonometrical survey of the whole country, which was then in progress. His views were eventually approved of, and in the year 1832 he was appointed by the Board of Ordnance to affix geological colours to the maps of Devonshire, with portions of Somerset, Dorset and Cornwall. By the spring of 1834 he was able to publish four sheets of the geological map of the county of Devon, whereon the general geological structure was depicted with a minuteness and beauty of execution such as had not before been equalled. Three additional sheets of the Ordnance Survey were completed by the end of that year, while another was nearly finished.
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=== Ordnance Geological Survey — 1835 ===
 
=== Ordnance Geological Survey — 1835 ===
  
This rapid progress and the obvious advantages to be derived from the maps, led to a more definite recognition of De La Beche's labours. In the spring of 1835 the Master-General and Board of Ordnance consulted the Professors of Geology in the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge (Buckland Sedgwick) and the President of the Geological Society (Lyell), as to the expediency of combining a geological examination of the English counties with the geographical survey then in progress. Supported by the strongly expressed approval these distinguished men, the Treasury agreed to place on the estimates a grant to defray the additional expense which will be incurred in colouring geologically the Ordnance countymaps. * [Proc. Geol. Soc. val. ii. p. 154; Op. cit. vol. ii. p. 358.] As the sum thus granted amounted to only £300 a year, most of the expense of the mapping still fell upon De La Beche himself. He also undertook the lion's share of the field surveys, though he had the occasional assistance of some of the Ordnance surveyors who possessed geological experience. But he had gained the first and fundamental object which he had in view. His enterprise was officially recognised as a national Geological Survey, of which he himself became Director.
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This rapid progress and the obvious advantages to be derived from the maps, led to a more definite recognition of De La Beche's labours. In the spring of 1835 the Master-General and Board of Ordnance consulted the Professors of Geology in the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge (Buckland Sedgwick) and the President of the Geological Society (Lyell), as to the expediency of
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combining a geological examination of the English counties with the geographical survey then in progress. Supported by the strongly expressed approval these distinguished men, the Treasury agreed to place on the estimates a grant to defray the additional expense which will be incurred in colouring geologically the Ordnance countymaps. * [Proc. Geol. Soc. val. ii. p. 154; Op. cit. vol. ii. p. 358.] As the sum thus granted amounted to only £300 a year, most of the expense of the mapping still fell upon De La Beche himself. He also undertook the lion's share of the field surveys, though he had the occasional assistance of some of the Ordnance surveyors who possessed geological experience. But he had gained the first and fundamental object which he had in view. His enterprise was officially recognised as a national Geological Survey, of which he himself became Director.
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=== Museum of Economic Geology — 1841; Museum of Practical Geology — 1851 ===
 
=== Museum of Economic Geology — 1841; Museum of Practical Geology — 1851 ===
  
[[File:P640480.jpg|thumbnail|Museum of Practical Geology.  First floor with one of the subjects named as John Thackery.]]
 
  
[[File:P640481.jpg|thumbnail|Museum of Practical Geology.]]
 
  
But De La Beche's bold and far-seeing mind had conceived a much more extensive scheme than the preparation of a geological map and as soon as he felt himself secure in his first step, he proceeded to take the next. 1835 he submitted to the Government a proposal that the exceptional opportunities enjoyed by himself and his staff to collect specimens illustrative of the applications of geology to the useful purposes of life should he token advantage of, and that such collections, displaying the mineral resources of the country, should be placed in a room or rooms under the Board of Public Works. His plans being eventually accepted, rooms were assigned to him for the accommodation of the Survey collections in Craig's Court, Charing Cross, and he was asked to carry out his scheme under the control of the Office of Woods and Forests. Besides the extensive series of specimens gathered together during the mapping of Devon and Cornwall, there was another large assemblage of samples of British building-stones which had been collected by the Commission (whereof De La Beche was a member) appointed to enquire into the most suitable materials for rebuilding the new Palace of Westminster after the burning of the old Houses of Parliament in 1834. The specimens thus accumulated were arranged by De la Beche with reference to the instruction of the public, in illustration of the mineral resources of the country. Materials for making roads, for the construction of public works or buildings, for useful or ornamental purposes in the arts, for the preparation of metals, were grouped in such a way, and with such explanatory labels, maps, models, diagrams and sections, as to convey a large amount of useful information in the most compact and accessible form. In this manner the Museum of Practical Geology took its rise. The collections were in fair working order by the year 1839, though not ready to be opened to the public for two years later. De La Beche was appointed Director - an office which for some years he filled gratuitously. The infant  
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But De La Beche's bold and far-seeing mind had conceived a much more extensive scheme than the preparation of a geological map and as soon as he felt himself secure in his first step, he proceeded to take the next. 1835 he submitted to the Government a proposal that the exceptional opportunities enjoyed by himself and his staff to collect specimens illustrative of the applications of geology to the useful purposes of life should he token advantage of, and that such collections, displaying the mineral resources of the country, should be placed in a room or rooms under the Board of Public Works. His plans being eventually accepted, rooms were assigned to him for the accommodation of the Survey collections in Craig's Court, Charing Cross, and he was asked to carry out his scheme under the control of the Office of Woods and Forests. Besides the extensive series of specimens gathered together during the mapping of Devon and Cornwall, there was another large assemblage of samples of British building-stones which had been collected by the Commission (whereof De La Beche was a member) appointed to enquire into the most suitable materials for rebuilding the new Palace of Westminster after the burning of the old Houses of Parliament in 1834. The specimens thus accumulated were arranged by De la Beche with reference to the instruction of the public, in illustration of the mineral resources of the country. Materials for making roads, for the construction of public works or buildings, for useful or ornamental purposes in the arts, for the preparation of metals, were grouped in such a way, and with such explanatory labels, maps, models, diagrams and sections, as to convey a large amount of useful information in the most compact and accessible form. In this manner the Museum of Practical Geology took its rise. The collections were in fair working order by the year 1839, though not ready to be opened to the public for two years later. De La Beche was appointed Director - an office which for some years he filled gratuitously. The infant Metropolitan School of Science Applied to Mining and the Arts — later, School of Mines
  
=== Metropolitan School of Science Applied to Mining and the Arts — later, School of Mines<ref>The School of Mines continued to form part of the Jermyn Street establishment more than twenty rears. The progress of scientific education in that interval, however, demanded more space for practical instruction than the building could supply. Accordingly, in 1872, the Department of chemistry, physics, and biology were transferred to more commodious quarters erected by The Science and Art Department at South Kensington, and the other departments were similarly transferred as space could be provided for them. The last Professor at Jermyn Street was the late Warrington W. Smyth, on whose death, in 1890, the mining instruction was also removed to South Kensington.]</ref> ===
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A further part of the Director's wide-reaching scheme was soon put into execution in the premises at Craig's Court. He had planned that besides obtaining information from specimens, models, diagrams, and maps, the public should be enabled at a moderate cost to procure analyses of rocks, minerals, and soils, from the establishment under his control. He was authorised to fit up a laboratory and to appoint a. Curator of the Museum one of the ablest analytical chemists of his time, Richard Phillips. He likewise procured the sanction of the Office of Woods for the institution of lectures, having for their object the illustration of the applications of geology and of its associated sciences, to the useful purposes of life. Owing to the want of a suitable theatre and other appliances the design of providing lectures could not be carried into execution for twelve years. But eventually in the autumn of 1851, when the building in Jermyn Street was inaugurated, De La Beche's scheme was carried out by the opening of the School of Mines.* [The School of Mines continued to form part of the Jermyn Street establishment more than twenty rears. The progress of scientific education in that interval, however, demanded more space for practical instruction than the building could supply. Accordingly, in 1872, the Department of chemistry, physics, and biology were transferred to more commodious quarters erected by The Science and Art Department at South Kensington, and the other departments were similarly transferred as space could be provided for them. The last Professor at Jermyn Street was the late Warrington W. Smyth, on whose death, in 1890, the mining instruction was also removed to South Kensington.]
[[File:P575752.jpg|thumbnail|Warrington Wilkinson Smyth 1817 - 1890. appointed Mining Geologist 1845, Lecturer in Mining to School of Mines 1851-90. Appointed Inspector of Mineral property of the Duchy of Cornwall 1851 then Chief Mineral Inspector to the Crown; Fellow of the Royal Society 1858; President of the Geological Society 1866-68; Knighted 1887.]]
 
  
A further part of the Director's wide-reaching scheme was soon put into execution in the premises at Craig's Court. He had planned that besides obtaining information from specimens, models, diagrams, and maps, the public should be enabled at a moderate cost to procure analyses of rocks, minerals, and soils, from the establishment under his control. He was authorised to fit up a laboratory and to appoint a. Curator of the Museum one of the ablest analytical chemists of his time, Richard Phillips. He likewise procured the sanction of the Office of Woods for the institution of lectures, having for their object the illustration of the applications of geology and of its associated sciences, to the useful purposes of life. Owing to the want of a suitable theatre and other appliances the design of providing lectures could not be carried into execution for twelve years. But eventually in the autumn of 1851, when the building in Jermyn Street was inaugurated, De La Beche's scheme was carried out by the opening of the School of Mines.
 
