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'''This document is a transcription from the Geological Survey of Great Britain and Ireland 1897 Summary of Progress. There have been no changes to the original text, though new headings, bullet points and illustrations have been added for this Earthwise version. This issue provides a very useful contemporary account of the history of the Survey as well as detail on methods,  processes and outputs of the  Geological Survey'''
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'''This document is a transcription from the Geological Survey of Great Britain and Ireland 1897 Summary of Progress. There have been no changes to the original text, though new headings, bullet points and illustrations have been added for this Earthwise version.'''
  
 
== Geological Survey of Great Britain and Ireland ==
 
== Geological Survey of Great Britain and Ireland ==
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=== Ordnance Geological Survey — 1835 ===
 
=== Ordnance Geological Survey — 1835 ===
  
This rapid progress and the obvious advantages to be derived from the maps, led to a more definite recognition of De La Beche's labours. In the spring of 1835 the Master-General and Board of Ordnance consulted the Professors of Geology in the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge (Buckland Sedgwick) and the President of the Geological Society (Lyell), as to the expediency of combining a geological examination of the English counties with the geographical survey then in progress. Supported by the strongly expressed approval these distinguished men, the Treasury agreed to place on the estimates a grant to defray the additional expense which will be incurred in colouring geologically the Ordnance countymaps. * [Proc. Geol. Soc. val. ii. p. 154; Op. cit. vol. ii. p. 358.] As the sum thus granted amounted to only £300 a year, most of the expense of the mapping still fell upon De La Beche himself. He also undertook the lion's share of the field surveys, though he had the occasional assistance of some of the Ordnance surveyors who possessed geological experience. But he had gained the first and fundamental object which he had in view. His enterprise was officially recognised as a national Geological Survey, of which he himself became Director.
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This rapid progress and the obvious advantages to be derived from the maps, led to a more definite recognition of De La Beche's labours. In the spring of 1835 the Master-General and Board of Ordnance consulted the Professors of Geology in the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge (Buckland Sedgwick) and the President of the Geological Society (Lyell), as to the expediency of
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combining a geological examination of the English counties with the geographical survey then in progress. Supported by the strongly expressed approval these distinguished men, the Treasury agreed to place on the estimates a grant to defray the additional expense which will be incurred in colouring geologically the Ordnance countymaps. * [Proc. Geol. Soc. val. ii. p. 154; Op. cit. vol. ii. p. 358.] As the sum thus granted amounted to only £300 a year, most of the expense of the mapping still fell upon De La Beche himself. He also undertook the lion's share of the field surveys, though he had the occasional assistance of some of the Ordnance surveyors who possessed geological experience. But he had gained the first and fundamental object which he had in view. His enterprise was officially recognised as a national Geological Survey, of which he himself became Director.
  
 
=== Museum of Economic Geology — 1841; Museum of Practical Geology — 1851 ===
 
=== Museum of Economic Geology — 1841; Museum of Practical Geology — 1851 ===
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=== Change of scales ===
 
=== Change of scales ===
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG05.jpg|thumbnail|A County Series field slip on the scale of 1:10,560 or six inches to one mile.]]
 
  
 
Up to this time the field-work of the staff in England and Wales had been conducted upon the basis of the Ordnance maps on the scale of one inch to a mile, no larger scale being available. In Ireland, however, maps on the scale of six inches to a mile had been published by the Ordnance Survey, and these from the beginning were adopted as the ground-work of the Geological Survey. Maps on this larger scale were available also in Scotland, and were from the first made use of for geological purposes. As the Geological Survey advanced northwards in England, it found the six northern counties mapped on the six-inch scale, and at once adopted this larger scale as the basis of the field-work.
 
Up to this time the field-work of the staff in England and Wales had been conducted upon the basis of the Ordnance maps on the scale of one inch to a mile, no larger scale being available. In Ireland, however, maps on the scale of six inches to a mile had been published by the Ordnance Survey, and these from the beginning were adopted as the ground-work of the Geological Survey. Maps on this larger scale were available also in Scotland, and were from the first made use of for geological purposes. As the Geological Survey advanced northwards in England, it found the six northern counties mapped on the six-inch scale, and at once adopted this larger scale as the basis of the field-work.
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=== 1867 — expansion under Murchison and the creation of the Geological Survey of Scotland ===
 
=== 1867 — expansion under Murchison and the creation of the Geological Survey of Scotland ===
 
[[File:P575783.jpg|thumbnail|Sir Robert Impey Murchison 1792 - 1871. Appointed Direstor General 1855. Fellow of Royal Society 1826; President Geological society 1831-33. 1841-43, President Royal Geographical Society 1844-45,1852-53,1857-59, 1863-71; Knighted 1845; President British Association for Advancement of Science 1846; Copley Medal 1849; Brisbane Gold Medal 1859; Knight Commander, Order of the Bath 1863; Wollaston Medal 1864; Baronet 1866.]]
 
