Editing Geological Survey of Great Britain and Ireland: A contemporary account of the Survey, 1897

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==== Horizontal sections ====
 
==== Horizontal sections ====
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG12.jpg|thumbnail|Extract from a horizontal section - across Arthur's Seat.]]
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG13.jpg|thumbnail|Extract from a horizontal section - across The Wych.]]
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG14.jpg|thumbnail|Extract from a horizontal section - Hewlers Heath]]
 
  
 
The Horizontal Sections have been an important feature in the work of the Geological Survey. De La Beche, recognising the practical disadvantages arising from the construction of sections without any regard to the proportion between height and distance, instituted the practice of drawing them on a true scale. He adopted the scale of six inches, to a mile, and invented a system of patterns for the different kinds of rock, which, as he was himself an artist, are appropriate and effective, for they represent in no small measure the general structure of the rocks. The institution of such sections, in lieu of the distorted diagrams too generally employed, was of great service to the Survey itself and also to the progress of geology; for it served to correct the evil influences of distorted drawing, with regard not only to geological structure but to the true forms of the ground.
 
The Horizontal Sections have been an important feature in the work of the Geological Survey. De La Beche, recognising the practical disadvantages arising from the construction of sections without any regard to the proportion between height and distance, instituted the practice of drawing them on a true scale. He adopted the scale of six inches, to a mile, and invented a system of patterns for the different kinds of rock, which, as he was himself an artist, are appropriate and effective, for they represent in no small measure the general structure of the rocks. The institution of such sections, in lieu of the distorted diagrams too generally employed, was of great service to the Survey itself and also to the progress of geology; for it served to correct the evil influences of distorted drawing, with regard not only to geological structure but to the true forms of the ground.
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==== Palaeontological memoirs ====
 
==== Palaeontological memoirs ====
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG15.jpg|thumbnail|An early Palaeontological memoir by John Phillips.]]
 
  
 
Besides the geological Memoirs, the Survey has published a series of Decades of British organic remains, with plates and descriptions, also Monographs of important genera or groups of fossils, including Professor Huxley's essays on Pterygotus, the Belemnitidae, and the crocodiles of Elgin, and Mr. Newton's memoirs on Cretaceous fishes and Pliocene vertebrates.
 
Besides the geological Memoirs, the Survey has published a series of Decades of British organic remains, with plates and descriptions, also Monographs of important genera or groups of fossils, including Professor Huxley's essays on Pterygotus, the Belemnitidae, and the crocodiles of Elgin, and Mr. Newton's memoirs on Cretaceous fishes and Pliocene vertebrates.
  
 
== Petrographical work ==
 
== Petrographical work ==
 
[[File:P505856.jpg|thumbnail|Sir Jethro Justinian Harris Teall (From a photograph by C. Vandyk Ltd., London.)]]
 
  
 
In the earlier days of the Geological Survey each member of the staff determined for himself, by such tests as he could apply, the various rocks encountered by him in the field. Only in rare cases were chemical analyses made for him. The study of rocks had fallen into neglect in this country, being eclipsed by the greater attraction of the study of fossils. The introduction of the microscope into geological investigation has, however, changed this apathy into active interest. It is now recognised that apart from mere questions of nomenclature, rooks contain materials for ·the solution of some of the most important problems in physical geology. Accordingly, microscopic enquiry has in recent years been organised as one of the branches of, the Geological Survey, and now affords constant and material aid in the progress of the mapping, three members of the staff being specially detailed for petrographical work in the office and in the field. Chemical analyses are likewise made, so as to afford all available information as to the composition of the mineral masses encountered in the field.
 
In the earlier days of the Geological Survey each member of the staff determined for himself, by such tests as he could apply, the various rocks encountered by him in the field. Only in rare cases were chemical analyses made for him. The study of rocks had fallen into neglect in this country, being eclipsed by the greater attraction of the study of fossils. The introduction of the microscope into geological investigation has, however, changed this apathy into active interest. It is now recognised that apart from mere questions of nomenclature, rooks contain materials for ·the solution of some of the most important problems in physical geology. Accordingly, microscopic enquiry has in recent years been organised as one of the branches of, the Geological Survey, and now affords constant and material aid in the progress of the mapping, three members of the staff being specially detailed for petrographical work in the office and in the field. Chemical analyses are likewise made, so as to afford all available information as to the composition of the mineral masses encountered in the field.
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== Palaeontological work ==
 
== Palaeontological work ==
 
[[File:P575758.jpg|thumbnail|John William Salter 1820 - 1869. Appointed Assistant to E. Forbes 1846, Palaeontologist 1854, resigned 1863.]]
 