<References/>
 
 
=== Mining Record Office ===
 
=== Mining Record Office ===
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG03.jpg|thumbnail|Section from a mine plan. Lowland Lead Mines. West Glencrieff. 1955.]]
 
  
 
There was one further department which owes its foundation to the indomitable energy of De La Beche. In 1838 the British Association had memorialised the Government to take steps to collect and preserve all plans recording the mining operations of the United Kingdom, inasmuch as great loss of life and destruction of property had arisen from the want of the proper preservation of such documents the Director of the Geological Survey was accordingly authorised to form a Mining Record Office as part of his establishment at Craig's Court. This new undertaking started in 1840, under the charge of T.B. Jordan; who was succeeded in 1845 by Robert Hunt. A large series of mining plans was gradually accumulated, and a yearly volume was issued embodying the statistics of the mineral industries of the United Kingdom. These statistics were obtained from the information voluntarily supplied by the proprietors, lessees, and others. Eventually, however, an Act of Parliament compelled the mine-owners to furnish the statistics to the Inspectors of Mines, who published them in their Report to the Home Office. As it thus became unnecessary that two similar returns should be published, and as it seemed desirable that the work of the Mining Record Office should he brought into closer relations with the Inspectors of Mines, that office was in the year 1883 transferred to the Home Office, under which the Inspectors serve.
 
There was one further department which owes its foundation to the indomitable energy of De La Beche. In 1838 the British Association had memorialised the Government to take steps to collect and preserve all plans recording the mining operations of the United Kingdom, inasmuch as great loss of life and destruction of property had arisen from the want of the proper preservation of such documents the Director of the Geological Survey was accordingly authorised to form a Mining Record Office as part of his establishment at Craig's Court. This new undertaking started in 1840, under the charge of T.B. Jordan; who was succeeded in 1845 by Robert Hunt. A large series of mining plans was gradually accumulated, and a yearly volume was issued embodying the statistics of the mineral industries of the United Kingdom. These statistics were obtained from the information voluntarily supplied by the proprietors, lessees, and others. Eventually, however, an Act of Parliament compelled the mine-owners to furnish the statistics to the Inspectors of Mines, who published them in their Report to the Home Office. As it thus became unnecessary that two similar returns should be published, and as it seemed desirable that the work of the Mining Record Office should he brought into closer relations with the Inspectors of Mines, that office was in the year 1883 transferred to the Home Office, under which the Inspectors serve.
  
 
== Account of the work of the Survey ==
 
== Account of the work of the Survey ==
 
[[File:P815508.jpg|thumbnail|Victoriae Reginae. C A P. An Act to facilitate the Completion of a Geological Survey of Great Britain and Ireland, under the Direction of the First Commisioner for the Time being of Her Majesty's Woods and Works. [31st July 1845]. ]]
 
  
 
=== Introduction ===
 
=== Introduction ===
  
 
We may now trace briefly the progress of the Geological Survey from its commencement to the present time. As above stated, it was begun as a private enterprise by De La Beche previous to the year 1832, and was first established as a branch of the Ordnance Survey in 1835. Ten years afterwards, in 1845, the staff was considerably increased, and the Survey was transferred from the Board of Ordnance to the 'Office of Woods and Works,' so that the whole of the geological organisation, including , the Survey, Museum, and Mining Record Office, was thus united in one Government Department, under De La Beche as Director-General. The Survey, which had hitherto been that of Great Britain, now became that of the United Kingdom. The staff in England and Wales was placed under A. C. Ramsay, its Director for Great Britain, while a small force was placed in Ireland, in charge of Henry James, R.E.
 
We may now trace briefly the progress of the Geological Survey from its commencement to the present time. As above stated, it was begun as a private enterprise by De La Beche previous to the year 1832, and was first established as a branch of the Ordnance Survey in 1835. Ten years afterwards, in 1845, the staff was considerably increased, and the Survey was transferred from the Board of Ordnance to the 'Office of Woods and Works,' so that the whole of the geological organisation, including , the Survey, Museum, and Mining Record Office, was thus united in one Government Department, under De La Beche as Director-General. The Survey, which had hitherto been that of Great Britain, now became that of the United Kingdom. The staff in England and Wales was placed under A. C. Ramsay, its Director for Great Britain, while a small force was placed in Ireland, in charge of Henry James, R.E.
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The Great Exhibition of 1851 led to the establishment in 1853 of a Department of Science and Art, under the Board of Trade, to which the Jermyn Street organisation was transferred. In 1856 this Department was placed under the control of the Lords of the Committee of Privy Council on Education, and this arrangement has continued up to the present time.
 
The Great Exhibition of 1851 led to the establishment in 1853 of a Department of Science and Art, under the Board of Trade, to which the Jermyn Street organisation was transferred. In 1856 this Department was placed under the control of the Lords of the Committee of Privy Council on Education, and this arrangement has continued up to the present time.
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=== Beginnings — 1832–1867 ===
 
=== Beginnings — 1832–1867 ===
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==== South-west England ====
 
==== South-west England ====
  
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG04.jpg|thumbnail|Part of Ordnance sheet 22, Sidmouth to Lyme Regis, the first completed sheet, geologically coloured (De la Beche's personal copy, 1834 colouring scheme).]]
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The mapping which De La Beche began in the south-west of England was so rapidly executed by him, and the few assistants associated with him, that in a few years be had completed the geological investigation of the whole of Devon, Cornwall, and West Somerset. By the year 1839 the maps of this region, embracing no fewer than fourteen of the Ordnance sheets on the scale of one inch to a mile, were published geologically coloured. These maps were not executed with the detail and precision now attainable on the larger scale employed by the Survey. They were, however, much more minute than anything that had preceded them, and. they are still, to this day, the only available maps of the region which they depict. Besides the maps there appeared in 1839 the well known 'Report on the Geology of Cornwall, Devon, and West Somerset', by Henry T. De La Beche, F.R.S., &c., Director of the Ordnance Geological Survey' - which served as a model for the subsequent official memoirs of the Survey.
  
The mapping which De La Beche began in the south-west of England was so rapidly executed by him, and the few assistants associated with him, that in a few years be had completed the geological investigation of the whole of Devon, Cornwall, and West Somerset. By the year 1839 the maps of this region, embracing no fewer than fourteen of the Ordnance sheets on the scale of one inch to a mile, were published geologically coloured. These maps were not executed with the detail and precision now attainable on the larger scale employed by the Survey. They were, however, much more minute than anything that had preceded them, and. they are still, to this day, the only available maps of the region which they depict. Besides the maps there appeared in 1839 the well known 'Report on the Geology of Cornwall, Devon, and West Somerset', by Henry T. De La Beche, F.R.S., &c., Director of the Ordnance Geological Survey' - which served as a model for the subsequent official memoirs of the Survey.
 
  
 
==== South Wales ====
 
==== South Wales ====
  
 
Having completed the mapping of the south-west of England De La Beche transferred his staff to South Wales; where another important mineral-field awaited detailed examination. By the year 1845, when the Survey passed from the Board of Ordnance to the Office of Woods and Works, the maps of nearly the whole of Somerset the western half of Gloucestershire the counties of Monmouth, Glamorgan, Carmarthen, and Pembroke and nearly the whole of Brecknock and Herefordshire, together with part of Worcestershire, had been completed and published. At that time the geological interest and industrial importance of a full and accurate delineation of the superficial deposits of the country had not peen recognised. The surveyors accordingly attended chiefly to the representation of the rocks beneath these deposits, and made no attempt to trace the limits and variations of the different accumulations now comprised under the general term 'Drift.'
 
Having completed the mapping of the south-west of England De La Beche transferred his staff to South Wales; where another important mineral-field awaited detailed examination. By the year 1845, when the Survey passed from the Board of Ordnance to the Office of Woods and Works, the maps of nearly the whole of Somerset the western half of Gloucestershire the counties of Monmouth, Glamorgan, Carmarthen, and Pembroke and nearly the whole of Brecknock and Herefordshire, together with part of Worcestershire, had been completed and published. At that time the geological interest and industrial importance of a full and accurate delineation of the superficial deposits of the country had not peen recognised. The surveyors accordingly attended chiefly to the representation of the rocks beneath these deposits, and made no attempt to trace the limits and variations of the different accumulations now comprised under the general term 'Drift.'
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==== Ireland ====
 
==== Ireland ====
  
 
Before a branch of the Geological Survey was established in Ireland, Captain J, E. Portlock had instituted in the northern counties of that island a geological department of the Ordnance Survey, which in 1837 included a geological and statistical office, a museum for geological and zoological specimens, and a laboratory for the examination of soils. Unfortunately, this useful organisation was in a few years broken up and the materials collected were removed to Dublin. Portlock, however, was enabled to prepare and publish, under the authority of the Master-General of the Board of Ordnance, his Report on the Geology, of the County of Londonderry, and of parts of Tyrone and Fermanagh,' which, with map, sections, views, and numerous plates of fossils, appeared in 1843, and served as the starting point for the detailed investigation of the geology of Ireland. The Geological Survey began its labours in Ireland ill the year 1845 under Captain (afterwards Sir Henry James, as Director. During these early years the energies of the staff were concentrated on the ground lying to the south of Dublin and extending thence into the southern counties.
 