  
 
The great practical and scientific advantages of carefully mapping the superficial deposits on a large scale was amply shown by the experience of a few years. It was found, however, that the tracing of the distribution of the various kinds of Drift greatly increased the amount of labour entailed in the preparation of the general map of the country, thus necessarily diminishing the area surveyed each year and reducing the rate of progress of the Survey. At last, in 1867, a great increase was made in the strength of the staff, which was also reorganised with a view to greater efficiency. A distinct, branch of the service was established for Scotland under a separate Director (A. Geikie), the English branch remaining under the supervision of A. C. Ramsay, and the Irish under J. B. Jukes, while Sir R I. Murchison, who had succeeded De La Beche in 1855, continued Director-General of the whole. At this important epoch in the history of its organisation, the Survey of England and Wales had completed and published the maps of the country as far north as a line drawn from Liverpool to Selby, and as far east as Retford, Melton Mowbray, Market Harborough, Huntingdon, London, Chatham, and Folkestone. Considerable progress had been made with the mapping of the north of Lancashire and Westmoreland, and a portion of the great Northumberland coalfield had been surveyed. In Ireland the maps of the larger half of the island had been published, and the field-work had been pushed northwards to a line drawn from Castlebar to Drogheda. In Scotland, where the staff had always been disproportionately small, the maps of the basin of the Forth had been completed from the north of Fife to Berwick-on-Tweed. The backward state of the Ordnance Survey had necessitated the transference of the staff to the west side of the country where six-inch maps where available, and some progress had been made with the examination of the south of Ayrshire.
 
The great practical and scientific advantages of carefully mapping the superficial deposits on a large scale was amply shown by the experience of a few years. It was found, however, that the tracing of the distribution of the various kinds of Drift greatly increased the amount of labour entailed in the preparation of the general map of the country, thus necessarily diminishing the area surveyed each year and reducing the rate of progress of the Survey. At last, in 1867, a great increase was made in the strength of the staff, which was also reorganised with a view to greater efficiency. A distinct, branch of the service was established for Scotland under a separate Director (A. Geikie), the English branch remaining under the supervision of A. C. Ramsay, and the Irish under J. B. Jukes, while Sir R I. Murchison, who had succeeded De La Beche in 1855, continued Director-General of the whole. At this important epoch in the history of its organisation, the Survey of England and Wales had completed and published the maps of the country as far north as a line drawn from Liverpool to Selby, and as far east as Retford, Melton Mowbray, Market Harborough, Huntingdon, London, Chatham, and Folkestone. Considerable progress had been made with the mapping of the north of Lancashire and Westmoreland, and a portion of the great Northumberland coalfield had been surveyed. In Ireland the maps of the larger half of the island had been published, and the field-work had been pushed northwards to a line drawn from Castlebar to Drogheda. In Scotland, where the staff had always been disproportionately small, the maps of the basin of the Forth had been completed from the north of Fife to Berwick-on-Tweed. The backward state of the Ordnance Survey had necessitated the transference of the staff to the west side of the country where six-inch maps where available, and some progress had been made with the examination of the south of Ayrshire.
  
 
=== 1880's — completion of the first Survey, England, Ireland and transference of focus to Scotland ===
 
=== 1880's — completion of the first Survey, England, Ireland and transference of focus to Scotland ===
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG06.jpg|thumbnail|Extract from Geological Survey of Scotland Sheet 32 Edinburgh.]]
 
  
 
The whole energy of the staff was now directed to the complication as quickly as possible of the one-inch map of each of the three kingdoms. That of England and Wales was finished in 1883, and that of Ireland in 1887. The completion of these maps liberated some of the officers in England and in Ireland, who were accordingly transferred to the Scottish staff. As the Survey of Scotland was commenced long after that of the sister kingdoms, and was carried on for many years by a staff of only two surveyors, it is not yet completed. At the present time the unsurveyed portions of the country include the central mountains of Sutherland and Ross, with most of Inverness-shire, the western parts of Argyllshire, and most of the Western Isles.
 