  
 
In a country where the geological formations are to a large extent fossiliferous, it is necessary to pay close attention to the organic remains found in the rocks, to collect specimens of them, to determine these specifically, and to regulate thereby the geological boundary-lines upon the maps. The duty of examining and reporting upon fossils collected by the Geological Survey is entrusted to the palaeontologists, who occasionally visit the field, but are mainly engaged at the Museum. With reference to the exigencies of field-work a somewhat similar system is followed with regard to fossil evidence as in the case of the petrography, though the same minute detail is not necessary. The officer, when in doubt about any species, the names of which are needful in separating formations and drawing their mutual boundary-lines, collects specimens of them and sends them up to the office for identification. They are compared by the palaeontologist with published descriptions and named specimens, and a list of their specific names (as far as they can be made out) is supplied to the surveyor.
 
In a country where the geological formations are to a large extent fossiliferous, it is necessary to pay close attention to the organic remains found in the rocks, to collect specimens of them, to determine these specifically, and to regulate thereby the geological boundary-lines upon the maps. The duty of examining and reporting upon fossils collected by the Geological Survey is entrusted to the palaeontologists, who occasionally visit the field, but are mainly engaged at the Museum. With reference to the exigencies of field-work a somewhat similar system is followed with regard to fossil evidence as in the case of the petrography, though the same minute detail is not necessary. The officer, when in doubt about any species, the names of which are needful in separating formations and drawing their mutual boundary-lines, collects specimens of them and sends them up to the office for identification. They are compared by the palaeontologist with published descriptions and named specimens, and a list of their specific names (as far as they can be made out) is supplied to the surveyor.
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=== England and Wales ===
 
=== England and Wales ===
 
[[File:P640480.jpg|thumbnail|Museum of Practical Geology.  First floor with one of the subjects named as John Thackery.]]
 
 
[[File:P640481.jpg|thumbnail|Museum of Practical Geology.]]
 
 
[[File:P640490.jpg|thumbnail|Museum of Economic Geology. Wood engraving from Illustrated london News 8th April 1848, showing the exterior.]]
 
  
 
The Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn Street, as its name denotes, was from the beginning intended to illustrate the applications of geology to the industries and arts of life as well as the more systematic treatment of the science. Its materials were meant in the first place to be taken from the United Kingdom and to form a collection in which the minerals, rocks, and fossils of this country should be displayed to the public in connection with examples of their economic uses. The cases of the Museum now contain an extensive collection of the building and ornamental stones of the British Isles, which has been largely made use of by architects, builders, and others. The granites of Cornwall, Devon, Scotland, and Ireland, the marbles of Derbyshire, Staffordshire, Devonshire, Bristol, the Isle of Man, Ireland, and Scotland, are well represented, together with many varieties of serpentine, limestone, dolomite, sandstone, slate, &c. Materials required in the process of grinding and polishing stones, and those illustrating the preparation of plaster and cements, also find a place. One of the most complete parts of the Museum is the great series of specimens illustrating the ores of Great Britain and Ireland. There are likewise colonial and foreign ores, and an important collection illustrating the metallurgy of the metals. Perhaps the most attractive departments of the Museum are the large horseshoe case, in which are placed examples of minerals and their applications in the arts, and the extensive ceramic collection, in which the connection between raw material and finished pottery is shown. The collection of British pottery was one of the earliest formed, and is still, perhaps, the most illustrative in the country. Models of geologically important districts and of different mines are placed in the model rooms and in different parts of the Museum.
 
The Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn Street, as its name denotes, was from the beginning intended to illustrate the applications of geology to the industries and arts of life as well as the more systematic treatment of the science. Its materials were meant in the first place to be taken from the United Kingdom and to form a collection in which the minerals, rocks, and fossils of this country should be displayed to the public in connection with examples of their economic uses. The cases of the Museum now contain an extensive collection of the building and ornamental stones of the British Isles, which has been largely made use of by architects, builders, and others. The granites of Cornwall, Devon, Scotland, and Ireland, the marbles of Derbyshire, Staffordshire, Devonshire, Bristol, the Isle of Man, Ireland, and Scotland, are well represented, together with many varieties of serpentine, limestone, dolomite, sandstone, slate, &c. Materials required in the process of grinding and polishing stones, and those illustrating the preparation of plaster and cements, also find a place. One of the most complete parts of the Museum is the great series of specimens illustrating the ores of Great Britain and Ireland. There are likewise colonial and foreign ores, and an important collection illustrating the metallurgy of the metals. Perhaps the most attractive departments of the Museum are the large horseshoe case, in which are placed examples of minerals and their applications in the arts, and the extensive ceramic collection, in which the connection between raw material and finished pottery is shown. The collection of British pottery was one of the earliest formed, and is still, perhaps, the most illustrative in the country. Models of geologically important districts and of different mines are placed in the model rooms and in different parts of the Museum.
  
 
=== The Library ===
 
=== The Library ===
 
[[File:P640476.jpg|thumbnail|Museum of Practical Geology. The Library.]]
 
  
 
The Library contains a tolerably complete representation of the literature of geology, British and foreign, and may be consulted by persons engaged in geological research. Large geological maps are arranged along the lower gallery of the Museum, and can be drawn down and studied by visitors. An extensive and valuable collection of photographs of geological sections and landscapes in the British Isles has been deposited in the Museum and is accessible to students. A microscope and a series of thin slices of typical rocks have been placed in the library for consultation.
 
The Library contains a tolerably complete representation of the literature of geology, British and foreign, and may be consulted by persons engaged in geological research. Large geological maps are arranged along the lower gallery of the Museum, and can be drawn down and studied by visitors. An extensive and valuable collection of photographs of geological sections and landscapes in the British Isles has been deposited in the Museum and is accessible to students. A microscope and a series of thin slices of typical rocks have been placed in the library for consultation.
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=== Museum publications ===
 
=== Museum publications ===
 
[[File:P585026.jpg|thumbnail|Frederick William Rudler.]]
 
  
 
A series of handbooks and catalogues has been issued in explanation of the different parts of the Museum. Thus Mr. F. W. Rudler, the Curator, has prepared a general handbook to the whole contents of the building, and also one to the collection of British pottery and porcelain. There are, likewise, catalogues of fossils. A new guide to the rock collections and another to the paleontological collections are now being prepared.
 
A series of handbooks and catalogues has been issued in explanation of the different parts of the Museum. Thus Mr. F. W. Rudler, the Curator, has prepared a general handbook to the whole contents of the building, and also one to the collection of British pottery and porcelain. There are, likewise, catalogues of fossils. A new guide to the rock collections and another to the paleontological collections are now being prepared.
  
 
=== Scotland ===
 
=== Scotland ===
 
[[File:SummProg1897_FIG16.jpg|thumbnail|Plan of the Survey collection in the Royal Scottish Museum.]]
 
  
 
The Geological Survey collection, illustrative of the geology of Scotland, is arranged in the upper gallery of the west wing of the Museum of Science and Art, Edinburgh. It includes an extensive series of rocks grouped in Petrographical order according to the respective counties from which they come, each specimen being traceable to its locality by a pin with its number fixed to the geological maps exhibited in the table case below. There is, likewise, a large collection of fossils, mainly Scottish, arranged in stratigraphical order. A handbook to the whole collection prepared by Mr. J. G. Goodchild, the Curator, has been published.
 
The Geological Survey collection, illustrative of the geology of Scotland, is arranged in the upper gallery of the west wing of the Museum of Science and Art, Edinburgh. It includes an extensive series of rocks grouped in Petrographical order according to the respective counties from which they come, each specimen being traceable to its locality by a pin with its number fixed to the geological maps exhibited in the table case below. There is, likewise, a large collection of fossils, mainly Scottish, arranged in stratigraphical order. A handbook to the whole collection prepared by Mr. J. G. Goodchild, the Curator, has been published.

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