Before a branch of the Geological Survey was established in Ireland, Captain J, E. Portlock had instituted in the northern counties of that island a geological department of the Ordnance Survey, which in 1837 included a geological and statistical office, a museum for geological and zoological specimens, and a laboratory for the examination of soils. Unfortunately, this useful organisation was in a few years broken up and the materials collected were removed to Dublin. Portlock, however, was enabled to prepare and publish, under the authority of the Master-General of the Board of Ordnance, his Report on the Geology, of the County of Londonderry, and of parts of Tyrone and Fermanagh,' which, with map, sections, views, and numerous plates of fossils, appeared in 1843, and served as the starting point for the detailed investigation of the geology of Ireland. The Geological Survey began its labours in Ireland ill the year 1845 under Captain (afterwards Sir Henry James, as Director. During these early years the energies of the staff were concentrated on the ground lying to the south of Dublin and extending thence into the southern counties.
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=== Progress by 1854 ===
 
=== Progress by 1854 ===
  
 
By the time the Geological Survey was transferred in 1854 to the Science and Art Department, great progress had been made in the mapping of England and Ireland. The survey, of the whole of Wales had been completed and published, and the field-work was advancing eastwards into the central counties of England, In Ireland, the maps of the counties of Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow, Carlow, Wexford, Kilkenny, Waterford, and almost all Cork had been completed, and , the field-work was being pushed into King's County and Queen's County, and across. Kerry and Limerick. In the same year, 1854, the operations of the Survey were extended into Scotland, where A.C. Ramsay broke ground in East Lothian.
 
By the time the Geological Survey was transferred in 1854 to the Science and Art Department, great progress had been made in the mapping of England and Ireland. The survey, of the whole of Wales had been completed and published, and the field-work was advancing eastwards into the central counties of England, In Ireland, the maps of the counties of Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow, Carlow, Wexford, Kilkenny, Waterford, and almost all Cork had been completed, and , the field-work was being pushed into King's County and Queen's County, and across. Kerry and Limerick. In the same year, 1854, the operations of the Survey were extended into Scotland, where A.C. Ramsay broke ground in East Lothian.
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=== Change of scales ===
 
=== Change of scales ===
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG05.jpg|thumbnail|A County Series field slip on the scale of 1:10,560 or six inches to one mile.]]
 
  
 
Up to this time the field-work of the staff in England and Wales had been conducted upon the basis of the Ordnance maps on the scale of one inch to a mile, no larger scale being available. In Ireland, however, maps on the scale of six inches to a mile had been published by the Ordnance Survey, and these from the beginning were adopted as the ground-work of the Geological Survey. Maps on this larger scale were available also in Scotland, and were from the first made use of for geological purposes. As the Geological Survey advanced northwards in England, it found the six northern counties mapped on the six-inch scale, and at once adopted this larger scale as the basis of the field-work.
 
Up to this time the field-work of the staff in England and Wales had been conducted upon the basis of the Ordnance maps on the scale of one inch to a mile, no larger scale being available. In Ireland, however, maps on the scale of six inches to a mile had been published by the Ordnance Survey, and these from the beginning were adopted as the ground-work of the Geological Survey. Maps on this larger scale were available also in Scotland, and were from the first made use of for geological purposes. As the Geological Survey advanced northwards in England, it found the six northern counties mapped on the six-inch scale, and at once adopted this larger scale as the basis of the field-work.
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As the great advantages of the use of the larger scale came to be recognised in practice, it was found that the superficial accumulations could be expressed on this scale without unduly interfering with the delineation of the structure of the rocks underneath. At the same time, increased attention was now being paid to the drifts which had been so long neglected. Their paramount importance in relation to soils had long been recognised, but their great geological interest as records of the Glacial Period was more gradually perceived. As the possession of a detailed topographical map now enabled the surveyors to trace the superficial accumulations with a precision quite unattainable on the old one-inch sheets, it was determined to delineate the distribution of these surface deposits at the same time that the boundaries of the underlying rocks were being followed. Hence in the six northern counties of England, in Scotland, and thenceforth everywhere in Ireland the drifts were distinguished and expressed upon the six-inch maps.
 
As the great advantages of the use of the larger scale came to be recognised in practice, it was found that the superficial accumulations could be expressed on this scale without unduly interfering with the delineation of the structure of the rocks underneath. At the same time, increased attention was now being paid to the drifts which had been so long neglected. Their paramount importance in relation to soils had long been recognised, but their great geological interest as records of the Glacial Period was more gradually perceived. As the possession of a detailed topographical map now enabled the surveyors to trace the superficial accumulations with a precision quite unattainable on the old one-inch sheets, it was determined to delineate the distribution of these surface deposits at the same time that the boundaries of the underlying rocks were being followed. Hence in the six northern counties of England, in Scotland, and thenceforth everywhere in Ireland the drifts were distinguished and expressed upon the six-inch maps.
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=== 1867 — expansion under Murchison and the creation of the Geological Survey of Scotland ===
 
=== 1867 — expansion under Murchison and the creation of the Geological Survey of Scotland ===
  
[[File:P575783.jpg|thumbnail|Sir Robert Impey Murchison 1792 - 1871. Appointed Direstor General 1855. Fellow of Royal Society 1826; President Geological society 1831-33. 1841-43, President Royal Geographical Society 1844-45,1852-53,1857-59, 1863-71; Knighted 1845; President British Association for Advancement of Science 1846; Copley Medal 1849; Brisbane Gold Medal 1859; Knight Commander, Order of the Bath 1863; Wollaston Medal 1864; Baronet 1866.]]
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The great practical and scientific advantages of carefully mapping the superficial deposits on a large scale was amply shown by the experience of a few years. It was found, however, that the tracing of the distribution of the various kinds of Drift greatly increased the amount of labour entailed in the preparation of the general map of the country, thus necessarily diminishing the area surveyed each year and reducing the rate of progress of the Survey. At last, in 1867, a great increase was made in the strength of the staff, which was also reorganised with a view to greater efficiency. A distinct, branch of the service was established for Scotland under a separate Director (A. Geikie), the English branch remaining under the supervision of A. C. Ramsay, and the Irish under J. B. Jukes, while Sir R I. Murchison, who had succeeded De La Beche in 1855, continued Director-General of the whole. At this important epoch in the history of its organisation, the Survey of England and Wales had completed and published the maps of the country as far north as a line drawn from Liverpool to Selby, and as far east as Retford, Melton Mowbray, Market Harborough, Huntingdon, London, Chatham, and Folkestone. Considerable progress had been made with the mapping of the north of Lancashire and Westmoreland, and a portion of the great Northumberland coalfield had been surveyed. In Ireland the maps of the larger half of the island had been published, and the field-work had been pushed northwards to a line drawn from Castlebar to Drogheda. In Scotland, where the staff had always been disproportionately small, the maps of the basin of the Forth had been completed from the north of Fife to Berwick-on-Tweed. The backward state of the Ordnance Survey had necessitated the transference of the staff to the west side of the country where six-inch maps where available, and some progress had been made with the examination of the south of Ayrshire.
  
The great practical and scientific advantages of carefully mapping the superficial deposits on a large scale was amply shown by the experience of a few years. It was found, however, that the tracing of the distribution of the various kinds of Drift greatly increased the amount of labour entailed in the preparation of the general map of the country, thus necessarily diminishing the area surveyed each year and reducing the rate of progress of the Survey. At last, in 1867, a great increase was made in the strength of the staff, which was also reorganised with a view to greater efficiency. A distinct, branch of the service was established for Scotland under a separate Director (A. Geikie), the English branch remaining under the supervision of A. C. Ramsay, and the Irish under J. B. Jukes, while Sir R I. Murchison, who had succeeded De La Beche in 1855, continued Director-General of the whole. At this important epoch in the history of its organisation, the Survey of England and Wales had completed and published the maps of the country as far north as a line drawn from Liverpool to Selby, and as far east as Retford, Melton Mowbray, Market Harborough, Huntingdon, London, Chatham, and Folkestone. Considerable progress had been made with the mapping of the north of Lancashire and Westmoreland, and a portion of the great Northumberland coalfield had been surveyed. In Ireland the maps of the larger half of the island had been published, and the field-work had been pushed northwards to a line drawn from Castlebar to Drogheda. In Scotland, where the staff had always been disproportionately small, the maps of the basin of the Forth had been completed from the north of Fife to Berwick-on-Tweed. The backward state of the Ordnance Survey had necessitated the transference of the staff to the west side of the country where six-inch maps where available, and some progress had been made with the examination of the south of Ayrshire.
 