The whole energy of the staff was now directed to the complication as quickly as possible of the one-inch map of each of the three kingdoms. That of England and Wales was finished in 1883, and that of Ireland in 1887. The completion of these maps liberated some of the officers in England and in Ireland, who were accordingly transferred to the Scottish staff. As the Survey of Scotland was commenced long after that of the sister kingdoms, and was carried on for many years by a staff of only two surveyors, it is not yet completed. At the present time the unsurveyed portions of the country include the central mountains of Sutherland and Ross, with most of Inverness-shire, the western parts of Argyllshire, and most of the Western Isles.
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=== Ireland ===
 
=== Ireland ===
 
[[File:P585036.jpg|thumbnail|T. Oldham.]]
 
  
 
The first Director for Ireland, Sir Henry James, after serving for only one year, was succeeded in 1846 by Thomas Oldham, who resigned the office in 1850 on his appointment to be Director of the Geological Survey of India. J. B. Jukes was then transferred from the English staff and held the Directorship until his death in 1869. He was followed by Edward Hull, who retired from the service in 1890, after which the duties of the Directorship for Ireland were merged in those of the Director General.
 
The first Director for Ireland, Sir Henry James, after serving for only one year, was succeeded in 1846 by Thomas Oldham, who resigned the office in 1850 on his appointment to be Director of the Geological Survey of India. J. B. Jukes was then transferred from the English staff and held the Directorship until his death in 1869. He was followed by Edward Hull, who retired from the service in 1890, after which the duties of the Directorship for Ireland were merged in those of the Director General.
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=== Staff complement ===
 
=== Staff complement ===
 
[[File:P008752.jpg|thumbnail|Scottish Survey staff in 1868. Standing, (left to right) I. Geikie, J. Horne, J. Croll, C. R. Campbell, B. N. Peach, D. R. Irvine, T. M. Skae, and R. L. jack. Seated, E. Hull and A. Geikie. From: Wilson, R.B. A history of the Geological Survey in Scotland. NERC, IGS, 1977.]]
 
  
 
At present the whole staff of the Geological Survey, exclusive of the Museum of Practical Geology, consists of 52 persons of whom:
 
At present the whole staff of the Geological Survey, exclusive of the Museum of Practical Geology, consists of 52 persons of whom:
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=== Base maps ===
 
=== Base maps ===
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG07.jpg|thumbnail|1832 Standard colours.]]
 
  
 
The first and most important duty of the Survey is to map in detail the geological structure of the country. When this task was first undertaken by De La Beche the Ordnance Survey maps on the scale of one inch to a mile (1:63,360) which had then been published for some of the southern counties of England, and which he used as the basis of his work, were imperfect and incorrect in their topography. They were among the first undertakings of the Ordnance Survey, before methods of surveying had been brought to the perfection that has since been attained. The possession of a correct topographical map is absolutely necessary as the ground-work of a detailed and accurate geological survey. From the outset the Ordnance maps have afforded the topographical ground-work on which all the geological surveying has been carried on. For many years only the sheets of the general map on the one-inch scale were available, but when, in the progress of the Ordnance Survey, maps on larger scales were prepared, these, as already remarked, were employed for geological purposes.
 
The first and most important duty of the Survey is to map in detail the geological structure of the country. When this task was first undertaken by De La Beche the Ordnance Survey maps on the scale of one inch to a mile (1:63,360) which had then been published for some of the southern counties of England, and which he used as the basis of his work, were imperfect and incorrect in their topography. They were among the first undertakings of the Ordnance Survey, before methods of surveying had been brought to the perfection that has since been attained. The possession of a correct topographical map is absolutely necessary as the ground-work of a detailed and accurate geological survey. From the outset the Ordnance maps have afforded the topographical ground-work on which all the geological surveying has been carried on. For many years only the sheets of the general map on the one-inch scale were available, but when, in the progress of the Ordnance Survey, maps on larger scales were prepared, these, as already remarked, were employed for geological purposes.
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=== Introduction of mapping superficial deposits ===
 
=== Introduction of mapping superficial deposits ===
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG08.jpg|thumbnail|First engraved edition (1851) of the one-inch geological map of Snowdon with Andrew Ramsay’s MS addition of ‘Glacial scratch marks’, c.1852. Ramsay (who worked under De la Beche and eventually became Director of the Geological Survey) was the first person to thoroughly examine the evidence for glacial action in North Wales.]]
 