  
 
=== 1880's — completion of the first Survey, England, Ireland and transference of focus to Scotland ===
 
=== 1880's — completion of the first Survey, England, Ireland and transference of focus to Scotland ===
  
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG06.jpg|thumbnail|Extract from Geological Survey of Scotland Sheet 32 Edinburgh.]]
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The whole energy of the staff was now directed to the complication as quickly as possible of the one-inch map of each of the three kingdoms. That of England and Wales was finished in 1883, and that of Ireland in 1887. The completion of these maps liberated some of the officers in England and in Ireland, who were accordingly transferred to the Scottish staff. As the Survey of Scotland was commenced long after that of the sister kingdoms, and was carried on for many years by a staff of only two surveyors, it is not yet completed. At the present time the unsurveyed portions of the country include the central mountains of Sutherland and Ross, with most of Inverness-shire, the western parts of Argyllshire, and most of the Western Isles.
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When the one-inch map of England was completed, most of the staff was detailed for the purpose of mapping the superficial deposits in the southern half of the kingdom, and thus providing materials for a complete agronomic map of the whole of Britain. An opportunity has at the same time been afforded to revise the published maps and bring them up to date. The nature and extent of this revision will be more particularly noticed in subsequent pages. When the one-inch map of Ireland was finished the staff was reduced, partly by transference to Scotland and partly by retirement, only such a number of officers being retained as might suffice for the necessary revisions which the progress of time requires. To these revisions also fuller reference will be made in the sequel.  
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The whole energy of the staff was now directed to the complication as quickly as possible of the one-inch map of each of the three kingdoms. That of England and Wales was finished in 1883, and that of Ireland in 1887. The completion of these maps liberated some of the officers in England and in Ireland, who were accordingly transferred to the Scottish staff. As the Survey of Scotland was commenced long after that of the sister kingdoms, and was carried on for many years by a staff of only two surveyors, it is not yet completed. At the present time the unsurveyed portions of the country include the central mountains of Sutherland and Ross, with most of Inverness-shire, the western parts of Argyllshire, and most of the Western Isles.
 
  
When the one-inch map of England was completed, most of the staff was detailed for the purpose of mapping the superficial deposits in the southern half of the kingdom, and thus providing materials for a complete agronomic map of the whole of Britain. An opportunity has at the same time been afforded to revise the published maps and bring them up to date. The nature and extent of this revision will be more particularly noticed in subsequent pages. When the one-inch map of Ireland was finished the staff was reduced, partly by transference to Scotland and partly by retirement, only such a number of officers being retained as might suffice for the necessary revisions which the progress of time requires. To these revisions also fuller reference will be made in the sequel.
 
  
 
== Survey Administration ==
 
== Survey Administration ==
  
 
To conclude this historical retrospect a brief notice may be given of the successive changes which have taken place in the administration of the establishment. On the death of Sir Henry De La Beche, the office of Director-General was, in 1855, conferred on Sir R.I. Murchison, who held it until the time of his death in 1871. It was then given to Sir A. C. Ramsay, who retired at the end of 1881, and was succeeded by Archibald Geikie. Ramsay, who had been made Local Director for Great Britain in 1845, became Senior Director for England and Wales, on the augmentation and reorganisation of the staff in 1867, and he retained that post until his promotion in 1872. He was then succeeded in it by H. W. Bristow, who retired in 1888.
 
To conclude this historical retrospect a brief notice may be given of the successive changes which have taken place in the administration of the establishment. On the death of Sir Henry De La Beche, the office of Director-General was, in 1855, conferred on Sir R.I. Murchison, who held it until the time of his death in 1871. It was then given to Sir A. C. Ramsay, who retired at the end of 1881, and was succeeded by Archibald Geikie. Ramsay, who had been made Local Director for Great Britain in 1845, became Senior Director for England and Wales, on the augmentation and reorganisation of the staff in 1867, and he retained that post until his promotion in 1872. He was then succeeded in it by H. W. Bristow, who retired in 1888.
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=== Ireland ===
 
=== Ireland ===
  
[[File:P585036.jpg|thumbnail|T. Oldham.]]
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The first Director for Ireland, Sir Henry James, after serving for only one year, was succeeded in 1846 by Thomas Oldham, who resigned the office in 1850 on his appointment to be Director of the Geological Survey of India. J. B. Jukes was then transferred from the English staff and held the Directorship until his death in 1869. He was followed by Edward Hull, who retired from the service in 1890, after which the duties of the Directorship for Ireland were merged in those of the Director General.
  
The first Director for Ireland, Sir Henry James, after serving for only one year, was succeeded in 1846 by Thomas Oldham, who resigned the office in 1850 on his appointment to be Director of the Geological Survey of India. J. B. Jukes was then transferred from the English staff and held the Directorship until his death in 1869. He was followed by Edward Hull, who retired from the service in 1890, after which the duties of the Directorship for Ireland were merged in those of the Director General.
 
  
 
=== Scotland ===
 
=== Scotland ===
  
 
When the Scottish branch of the Survey was established in 1867, A. Geikie was appointed Director, having previously served in the Survey of Scotland almost from its commencement. On his promotion to be Director-General at the end of 1881, the Directorship for Scotland was conferred on H. H. Howell, of the English staff, and is still held by him. On R. W. Bristow's retirement, H. H. Howell became also Senior Director for England and Wales.
 
When the Scottish branch of the Survey was established in 1867, A. Geikie was appointed Director, having previously served in the Survey of Scotland almost from its commencement. On his promotion to be Director-General at the end of 1881, the Directorship for Scotland was conferred on H. H. Howell, of the English staff, and is still held by him. On R. W. Bristow's retirement, H. H. Howell became also Senior Director for England and Wales.
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=== Staff complement ===
 
=== Staff complement ===
  
[[File:P008752.jpg|thumbnail|Scottish Survey staff in 1868. Standing, (left to right) I. Geikie, J. Horne, J. Croll, C. R. Campbell, B. N. Peach, D. R. Irvine, T. M. Skae, and R. L. jack. Seated, E. Hull and A. Geikie. From: Wilson, R.B. A history of the Geological Survey in Scotland. NERC, IGS, 1977.]]
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At present the whole staff of the Geological Survey, exclusive of the Museum of Practical Geology, consists of 52 persons of whom:
  
At present the whole staff of the Geological Survey, exclusive of the Museum of Practical Geology, consists of 52 persons of whom:
 
  
 
27 are stationed in England and Wales
 
27 are stationed in England and Wales
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7 in Ireland
 
7 in Ireland
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The various posts are thus arranged:
 
The various posts are thus arranged:
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1 Director-General
 
1 Director-General
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1 Messenger
 
1 Messenger
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The collectors are placed under the supervision of the fieldofficers. The assistant-geologists are promoted, as vacancies occur, to the ranks of the geologists. Over these officers come the district-surveyors, who supervise the work of a number of geologists or assistant-geologists in a wide district. The district-surveyors report to their director, who takes general charge of the work in his own kingdom. The Director-General is the head of the whole organisation and is responsible for its conduct. He personally visits the officers in the field in each of the three countries, and is thus enabled to see that the work is being everywhere conducted on the same lines, and that the results obtained harmonise. It is his duty to bring the experience gained in one kingdom to the elucidation of difficulties met with in another, and to decide from time to time when the surveyors of one branch may usefully be sent to see the work in progress by another branch. It will be understood that to these duties in the field are added the general correspondence and administration of the whole service, and editorial labour connected with the issue of the various publications.
 
The collectors are placed under the supervision of the fieldofficers. The assistant-geologists are promoted, as vacancies occur, to the ranks of the geologists. Over these officers come the district-surveyors, who supervise the work of a number of geologists or assistant-geologists in a wide district. The district-surveyors report to their director, who takes general charge of the work in his own kingdom. The Director-General is the head of the whole organisation and is responsible for its conduct. He personally visits the officers in the field in each of the three countries, and is thus enabled to see that the work is being everywhere conducted on the same lines, and that the results obtained harmonise. It is his duty to bring the experience gained in one kingdom to the elucidation of difficulties met with in another, and to decide from time to time when the surveyors of one branch may usefully be sent to see the work in progress by another branch. It will be understood that to these duties in the field are added the general correspondence and administration of the whole service, and editorial labour connected with the issue of the various publications.
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== The work of the Geological Survey ==
 
== The work of the Geological Survey ==
  
 
The combined scientific and practical objects which De La Beche set before himself as his great aim at the first institution of the Geological Survey have ever since been kept steadily in view. To this day the development of the mineral fields of the country by means of accurate maps, the collection of data for · the guidance of those in search of water-supply, the accumulation of information required for the purposes of agriculture, engineering, road-making, architecture these and many other applications of geology to the arts, manufactures, and practical affairs of our social life continue to form a large part of the work of the Survey. But as De La Beche and his early associates clearly recognised from the beginning, all such utilitarian uses of geology must be based on a thoroughly systematic examination of the geological structure of the country. So closely are pure science and industrial progress linked together that at any moment what might be supposed to be a matter of merely theoretical import, may be discovered to have a high practical significance and value. Hence the Geological Survey has been conducted as a strictly scientific investigation, and has thus been able to advance the interests of geological science. The geological structure of the British Isles has been traced out in greater detail than was before attempted in any country, and numerous additions have thereby been made to the general body of geological knowledge.
 
The combined scientific and practical objects which De La Beche set before himself as his great aim at the first institution of the Geological Survey have ever since been kept steadily in view. To this day the development of the mineral fields of the country by means of accurate maps, the collection of data for · the guidance of those in search of water-supply, the accumulation of information required for the purposes of agriculture, engineering, road-making, architecture these and many other applications of geology to the arts, manufactures, and practical affairs of our social life continue to form a large part of the work of the Survey. But as De La Beche and his early associates clearly recognised from the beginning, all such utilitarian uses of geology must be based on a thoroughly systematic examination of the geological structure of the country. So closely are pure science and industrial progress linked together that at any moment what might be supposed to be a matter of merely theoretical import, may be discovered to have a high practical significance and value. Hence the Geological Survey has been conducted as a strictly scientific investigation, and has thus been able to advance the interests of geological science. The geological structure of the British Isles has been traced out in greater detail than was before attempted in any country, and numerous additions have thereby been made to the general body of geological knowledge.
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=== Field-Work ===
 
=== Field-Work ===
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[Note: Some portions of the following account of the work of the Geological Survey are taken from a paper communicated by the Director General to the Federated Institution of Mining Engineers. See their Transactions vol. V (1893), p. 142.]
 
[Note: Some portions of the following account of the work of the Geological Survey are taken from a paper communicated by the Director General to the Federated Institution of Mining Engineers. See their Transactions vol. V (1893), p. 142.]
  
 
=== Base maps ===
 
=== Base maps ===
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG07.jpg|thumbnail|1832 Standard colours.]]
 
  
 
The first and most important duty of the Survey is to map in detail the geological structure of the country. When this task was first undertaken by De La Beche the Ordnance Survey maps on the scale of one inch to a mile (1:63,360) which had then been published for some of the southern counties of England, and which he used as the basis of his work, were imperfect and incorrect in their topography. They were among the first undertakings of the Ordnance Survey, before methods of surveying had been brought to the perfection that has since been attained. The possession of a correct topographical map is absolutely necessary as the ground-work of a detailed and accurate geological survey. From the outset the Ordnance maps have afforded the topographical ground-work on which all the geological surveying has been carried on. For many years only the sheets of the general map on the one-inch scale were available, but when, in the progress of the Ordnance Survey, maps on larger scales were prepared, these, as already remarked, were employed for geological purposes.
 
The first and most important duty of the Survey is to map in detail the geological structure of the country. When this task was first undertaken by De La Beche the Ordnance Survey maps on the scale of one inch to a mile (1:63,360) which had then been published for some of the southern counties of England, and which he used as the basis of his work, were imperfect and incorrect in their topography. They were among the first undertakings of the Ordnance Survey, before methods of surveying had been brought to the perfection that has since been attained. The possession of a correct topographical map is absolutely necessary as the ground-work of a detailed and accurate geological survey. From the outset the Ordnance maps have afforded the topographical ground-work on which all the geological surveying has been carried on. For many years only the sheets of the general map on the one-inch scale were available, but when, in the progress of the Ordnance Survey, maps on larger scales were prepared, these, as already remarked, were employed for geological purposes.
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Occasionally, where the geological structure becomes excessively, complicated, and requires to be mapped out in much detail, maps on the scale of 25 inches to a mile (1:2500) are made use of. Ultimately, however, all the work is reduced to the oneinch scale, this being the scale on which the general geological map of the United Kingdom is published.
 
Occasionally, where the geological structure becomes excessively, complicated, and requires to be mapped out in much detail, maps on the scale of 25 inches to a mile (1:2500) are made use of. Ultimately, however, all the work is reduced to the oneinch scale, this being the scale on which the general geological map of the United Kingdom is published.
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=== Introduction of mapping superficial deposits ===
 
=== Introduction of mapping superficial deposits ===
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG08.jpg|thumbnail|First engraved edition (1851) of the one-inch geological map of Snowdon with Andrew Ramsay’s MS addition of ‘Glacial scratch marks’, c.1852. Ramsay (who worked under De la Beche and eventually became Director of the Geological Survey) was the first person to thoroughly examine the evidence for glacial action in North Wales.]]
 
  
 
Geologists had made considerable progress in the study of the solid rocks before much attention was paid to the looser superficial deposits. The Geological Survey in this respect followed the general rule, and for many years made no systematic attempt to represent the numerous and often complex accumulations of superficial materials. Some of these, indeed, were shown on the maps, such as tracts of blown sand and river alluvium. But it must be remembered that in the south-western counties, where the Geological Survey began its work, superficial deposits are of such trifling extent and importance that they were not unnaturally ignored. Only after most of the southern half of England had been completed was it determined to map the surface-deposits with as much care and detail as had been expended on the older formations lying beno.1th' them. It had been discovered that this course was necessary both on scientific and practical grounds. In the first place, these superficial accumulations contained the records of the later geological vicissitudes of Britain, and were beginning to reveal a story of the profoundest interest, inasmuch as it dovetailed with the history of the human occupation of the country. In the second place, it was recognised that in many various ways these surface-deposits had a direct and vital influence upon the welfare of the population. In agriculture, in water-supply, in questions of drainage, and of the location of dwellings, it was seen that a knowledge of the soils and subsoil, and of the formations from which these are derived, was of the utmost practical importance. It was therefore determined that henceforth, the Geological Survey should not only portray the lineaments of the solid earth, but trace out the drifts and other surface-deposits which, like a garment, overspread and conceal them. It was impossible at first to go back over the ground where the surface-geology had been omitted. But it was arranged that when the whole country had once been mapped those tracts should he re-examined wherein the superficial deposits had not been surveyed. And, in the meantime, over new areas the survey was made complete by tracing out simultaneously both the surface deposits and the older rocks below them.
 
Geologists had made considerable progress in the study of the solid rocks before much attention was paid to the looser superficial deposits. The Geological Survey in this respect followed the general rule, and for many years made no systematic attempt to represent the numerous and often complex accumulations of superficial materials. Some of these, indeed, were shown on the maps, such as tracts of blown sand and river alluvium. But it must be remembered that in the south-western counties, where the Geological Survey began its work, superficial deposits are of such trifling extent and importance that they were not unnaturally ignored. Only after most of the southern half of England had been completed was it determined to map the surface-deposits with as much care and detail as had been expended on the older formations lying beno.1th' them. It had been discovered that this course was necessary both on scientific and practical grounds. In the first place, these superficial accumulations contained the records of the later geological vicissitudes of Britain, and were beginning to reveal a story of the profoundest interest, inasmuch as it dovetailed with the history of the human occupation of the country. In the second place, it was recognised that in many various ways these surface-deposits had a direct and vital influence upon the welfare of the population. In agriculture, in water-supply, in questions of drainage, and of the location of dwellings, it was seen that a knowledge of the soils and subsoil, and of the formations from which these are derived, was of the utmost practical importance. It was therefore determined that henceforth, the Geological Survey should not only portray the lineaments of the solid earth, but trace out the drifts and other surface-deposits which, like a garment, overspread and conceal them. It was impossible at first to go back over the ground where the surface-geology had been omitted. But it was arranged that when the whole country had once been mapped those tracts should he re-examined wherein the superficial deposits had not been surveyed. And, in the meantime, over new areas the survey was made complete by tracing out simultaneously both the surface deposits and the older rocks below them.
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=== Distinctions between different superficial deposits ===
 
=== Distinctions between different superficial deposits ===
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==== 'Head' superficial deposits created in situ ====
 
==== 'Head' superficial deposits created in situ ====
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But it is the second or transported series of surface deposits which chiefly engages the attention of the Survey. In mapping it an effort bas been made to discriminate each of its members, to trace out their relations to each other, and to ascertain the connected geological history of which they are the records. At the same time, regard has been had to the practical applications of the enquiry, the connection between soils and sub-soils has been kept in view, pervious and impervious deposits have been distinguished, and an endeavour has been made to collect and embody on the maps as much information as possible regarding the practical bearings of the surface geology.
 
But it is the second or transported series of surface deposits which chiefly engages the attention of the Survey. In mapping it an effort bas been made to discriminate each of its members, to trace out their relations to each other, and to ascertain the connected geological history of which they are the records. At the same time, regard has been had to the practical applications of the enquiry, the connection between soils and sub-soils has been kept in view, pervious and impervious deposits have been distinguished, and an endeavour has been made to collect and embody on the maps as much information as possible regarding the practical bearings of the surface geology.
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==== Alluvium ====
 
==== Alluvium ====
  
 
As an illustration of the detail into which the mapping in this department has been carried, I may mention that under the single term 'alluvium' we now discriminate and indicate by separate signs and colours a large number of distinct deposits. Thus, there is a group of freshwater alluvia, beginning with the present flood-plains of the rivers and rising by successive terraces to the highest and oldest fluviatile platforms. Deposits of peat are separately traced, and tracts of blown sand are likewise mapped. Another series consisting of marine alluvia ranges in position and age from the mud of modern estuaries and the sands of flat shores exposed at low water, through a succession of storm-benches and raised braches, up-to the highest and most ancient marine terraces 100 feet or more above the present level of the sea. Regarding the origin of some of the high-level gravels, there is still much uncertainty, but the Survey has taken the first necessary step for their ultimate explanation by carefully tracing their distribution on the ground.
 