  
 
Geologists had made considerable progress in the study of the solid rocks before much attention was paid to the looser superficial deposits. The Geological Survey in this respect followed the general rule, and for many years made no systematic attempt to represent the numerous and often complex accumulations of superficial materials. Some of these, indeed, were shown on the maps, such as tracts of blown sand and river alluvium. But it must be remembered that in the south-western counties, where the Geological Survey began its work, superficial deposits are of such trifling extent and importance that they were not unnaturally ignored. Only after most of the southern half of England had been completed was it determined to map the surface-deposits with as much care and detail as had been expended on the older formations lying beno.1th' them. It had been discovered that this course was necessary both on scientific and practical grounds. In the first place, these superficial accumulations contained the records of the later geological vicissitudes of Britain, and were beginning to reveal a story of the profoundest interest, inasmuch as it dovetailed with the history of the human occupation of the country. In the second place, it was recognised that in many various ways these surface-deposits had a direct and vital influence upon the welfare of the population. In agriculture, in water-supply, in questions of drainage, and of the location of dwellings, it was seen that a knowledge of the soils and subsoil, and of the formations from which these are derived, was of the utmost practical importance. It was therefore determined that henceforth, the Geological Survey should not only portray the lineaments of the solid earth, but trace out the drifts and other surface-deposits which, like a garment, overspread and conceal them. It was impossible at first to go back over the ground where the surface-geology had been omitted. But it was arranged that when the whole country had once been mapped those tracts should he re-examined wherein the superficial deposits had not been surveyed. And, in the meantime, over new areas the survey was made complete by tracing out simultaneously both the surface deposits and the older rocks below them.
 
Geologists had made considerable progress in the study of the solid rocks before much attention was paid to the looser superficial deposits. The Geological Survey in this respect followed the general rule, and for many years made no systematic attempt to represent the numerous and often complex accumulations of superficial materials. Some of these, indeed, were shown on the maps, such as tracts of blown sand and river alluvium. But it must be remembered that in the south-western counties, where the Geological Survey began its work, superficial deposits are of such trifling extent and importance that they were not unnaturally ignored. Only after most of the southern half of England had been completed was it determined to map the surface-deposits with as much care and detail as had been expended on the older formations lying beno.1th' them. It had been discovered that this course was necessary both on scientific and practical grounds. In the first place, these superficial accumulations contained the records of the later geological vicissitudes of Britain, and were beginning to reveal a story of the profoundest interest, inasmuch as it dovetailed with the history of the human occupation of the country. In the second place, it was recognised that in many various ways these surface-deposits had a direct and vital influence upon the welfare of the population. In agriculture, in water-supply, in questions of drainage, and of the location of dwellings, it was seen that a knowledge of the soils and subsoil, and of the formations from which these are derived, was of the utmost practical importance. It was therefore determined that henceforth, the Geological Survey should not only portray the lineaments of the solid earth, but trace out the drifts and other surface-deposits which, like a garment, overspread and conceal them. It was impossible at first to go back over the ground where the surface-geology had been omitted. But it was arranged that when the whole country had once been mapped those tracts should he re-examined wherein the superficial deposits had not been surveyed. And, in the meantime, over new areas the survey was made complete by tracing out simultaneously both the surface deposits and the older rocks below them.
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=== Rock and fossil collecting ===
 
=== Rock and fossil collecting ===
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG09.jpg|thumbnail|''Pecopteris miltoni'' Artis. From the Kidston collection of fossil plants]]
 
 
  
 
While the field-work is in progress the surveyors collect, for the purposes of their maps and explanatory memoirs, such specimens of minerals, rocks, and fossils as may be found to require special examination. But a more systematic collection is carried out under their supervision by the collectors, for study by the petrographers and palaeontologists and for exhibition in the museums. Each branch of the Survey has one or two collectors, who move from district to district as their services are required. When one of them begins work in any area, he is supplied with a map on which the field-officer who surveyed it has marked every locality that should be searched, and also with a list of these localities, giving local details as to the rocks to be specially searched or examined, and the kind of specimens to be looked for and collected. When necessary, the surveyor accompanies the collector to the ground and starts him on his duties. Every specimen which the collector sends up to the office has a number affixed to it, and is entered in the lists, which are also at the same time transmitted to headquarters. The specimen are then unpacked and treated by the palaeontologists or petrographers, as the case may be. In this manner a remarkably complete illustration of the geology of the United Kingdom has been accumulated by the Survey, and it is constantly receiving additions and improvements. The chief series is deposited in the Museum of Practical Geology, London; but the geology of Scotland is most fully represented in the Museum of Science and Art in Edinburgh, and that of Ireland in the corresponding Museum at Dublin.
 
While the field-work is in progress the surveyors collect, for the purposes of their maps and explanatory memoirs, such specimens of minerals, rocks, and fossils as may be found to require special examination. But a more systematic collection is carried out under their supervision by the collectors, for study by the petrographers and palaeontologists and for exhibition in the museums. Each branch of the Survey has one or two collectors, who move from district to district as their services are required. When one of them begins work in any area, he is supplied with a map on which the field-officer who surveyed it has marked every locality that should be searched, and also with a list of these localities, giving local details as to the rocks to be specially searched or examined, and the kind of specimens to be looked for and collected. When necessary, the surveyor accompanies the collector to the ground and starts him on his duties. Every specimen which the collector sends up to the office has a number affixed to it, and is entered in the lists, which are also at the same time transmitted to headquarters. The specimen are then unpacked and treated by the palaeontologists or petrographers, as the case may be. In this manner a remarkably complete illustration of the geology of the United Kingdom has been accumulated by the Survey, and it is constantly receiving additions and improvements. The chief series is deposited in the Museum of Practical Geology, London; but the geology of Scotland is most fully represented in the Museum of Science and Art in Edinburgh, and that of Ireland in the corresponding Museum at Dublin.
  
 
== Preparation of maps, sections, and memoirs ==
 
== Preparation of maps, sections, and memoirs ==
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG10.jpg|thumbnail|A selection of watercolour cakes supplied by the firm of James Newman, some of which were specially formulated for the use of the Geological Survey.]]
 
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG11.jpg|thumbnail|Geological Standard Colours. A document listing the colours for the different strata that appear on the hand coloured maps.]]
 
  
 
The results obtained by the Geological Survey are made public in three forms: Maps, Sections, Memoirs and Annual Reports, to which may be added the arrangement. of specimens in the three national museums, with their diagrams, handbooks, and other explanatory matter, and also the original papers, which, lying often beyond the scope of the Survey's publications, are prepared by members of the staff and, with the consent of the Director-General, are communicated by them to scientific societies and journals.  
 
The results obtained by the Geological Survey are made public in three forms: Maps, Sections, Memoirs and Annual Reports, to which may be added the arrangement. of specimens in the three national museums, with their diagrams, handbooks, and other explanatory matter, and also the original papers, which, lying often beyond the scope of the Survey's publications, are prepared by members of the staff and, with the consent of the Director-General, are communicated by them to scientific societies and journals.  
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==== Horizontal sections ====
 
==== Horizontal sections ====
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG12.jpg|thumbnail|Extract from a horizontal section - across Arthur's Seat.]]
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG13.jpg|thumbnail|Extract from a horizontal section - across The Wych.]]
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG14.jpg|thumbnail|Extract from a horizontal section - Hewlers Heath]]
 
  
 
The Horizontal Sections have been an important feature in the work of the Geological Survey. De La Beche, recognising the practical disadvantages arising from the construction of sections without any regard to the proportion between height and distance, instituted the practice of drawing them on a true scale. He adopted the scale of six inches, to a mile, and invented a system of patterns for the different kinds of rock, which, as he was himself an artist, are appropriate and effective, for they represent in no small measure the general structure of the rocks. The institution of such sections, in lieu of the distorted diagrams too generally employed, was of great service to the Survey itself and also to the progress of geology; for it served to correct the evil influences of distorted drawing, with regard not only to geological structure but to the true forms of the ground.
 
The Horizontal Sections have been an important feature in the work of the Geological Survey. De La Beche, recognising the practical disadvantages arising from the construction of sections without any regard to the proportion between height and distance, instituted the practice of drawing them on a true scale. He adopted the scale of six inches, to a mile, and invented a system of patterns for the different kinds of rock, which, as he was himself an artist, are appropriate and effective, for they represent in no small measure the general structure of the rocks. The institution of such sections, in lieu of the distorted diagrams too generally employed, was of great service to the Survey itself and also to the progress of geology; for it served to correct the evil influences of distorted drawing, with regard not only to geological structure but to the true forms of the ground.
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==== Palaeontological memoirs ====
 
==== Palaeontological memoirs ====
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG15.jpg|thumbnail|An early Palaeontological memoir by John Phillips.]]
 
  
 
Besides the geological Memoirs, the Survey has published a series of Decades of British organic remains, with plates and descriptions, also Monographs of important genera or groups of fossils, including Professor Huxley's essays on Pterygotus, the Belemnitidae, and the crocodiles of Elgin, and Mr. Newton's memoirs on Cretaceous fishes and Pliocene vertebrates.
 
Besides the geological Memoirs, the Survey has published a series of Decades of British organic remains, with plates and descriptions, also Monographs of important genera or groups of fossils, including Professor Huxley's essays on Pterygotus, the Belemnitidae, and the crocodiles of Elgin, and Mr. Newton's memoirs on Cretaceous fishes and Pliocene vertebrates.
  