As an illustration of the detail into which the mapping in this department has been carried, I may mention that under the single term 'alluvium' we now discriminate and indicate by separate signs and colours a large number of distinct deposits. Thus, there is a group of freshwater alluvia, beginning with the present flood-plains of the rivers and rising by successive terraces to the highest and oldest fluviatile platforms. Deposits of peat are separately traced, and tracts of blown sand are likewise mapped. Another series consisting of marine alluvia ranges in position and age from the mud of modern estuaries and the sands of flat shores exposed at low water, through a succession of storm-benches and raised braches, up-to the highest and most ancient marine terraces 100 feet or more above the present level of the sea. Regarding the origin of some of the high-level gravels, there is still much uncertainty, but the Survey has taken the first necessary step for their ultimate explanation by carefully tracing their distribution on the ground.
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==== Glacial Drifts ====
 
==== Glacial Drifts ====
  
 
But the most abundant and complex group of superficial deposits is that which may be classed under the old name of Glacial Drifts. These have been mapped by the Survey in detail, and much of the progress of glacial geology in this country has been due to the sedulous investigation thus required. The ice-striae on the solid rocks have been observed over so much of the county, that maps may now be constructed to show both the march of the main ice-sheets and the positions or the later valley-glaciers. The various boulder clays have been mapped, likewise the sands and gravels, the esker-drifts, the marine shelly-clays, and the distribution of erratic blocks. A vast amount of information has thus been collected regarding the history of the Ice Age in most parts of the country. Even in the southern or non-glaciated fringe already mentioned, one of the members of the staff, Mr. Clement Reid, has been able to detect interesting evidence that though beyond the limits of the northern ice-sheets, this southern tract nevertheless had its frozen soil and its rafts of coast-ice. In the north of Scotland proofs have been obtained of the long-lingering of the ice-fields in that region ; while in all the mountainous districts the gradual retreat of the valley glaciers, as the climate grew milder, has been shown .by mapping the successive crescents of moraines, one behind the other, up to the very base of the crags that supplied t heir material. In the, present Summary of Progress some interesting illustrations of this side of the work of the Survey will be adduced from the field-surveys of last year. The revision of the maps of South Wales, in particular, has brought to light much fresh evidence as to the local glaciation of that part of the country.
 
But the most abundant and complex group of superficial deposits is that which may be classed under the old name of Glacial Drifts. These have been mapped by the Survey in detail, and much of the progress of glacial geology in this country has been due to the sedulous investigation thus required. The ice-striae on the solid rocks have been observed over so much of the county, that maps may now be constructed to show both the march of the main ice-sheets and the positions or the later valley-glaciers. The various boulder clays have been mapped, likewise the sands and gravels, the esker-drifts, the marine shelly-clays, and the distribution of erratic blocks. A vast amount of information has thus been collected regarding the history of the Ice Age in most parts of the country. Even in the southern or non-glaciated fringe already mentioned, one of the members of the staff, Mr. Clement Reid, has been able to detect interesting evidence that though beyond the limits of the northern ice-sheets, this southern tract nevertheless had its frozen soil and its rafts of coast-ice. In the north of Scotland proofs have been obtained of the long-lingering of the ice-fields in that region ; while in all the mountainous districts the gradual retreat of the valley glaciers, as the climate grew milder, has been shown .by mapping the successive crescents of moraines, one behind the other, up to the very base of the crags that supplied t heir material. In the, present Summary of Progress some interesting illustrations of this side of the work of the Survey will be adduced from the field-surveys of last year. The revision of the maps of South Wales, in particular, has brought to light much fresh evidence as to the local glaciation of that part of the country.
 +
  
 
=== Value of mapping superficial deposits ===
 
=== Value of mapping superficial deposits ===
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=== Rock and fossil collecting ===
 
=== Rock and fossil collecting ===
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG09.jpg|thumbnail|''Pecopteris miltoni'' Artis. From the Kidston collection of fossil plants]]
 
 
  
 
While the field-work is in progress the surveyors collect, for the purposes of their maps and explanatory memoirs, such specimens of minerals, rocks, and fossils as may be found to require special examination. But a more systematic collection is carried out under their supervision by the collectors, for study by the petrographers and palaeontologists and for exhibition in the museums. Each branch of the Survey has one or two collectors, who move from district to district as their services are required. When one of them begins work in any area, he is supplied with a map on which the field-officer who surveyed it has marked every locality that should be searched, and also with a list of these localities, giving local details as to the rocks to be specially searched or examined, and the kind of specimens to be looked for and collected. When necessary, the surveyor accompanies the collector to the ground and starts him on his duties. Every specimen which the collector sends up to the office has a number affixed to it, and is entered in the lists, which are also at the same time transmitted to headquarters. The specimen are then unpacked and treated by the palaeontologists or petrographers, as the case may be. In this manner a remarkably complete illustration of the geology of the United Kingdom has been accumulated by the Survey, and it is constantly receiving additions and improvements. The chief series is deposited in the Museum of Practical Geology, London; but the geology of Scotland is most fully represented in the Museum of Science and Art in Edinburgh, and that of Ireland in the corresponding Museum at Dublin.
 
While the field-work is in progress the surveyors collect, for the purposes of their maps and explanatory memoirs, such specimens of minerals, rocks, and fossils as may be found to require special examination. But a more systematic collection is carried out under their supervision by the collectors, for study by the petrographers and palaeontologists and for exhibition in the museums. Each branch of the Survey has one or two collectors, who move from district to district as their services are required. When one of them begins work in any area, he is supplied with a map on which the field-officer who surveyed it has marked every locality that should be searched, and also with a list of these localities, giving local details as to the rocks to be specially searched or examined, and the kind of specimens to be looked for and collected. When necessary, the surveyor accompanies the collector to the ground and starts him on his duties. Every specimen which the collector sends up to the office has a number affixed to it, and is entered in the lists, which are also at the same time transmitted to headquarters. The specimen are then unpacked and treated by the palaeontologists or petrographers, as the case may be. In this manner a remarkably complete illustration of the geology of the United Kingdom has been accumulated by the Survey, and it is constantly receiving additions and improvements. The chief series is deposited in the Museum of Practical Geology, London; but the geology of Scotland is most fully represented in the Museum of Science and Art in Edinburgh, and that of Ireland in the corresponding Museum at Dublin.
  
 
== Preparation of maps, sections, and memoirs ==
 
== Preparation of maps, sections, and memoirs ==
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG10.jpg|thumbnail|A selection of watercolour cakes supplied by the firm of James Newman, some of which were specially formulated for the use of the Geological Survey.]]
 
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG11.jpg|thumbnail|Geological Standard Colours. A document listing the colours for the different strata that appear on the hand coloured maps.]]
 
  
 
The results obtained by the Geological Survey are made public in three forms: Maps, Sections, Memoirs and Annual Reports, to which may be added the arrangement. of specimens in the three national museums, with their diagrams, handbooks, and other explanatory matter, and also the original papers, which, lying often beyond the scope of the Survey's publications, are prepared by members of the staff and, with the consent of the Director-General, are communicated by them to scientific societies and journals.  
 
The results obtained by the Geological Survey are made public in three forms: Maps, Sections, Memoirs and Annual Reports, to which may be added the arrangement. of specimens in the three national museums, with their diagrams, handbooks, and other explanatory matter, and also the original papers, which, lying often beyond the scope of the Survey's publications, are prepared by members of the staff and, with the consent of the Director-General, are communicated by them to scientific societies and journals.  
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==== Horizontal sections ====
 
==== Horizontal sections ====
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG12.jpg|thumbnail|Extract from a horizontal section - across Arthur's Seat.]]
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG13.jpg|thumbnail|Extract from a horizontal section - across The Wych.]]
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG14.jpg|thumbnail|Extract from a horizontal section - Hewlers Heath]]
 
  
 
The Horizontal Sections have been an important feature in the work of the Geological Survey. De La Beche, recognising the practical disadvantages arising from the construction of sections without any regard to the proportion between height and distance, instituted the practice of drawing them on a true scale. He adopted the scale of six inches, to a mile, and invented a system of patterns for the different kinds of rock, which, as he was himself an artist, are appropriate and effective, for they represent in no small measure the general structure of the rocks. The institution of such sections, in lieu of the distorted diagrams too generally employed, was of great service to the Survey itself and also to the progress of geology; for it served to correct the evil influences of distorted drawing, with regard not only to geological structure but to the true forms of the ground.
 