 
== Petrographical work ==
 
== Petrographical work ==
 
[[File:P505856.jpg|thumbnail|Sir Jethro Justinian Harris Teall (From a photograph by C. Vandyk Ltd., London.)]]
 
  
 
In the earlier days of the Geological Survey each member of the staff determined for himself, by such tests as he could apply, the various rocks encountered by him in the field. Only in rare cases were chemical analyses made for him. The study of rocks had fallen into neglect in this country, being eclipsed by the greater attraction of the study of fossils. The introduction of the microscope into geological investigation has, however, changed this apathy into active interest. It is now recognised that apart from mere questions of nomenclature, rooks contain materials for ·the solution of some of the most important problems in physical geology. Accordingly, microscopic enquiry has in recent years been organised as one of the branches of, the Geological Survey, and now affords constant and material aid in the progress of the mapping, three members of the staff being specially detailed for petrographical work in the office and in the field. Chemical analyses are likewise made, so as to afford all available information as to the composition of the mineral masses encountered in the field.
 
In the earlier days of the Geological Survey each member of the staff determined for himself, by such tests as he could apply, the various rocks encountered by him in the field. Only in rare cases were chemical analyses made for him. The study of rocks had fallen into neglect in this country, being eclipsed by the greater attraction of the study of fossils. The introduction of the microscope into geological investigation has, however, changed this apathy into active interest. It is now recognised that apart from mere questions of nomenclature, rooks contain materials for ·the solution of some of the most important problems in physical geology. Accordingly, microscopic enquiry has in recent years been organised as one of the branches of, the Geological Survey, and now affords constant and material aid in the progress of the mapping, three members of the staff being specially detailed for petrographical work in the office and in the field. Chemical analyses are likewise made, so as to afford all available information as to the composition of the mineral masses encountered in the field.
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== Palaeontological work ==
 
== Palaeontological work ==
 
[[File:P575758.jpg|thumbnail|John William Salter 1820 - 1869. Appointed Assistant to E. Forbes 1846, Palaeontologist 1854, resigned 1863.]]
 
  
 
In a country where the geological formations are to a large extent fossiliferous, it is necessary to pay close attention to the organic remains found in the rocks, to collect specimens of them, to determine these specifically, and to regulate thereby the geological boundary-lines upon the maps. The duty of examining and reporting upon fossils collected by the Geological Survey is entrusted to the palaeontologists, who occasionally visit the field, but are mainly engaged at the Museum. With reference to the exigencies of field-work a somewhat similar system is followed with regard to fossil evidence as in the case of the petrography, though the same minute detail is not necessary. The officer, when in doubt about any species, the names of which are needful in separating formations and drawing their mutual boundary-lines, collects specimens of them and sends them up to the office for identification. They are compared by the palaeontologist with published descriptions and named specimens, and a list of their specific names (as far as they can be made out) is supplied to the surveyor.
 
In a country where the geological formations are to a large extent fossiliferous, it is necessary to pay close attention to the organic remains found in the rocks, to collect specimens of them, to determine these specifically, and to regulate thereby the geological boundary-lines upon the maps. The duty of examining and reporting upon fossils collected by the Geological Survey is entrusted to the palaeontologists, who occasionally visit the field, but are mainly engaged at the Museum. With reference to the exigencies of field-work a somewhat similar system is followed with regard to fossil evidence as in the case of the petrography, though the same minute detail is not necessary. The officer, when in doubt about any species, the names of which are needful in separating formations and drawing their mutual boundary-lines, collects specimens of them and sends them up to the office for identification. They are compared by the palaeontologist with published descriptions and named specimens, and a list of their specific names (as far as they can be made out) is supplied to the surveyor.
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Besides such specimens as may require to be identified in the course of the mapping, full collections from the formations of each important district are made by the collectors under the guidance of the officers by whom the district bas been surveyed. Every specimen is numbered and registered in the collector's book, so that its source and destination can at once be found. Lists of the fossils are drawn up by the palaeontologists for insertion in the published Memoirs. A selection of the best specimens is placed in the cases, drawers, or cabinets of one or other of the three Museums. Fortunately in the case of the palaeontologists also, though much of their work is necessarily of a routine official character, opportunities are afforded to them of making interesting and important additions to palaeontological science. It was from this department of the Survey that Edward Forbes produced some of his best work that Salter made his fame as a palaeontologist, and that Professor Huxley enriched geological literature with his memoirs on Silurian crustacea, Old Red Sandstone fishes, and Triassic reptiles. Within the last few years fresh distinction has been won by Mr. E. T. Newton, of the same department, from the investigation and restoration of a series of remarkable reptiles from the Elgin Sandstones.
 