The Horizontal Sections have been an important feature in the work of the Geological Survey. De La Beche, recognising the practical disadvantages arising from the construction of sections without any regard to the proportion between height and distance, instituted the practice of drawing them on a true scale. He adopted the scale of six inches, to a mile, and invented a system of patterns for the different kinds of rock, which, as he was himself an artist, are appropriate and effective, for they represent in no small measure the general structure of the rocks. The institution of such sections, in lieu of the distorted diagrams too generally employed, was of great service to the Survey itself and also to the progress of geology; for it served to correct the evil influences of distorted drawing, with regard not only to geological structure but to the true forms of the ground.
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The sections start from Ordnance datum (mean sea-level), but where the ground is low and there is consequently not room to express what is known of the geological structure above that datum, the lines are prolonged below it. The same practice is also followed in mining-districts. An effort has been made to illustrate every great district of the country by means of horizontal sections. Each geological formation, as it varies from one point to another, is crossed by lines of section, so that by comparing these with each other the changes in that formation from district to district can at once be seen. The length of each section varies indefinitely with the nature of the ground, many of them being upwards of 100 miles in length. Thus a series of sections runs from Anglesey and the coast of Merionethshire, across the mountainous ground of North Wales, to the plains of the Midlands. Another group crosses from the central counties to the South Coast. A connected chain of sections traverses the breadth of the island from Liverpool to the coast of Yorkshire.
 
The sections start from Ordnance datum (mean sea-level), but where the ground is low and there is consequently not room to express what is known of the geological structure above that datum, the lines are prolonged below it. The same practice is also followed in mining-districts. An effort has been made to illustrate every great district of the country by means of horizontal sections. Each geological formation, as it varies from one point to another, is crossed by lines of section, so that by comparing these with each other the changes in that formation from district to district can at once be seen. The length of each section varies indefinitely with the nature of the ground, many of them being upwards of 100 miles in length. Thus a series of sections runs from Anglesey and the coast of Merionethshire, across the mountainous ground of North Wales, to the plains of the Midlands. Another group crosses from the central counties to the South Coast. A connected chain of sections traverses the breadth of the island from Liverpool to the coast of Yorkshire.
 +
  
 
As an illustration of the character of these sections and their usefulness in correcting popular misconceptions as to geological structure and the form of the ground, reference may be made to that which runs from Leicestershire to Brighton and passes through London (Sheet 79). What is called the 'London basin' is by many people regarded as a deep trough of Clay, with the Chalk rising steeply from under it both to the, south and north, and we may see this conception embodied in actual diagrams in text-books and elsewhere. But in reality both the London Clay and the Chalk are so nearly flat that their inclination can hardly be detected except by careful measurement. And the section, accurately plotted from borings and well sections, shows them apparently horizontal, though on further inspection we find that their line of junction, which is well above the datum-line at either end, lies several hundred feet beneath it in the centre.
 
As an illustration of the character of these sections and their usefulness in correcting popular misconceptions as to geological structure and the form of the ground, reference may be made to that which runs from Leicestershire to Brighton and passes through London (Sheet 79). What is called the 'London basin' is by many people regarded as a deep trough of Clay, with the Chalk rising steeply from under it both to the, south and north, and we may see this conception embodied in actual diagrams in text-books and elsewhere. But in reality both the London Clay and the Chalk are so nearly flat that their inclination can hardly be detected except by careful measurement. And the section, accurately plotted from borings and well sections, shows them apparently horizontal, though on further inspection we find that their line of junction, which is well above the datum-line at either end, lies several hundred feet beneath it in the centre.
Line 324: Line 335:
  
 
Occasionally these Memoirs, when dealing with an important district, have been expanded beyond the limits of mere Sheet Explanations, and have taken the form of octavo volumes. Such, for instance, are the Memoirs on the Yorkshire Coalfield, on North Wales, on the geology of the Weald, on the geology of London, on the Isle of Wight, and on Cowal, Argyllshire.
 
Occasionally these Memoirs, when dealing with an important district, have been expanded beyond the limits of mere Sheet Explanations, and have taken the form of octavo volumes. Such, for instance, are the Memoirs on the Yorkshire Coalfield, on North Wales, on the geology of the Weald, on the geology of London, on the Isle of Wight, and on Cowal, Argyllshire.
 +
  
 
=== Two-fold Publication strategy [1897] ===
 
=== Two-fold Publication strategy [1897] ===
Line 338: Line 350:
  
 
==== Palaeontological memoirs ====
 
==== Palaeontological memoirs ====
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG15.jpg|thumbnail|An early Palaeontological memoir by John Phillips.]]
 
  
 
Besides the geological Memoirs, the Survey has published a series of Decades of British organic remains, with plates and descriptions, also Monographs of important genera or groups of fossils, including Professor Huxley's essays on Pterygotus, the Belemnitidae, and the crocodiles of Elgin, and Mr. Newton's memoirs on Cretaceous fishes and Pliocene vertebrates.
 
Besides the geological Memoirs, the Survey has published a series of Decades of British organic remains, with plates and descriptions, also Monographs of important genera or groups of fossils, including Professor Huxley's essays on Pterygotus, the Belemnitidae, and the crocodiles of Elgin, and Mr. Newton's memoirs on Cretaceous fishes and Pliocene vertebrates.
  
 
== Petrographical work ==
 
== Petrographical work ==
 
[[File:P505856.jpg|thumbnail|Sir Jethro Justinian Harris Teall (From a photograph by C. Vandyk Ltd., London.)]]
 
  
 
In the earlier days of the Geological Survey each member of the staff determined for himself, by such tests as he could apply, the various rocks encountered by him in the field. Only in rare cases were chemical analyses made for him. The study of rocks had fallen into neglect in this country, being eclipsed by the greater attraction of the study of fossils. The introduction of the microscope into geological investigation has, however, changed this apathy into active interest. It is now recognised that apart from mere questions of nomenclature, rooks contain materials for ·the solution of some of the most important problems in physical geology. Accordingly, microscopic enquiry has in recent years been organised as one of the branches of, the Geological Survey, and now affords constant and material aid in the progress of the mapping, three members of the staff being specially detailed for petrographical work in the office and in the field. Chemical analyses are likewise made, so as to afford all available information as to the composition of the mineral masses encountered in the field.
 
In the earlier days of the Geological Survey each member of the staff determined for himself, by such tests as he could apply, the various rocks encountered by him in the field. Only in rare cases were chemical analyses made for him. The study of rocks had fallen into neglect in this country, being eclipsed by the greater attraction of the study of fossils. The introduction of the microscope into geological investigation has, however, changed this apathy into active interest. It is now recognised that apart from mere questions of nomenclature, rooks contain materials for ·the solution of some of the most important problems in physical geology. Accordingly, microscopic enquiry has in recent years been organised as one of the branches of, the Geological Survey, and now affords constant and material aid in the progress of the mapping, three members of the staff being specially detailed for petrographical work in the office and in the field. Chemical analyses are likewise made, so as to afford all available information as to the composition of the mineral masses encountered in the field.
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== Palaeontological work ==
 
== Palaeontological work ==
 
[[File:P575758.jpg|thumbnail|John William Salter 1820 - 1869. Appointed Assistant to E. Forbes 1846, Palaeontologist 1854, resigned 1863.]]
 
  
 
In a country where the geological formations are to a large extent fossiliferous, it is necessary to pay close attention to the organic remains found in the rocks, to collect specimens of them, to determine these specifically, and to regulate thereby the geological boundary-lines upon the maps. The duty of examining and reporting upon fossils collected by the Geological Survey is entrusted to the palaeontologists, who occasionally visit the field, but are mainly engaged at the Museum. With reference to the exigencies of field-work a somewhat similar system is followed with regard to fossil evidence as in the case of the petrography, though the same minute detail is not necessary. The officer, when in doubt about any species, the names of which are needful in separating formations and drawing their mutual boundary-lines, collects specimens of them and sends them up to the office for identification. They are compared by the palaeontologist with published descriptions and named specimens, and a list of their specific names (as far as they can be made out) is supplied to the surveyor.
 
In a country where the geological formations are to a large extent fossiliferous, it is necessary to pay close attention to the organic remains found in the rocks, to collect specimens of them, to determine these specifically, and to regulate thereby the geological boundary-lines upon the maps. The duty of examining and reporting upon fossils collected by the Geological Survey is entrusted to the palaeontologists, who occasionally visit the field, but are mainly engaged at the Museum. With reference to the exigencies of field-work a somewhat similar system is followed with regard to fossil evidence as in the case of the petrography, though the same minute detail is not necessary. The officer, when in doubt about any species, the names of which are needful in separating formations and drawing their mutual boundary-lines, collects specimens of them and sends them up to the office for identification. They are compared by the palaeontologist with published descriptions and named specimens, and a list of their specific names (as far as they can be made out) is supplied to the surveyor.
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Besides such specimens as may require to be identified in the course of the mapping, full collections from the formations of each important district are made by the collectors under the guidance of the officers by whom the district bas been surveyed. Every specimen is numbered and registered in the collector's book, so that its source and destination can at once be found. Lists of the fossils are drawn up by the palaeontologists for insertion in the published Memoirs. A selection of the best specimens is placed in the cases, drawers, or cabinets of one or other of the three Museums. Fortunately in the case of the palaeontologists also, though much of their work is necessarily of a routine official character, opportunities are afforded to them of making interesting and important additions to palaeontological science. It was from this department of the Survey that Edward Forbes produced some of his best work that Salter made his fame as a palaeontologist, and that Professor Huxley enriched geological literature with his memoirs on Silurian crustacea, Old Red Sandstone fishes, and Triassic reptiles. Within the last few years fresh distinction has been won by Mr. E. T. Newton, of the same department, from the investigation and restoration of a series of remarkable reptiles from the Elgin Sandstones.
 
Besides such specimens as may require to be identified in the course of the mapping, full collections from the formations of each important district are made by the collectors under the guidance of the officers by whom the district bas been surveyed. Every specimen is numbered and registered in the collector's book, so that its source and destination can at once be found. Lists of the fossils are drawn up by the palaeontologists for insertion in the published Memoirs. A selection of the best specimens is placed in the cases, drawers, or cabinets of one or other of the three Museums. Fortunately in the case of the palaeontologists also, though much of their work is necessarily of a routine official character, opportunities are afforded to them of making interesting and important additions to palaeontological science. It was from this department of the Survey that Edward Forbes produced some of his best work that Salter made his fame as a palaeontologist, and that Professor Huxley enriched geological literature with his memoirs on Silurian crustacea, Old Red Sandstone fishes, and Triassic reptiles. Within the last few years fresh distinction has been won by Mr. E. T. Newton, of the same department, from the investigation and restoration of a series of remarkable reptiles from the Elgin Sandstones.
  
== The Museum of Practical Geology and the geological collection in Edinburgh and Dublin ==
+
== The Museum of Practical Geology and the geological Collection in Edinburgh and Dublin ==
  
 
For the complete illustration of the geology of a country it is necessary not only to construct geological maps and sections, and to publish printed descriptions, but also to collect and exhibit specimens of the minerals, rocks, and organic remains. Each branch of the Geological Survey has from the beginning kept in view the gathering of such specimens, and the galleries of the Museums in London, Edinburgh, and Dublin may be appealed to, as evidence of the manner in which the duty has been discharged. The Museum in Jermyn Street is intended to be primarily illustrative of the minerals, rocks, and fossils of England and Wales, but as far as space will admit an endeavour is made to exhibit what is specially characteristic of the other two kingdoms. For more detailed illustrations of Scottish geology recourse must be had to the Museum at Edinburgh, and for those of Irish geology to the Museum in Dublin.
 
For the complete illustration of the geology of a country it is necessary not only to construct geological maps and sections, and to publish printed descriptions, but also to collect and exhibit specimens of the minerals, rocks, and organic remains. Each branch of the Geological Survey has from the beginning kept in view the gathering of such specimens, and the galleries of the Museums in London, Edinburgh, and Dublin may be appealed to, as evidence of the manner in which the duty has been discharged. The Museum in Jermyn Street is intended to be primarily illustrative of the minerals, rocks, and fossils of England and Wales, but as far as space will admit an endeavour is made to exhibit what is specially characteristic of the other two kingdoms. For more detailed illustrations of Scottish geology recourse must be had to the Museum at Edinburgh, and for those of Irish geology to the Museum in Dublin.
  
 
=== England and Wales ===
 
=== England and Wales ===
 
[[File:P640480.jpg|thumbnail|Museum of Practical Geology.  First floor with one of the subjects named as John Thackery.]]
 
 
[[File:P640481.jpg|thumbnail|Museum of Practical Geology.]]
 
 
[[File:P640490.jpg|thumbnail|Museum of Economic Geology. Wood engraving from Illustrated london News 8th April 1848, showing the exterior.]]
 
  
 
The Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn Street, as its name denotes, was from the beginning intended to illustrate the applications of geology to the industries and arts of life as well as the more systematic treatment of the science. Its materials were meant in the first place to be taken from the United Kingdom and to form a collection in which the minerals, rocks, and fossils of this country should be displayed to the public in connection with examples of their economic uses. The cases of the Museum now contain an extensive collection of the building and ornamental stones of the British Isles, which has been largely made use of by architects, builders, and others. The granites of Cornwall, Devon, Scotland, and Ireland, the marbles of Derbyshire, Staffordshire, Devonshire, Bristol, the Isle of Man, Ireland, and Scotland, are well represented, together with many varieties of serpentine, limestone, dolomite, sandstone, slate, &c. Materials required in the process of grinding and polishing stones, and those illustrating the preparation of plaster and cements, also find a place. One of the most complete parts of the Museum is the great series of specimens illustrating the ores of Great Britain and Ireland. There are likewise colonial and foreign ores, and an important collection illustrating the metallurgy of the metals. Perhaps the most attractive departments of the Museum are the large horseshoe case, in which are placed examples of minerals and their applications in the arts, and the extensive ceramic collection, in which the connection between raw material and finished pottery is shown. The collection of British pottery was one of the earliest formed, and is still, perhaps, the most illustrative in the country. Models of geologically important districts and of different mines are placed in the model rooms and in different parts of the Museum.
 
The Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn Street, as its name denotes, was from the beginning intended to illustrate the applications of geology to the industries and arts of life as well as the more systematic treatment of the science. Its materials were meant in the first place to be taken from the United Kingdom and to form a collection in which the minerals, rocks, and fossils of this country should be displayed to the public in connection with examples of their economic uses. The cases of the Museum now contain an extensive collection of the building and ornamental stones of the British Isles, which has been largely made use of by architects, builders, and others. The granites of Cornwall, Devon, Scotland, and Ireland, the marbles of Derbyshire, Staffordshire, Devonshire, Bristol, the Isle of Man, Ireland, and Scotland, are well represented, together with many varieties of serpentine, limestone, dolomite, sandstone, slate, &c. Materials required in the process of grinding and polishing stones, and those illustrating the preparation of plaster and cements, also find a place. One of the most complete parts of the Museum is the great series of specimens illustrating the ores of Great Britain and Ireland. There are likewise colonial and foreign ores, and an important collection illustrating the metallurgy of the metals. Perhaps the most attractive departments of the Museum are the large horseshoe case, in which are placed examples of minerals and their applications in the arts, and the extensive ceramic collection, in which the connection between raw material and finished pottery is shown. The collection of British pottery was one of the earliest formed, and is still, perhaps, the most illustrative in the country. Models of geologically important districts and of different mines are placed in the model rooms and in different parts of the Museum.
  
 
=== The Library ===
 
=== The Library ===
 
[[File:P640476.jpg|thumbnail|Museum of Practical Geology. The Library.]]
 
  
 
The Library contains a tolerably complete representation of the literature of geology, British and foreign, and may be consulted by persons engaged in geological research. Large geological maps are arranged along the lower gallery of the Museum, and can be drawn down and studied by visitors. An extensive and valuable collection of photographs of geological sections and landscapes in the British Isles has been deposited in the Museum and is accessible to students. A microscope and a series of thin slices of typical rocks have been placed in the library for consultation.
 
The Library contains a tolerably complete representation of the literature of geology, British and foreign, and may be consulted by persons engaged in geological research. Large geological maps are arranged along the lower gallery of the Museum, and can be drawn down and studied by visitors. An extensive and valuable collection of photographs of geological sections and landscapes in the British Isles has been deposited in the Museum and is accessible to students. A microscope and a series of thin slices of typical rocks have been placed in the library for consultation.
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=== Museum publications ===
 
=== Museum publications ===
 
[[File:P585026.jpg|thumbnail|Frederick William Rudler.]]
 
  
 
A series of handbooks and catalogues has been issued in explanation of the different parts of the Museum. Thus Mr. F. W. Rudler, the Curator, has prepared a general handbook to the whole contents of the building, and also one to the collection of British pottery and porcelain. There are, likewise, catalogues of fossils. A new guide to the rock collections and another to the paleontological collections are now being prepared.
 
A series of handbooks and catalogues has been issued in explanation of the different parts of the Museum. Thus Mr. F. W. Rudler, the Curator, has prepared a general handbook to the whole contents of the building, and also one to the collection of British pottery and porcelain. There are, likewise, catalogues of fossils. A new guide to the rock collections and another to the paleontological collections are now being prepared.
  
 
=== Scotland ===
 
=== Scotland ===
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG16.jpg|thumbnail|Plan of the Survey collection in the Royal Scottish Museum.]]
 
  
 
The Geological Survey collection, illustrative of the geology of Scotland, is arranged in the upper gallery of the west wing of the Museum of Science and Art, Edinburgh. It includes an extensive series of rocks grouped in Petrographical order according to the respective counties from which they come, each specimen being traceable to its locality by a pin with its number fixed to the geological maps exhibited in the table case below. There is, likewise, a large collection of fossils, mainly Scottish, arranged in stratigraphical order. A handbook to the whole collection prepared by Mr. J. G. Goodchild, the Curator, has been published.
 
The Geological Survey collection, illustrative of the geology of Scotland, is arranged in the upper gallery of the west wing of the Museum of Science and Art, Edinburgh. It includes an extensive series of rocks grouped in Petrographical order according to the respective counties from which they come, each specimen being traceable to its locality by a pin with its number fixed to the geological maps exhibited in the table case below. There is, likewise, a large collection of fossils, mainly Scottish, arranged in stratigraphical order. A handbook to the whole collection prepared by Mr. J. G. Goodchild, the Curator, has been published.

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