Besides such specimens as may require to be identified in the course of the mapping, full collections from the formations of each important district are made by the collectors under the guidance of the officers by whom the district bas been surveyed. Every specimen is numbered and registered in the collector's book, so that its source and destination can at once be found. Lists of the fossils are drawn up by the palaeontologists for insertion in the published Memoirs. A selection of the best specimens is placed in the cases, drawers, or cabinets of one or other of the three Museums. Fortunately in the case of the palaeontologists also, though much of their work is necessarily of a routine official character, opportunities are afforded to them of making interesting and important additions to palaeontological science. It was from this department of the Survey that Edward Forbes produced some of his best work that Salter made his fame as a palaeontologist, and that Professor Huxley enriched geological literature with his memoirs on Silurian crustacea, Old Red Sandstone fishes, and Triassic reptiles. Within the last few years fresh distinction has been won by Mr. E. T. Newton, of the same department, from the investigation and restoration of a series of remarkable reptiles from the Elgin Sandstones.
  
== The Museum of Practical Geology and the geological collection in Edinburgh and Dublin ==
+
== The Museum of Practical Geology and the geological Collection in Edinburgh and Dublin ==
  
 
For the complete illustration of the geology of a country it is necessary not only to construct geological maps and sections, and to publish printed descriptions, but also to collect and exhibit specimens of the minerals, rocks, and organic remains. Each branch of the Geological Survey has from the beginning kept in view the gathering of such specimens, and the galleries of the Museums in London, Edinburgh, and Dublin may be appealed to, as evidence of the manner in which the duty has been discharged. The Museum in Jermyn Street is intended to be primarily illustrative of the minerals, rocks, and fossils of England and Wales, but as far as space will admit an endeavour is made to exhibit what is specially characteristic of the other two kingdoms. For more detailed illustrations of Scottish geology recourse must be had to the Museum at Edinburgh, and for those of Irish geology to the Museum in Dublin.
 
For the complete illustration of the geology of a country it is necessary not only to construct geological maps and sections, and to publish printed descriptions, but also to collect and exhibit specimens of the minerals, rocks, and organic remains. Each branch of the Geological Survey has from the beginning kept in view the gathering of such specimens, and the galleries of the Museums in London, Edinburgh, and Dublin may be appealed to, as evidence of the manner in which the duty has been discharged. The Museum in Jermyn Street is intended to be primarily illustrative of the minerals, rocks, and fossils of England and Wales, but as far as space will admit an endeavour is made to exhibit what is specially characteristic of the other two kingdoms. For more detailed illustrations of Scottish geology recourse must be had to the Museum at Edinburgh, and for those of Irish geology to the Museum in Dublin.
  
 
=== England and Wales ===
 
=== England and Wales ===
 
[[File:P640480.jpg|thumbnail|Museum of Practical Geology.  First floor with one of the subjects named as John Thackery.]]
 
 
[[File:P640481.jpg|thumbnail|Museum of Practical Geology.]]
 
 
[[File:P640490.jpg|thumbnail|Museum of Economic Geology. Wood engraving from Illustrated london News 8th April 1848, showing the exterior.]]
 
  
 
The Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn Street, as its name denotes, was from the beginning intended to illustrate the applications of geology to the industries and arts of life as well as the more systematic treatment of the science. Its materials were meant in the first place to be taken from the United Kingdom and to form a collection in which the minerals, rocks, and fossils of this country should be displayed to the public in connection with examples of their economic uses. The cases of the Museum now contain an extensive collection of the building and ornamental stones of the British Isles, which has been largely made use of by architects, builders, and others. The granites of Cornwall, Devon, Scotland, and Ireland, the marbles of Derbyshire, Staffordshire, Devonshire, Bristol, the Isle of Man, Ireland, and Scotland, are well represented, together with many varieties of serpentine, limestone, dolomite, sandstone, slate, &c. Materials required in the process of grinding and polishing stones, and those illustrating the preparation of plaster and cements, also find a place. One of the most complete parts of the Museum is the great series of specimens illustrating the ores of Great Britain and Ireland. There are likewise colonial and foreign ores, and an important collection illustrating the metallurgy of the metals. Perhaps the most attractive departments of the Museum are the large horseshoe case, in which are placed examples of minerals and their applications in the arts, and the extensive ceramic collection, in which the connection between raw material and finished pottery is shown. The collection of British pottery was one of the earliest formed, and is still, perhaps, the most illustrative in the country. Models of geologically important districts and of different mines are placed in the model rooms and in different parts of the Museum.
 
The Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn Street, as its name denotes, was from the beginning intended to illustrate the applications of geology to the industries and arts of life as well as the more systematic treatment of the science. Its materials were meant in the first place to be taken from the United Kingdom and to form a collection in which the minerals, rocks, and fossils of this country should be displayed to the public in connection with examples of their economic uses. The cases of the Museum now contain an extensive collection of the building and ornamental stones of the British Isles, which has been largely made use of by architects, builders, and others. The granites of Cornwall, Devon, Scotland, and Ireland, the marbles of Derbyshire, Staffordshire, Devonshire, Bristol, the Isle of Man, Ireland, and Scotland, are well represented, together with many varieties of serpentine, limestone, dolomite, sandstone, slate, &c. Materials required in the process of grinding and polishing stones, and those illustrating the preparation of plaster and cements, also find a place. One of the most complete parts of the Museum is the great series of specimens illustrating the ores of Great Britain and Ireland. There are likewise colonial and foreign ores, and an important collection illustrating the metallurgy of the metals. Perhaps the most attractive departments of the Museum are the large horseshoe case, in which are placed examples of minerals and their applications in the arts, and the extensive ceramic collection, in which the connection between raw material and finished pottery is shown. The collection of British pottery was one of the earliest formed, and is still, perhaps, the most illustrative in the country. Models of geologically important districts and of different mines are placed in the model rooms and in different parts of the Museum.
  
 
=== The Library ===
 
=== The Library ===
 
[[File:P640476.jpg|thumbnail|Museum of Practical Geology. The Library.]]
 
  
 
The Library contains a tolerably complete representation of the literature of geology, British and foreign, and may be consulted by persons engaged in geological research. Large geological maps are arranged along the lower gallery of the Museum, and can be drawn down and studied by visitors. An extensive and valuable collection of photographs of geological sections and landscapes in the British Isles has been deposited in the Museum and is accessible to students. A microscope and a series of thin slices of typical rocks have been placed in the library for consultation.
 
The Library contains a tolerably complete representation of the literature of geology, British and foreign, and may be consulted by persons engaged in geological research. Large geological maps are arranged along the lower gallery of the Museum, and can be drawn down and studied by visitors. An extensive and valuable collection of photographs of geological sections and landscapes in the British Isles has been deposited in the Museum and is accessible to students. A microscope and a series of thin slices of typical rocks have been placed in the library for consultation.
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=== Museum publications ===
 
=== Museum publications ===
 
[[File:P585026.jpg|thumbnail|Frederick William Rudler.]]
 
  
 
A series of handbooks and catalogues has been issued in explanation of the different parts of the Museum. Thus Mr. F. W. Rudler, the Curator, has prepared a general handbook to the whole contents of the building, and also one to the collection of British pottery and porcelain. There are, likewise, catalogues of fossils. A new guide to the rock collections and another to the paleontological collections are now being prepared.
 
A series of handbooks and catalogues has been issued in explanation of the different parts of the Museum. Thus Mr. F. W. Rudler, the Curator, has prepared a general handbook to the whole contents of the building, and also one to the collection of British pottery and porcelain. There are, likewise, catalogues of fossils. A new guide to the rock collections and another to the paleontological collections are now being prepared.
  
 
=== Scotland ===
 
=== Scotland ===
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG16.jpg|thumbnail|Plan of the Survey collection in the Royal Scottish Museum.]]
 
  
 
The Geological Survey collection, illustrative of the geology of Scotland, is arranged in the upper gallery of the west wing of the Museum of Science and Art, Edinburgh. It includes an extensive series of rocks grouped in Petrographical order according to the respective counties from which they come, each specimen being traceable to its locality by a pin with its number fixed to the geological maps exhibited in the table case below. There is, likewise, a large collection of fossils, mainly Scottish, arranged in stratigraphical order. A handbook to the whole collection prepared by Mr. J. G. Goodchild, the Curator, has been published.
 
The Geological Survey collection, illustrative of the geology of Scotland, is arranged in the upper gallery of the west wing of the Museum of Science and Art, Edinburgh. It includes an extensive series of rocks grouped in Petrographical order according to the respective counties from which they come, each specimen being traceable to its locality by a pin with its number fixed to the geological maps exhibited in the table case below. There is, likewise, a large collection of fossils, mainly Scottish, arranged in stratigraphical order. A handbook to the whole collection prepared by Mr. J. G. Goodchild, the Curator, has been published.

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