Editing Geological Survey under Sir Henry Thomas De la Beche, 1835–1835

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Although no special exhibits were provided to show the connexion of geology with agriculture, it was announced that Mr. Phillips, Curator of the Museum, would make analyses of rocks and soils at moderate charges.
 
Although no special exhibits were provided to show the connexion of geology with agriculture, it was announced that Mr. Phillips, Curator of the Museum, would make analyses of rocks and soils at moderate charges.
  
== Cartography — Index of colours ==
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== Cartography — Index of Colours ==
  
 
According to a statement made by Horace B. Woodward in the ‘Summary of Progress’ for 1907, a second Index of Colours to be used in the Geological Survey Maps was issued by De la Beche in 1839. Devonian does not make its appearance in the list, though by that time this controversy was regarded as virtually settled. Sheets 20 to 27 were now being published in a revised edition; they comprise a large part of Devonshire and cover an area bounded by north and south lines drawn on the east though Lyme Regis and on the welt through Liskeard. In addition to these, Sheets 28 to 33 were on sale. This completed the survey of Devon and Cornwall. The ‘Report’ was published in 1839.
 
According to a statement made by Horace B. Woodward in the ‘Summary of Progress’ for 1907, a second Index of Colours to be used in the Geological Survey Maps was issued by De la Beche in 1839. Devonian does not make its appearance in the list, though by that time this controversy was regarded as virtually settled. Sheets 20 to 27 were now being published in a revised edition; they comprise a large part of Devonshire and cover an area bounded by north and south lines drawn on the east though Lyme Regis and on the welt through Liskeard. In addition to these, Sheets 28 to 33 were on sale. This completed the survey of Devon and Cornwall. The ‘Report’ was published in 1839.
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Under De la Beche as Director-General, Ramsay became Local Director for Great Britain. The English geological staff consisted of Aveline, Trevor James, D. H. Williams and H. W. Bristow, previously acting, with the addition of W. H. Baily, and A. R. C. Selwyn. The fossil collector was R. Gibbs, who had been on the staff since 1843. Edward Forbes was appointed Palaeontologist (1844) and Charles Bone, Artist, to make drawings of fossils. Lyon Playfair became Chemist, while Richard Phillips continued to make analyses in the Museum. Robert Hunt succeeded T. B. Jordan as Keeper of Mining Records. Warington W. Smyth was appointed Mining Geologist in 1845.
 
Under De la Beche as Director-General, Ramsay became Local Director for Great Britain. The English geological staff consisted of Aveline, Trevor James, D. H. Williams and H. W. Bristow, previously acting, with the addition of W. H. Baily, and A. R. C. Selwyn. The fossil collector was R. Gibbs, who had been on the staff since 1843. Edward Forbes was appointed Palaeontologist (1844) and Charles Bone, Artist, to make drawings of fossils. Lyon Playfair became Chemist, while Richard Phillips continued to make analyses in the Museum. Robert Hunt succeeded T. B. Jordan as Keeper of Mining Records. Warington W. Smyth was appointed Mining Geologist in 1845.
  
It was evidently the intention of the authorities to extend and accelerate the Survey’s work. In this they were no doubt stimulated by the interest shown by prominent geologists. The new maps and sections were equal or superior to those produced in any other country and were adding precision to the knowledge of important districts of England and Wales. The rapidity of publication was very striking. In 1834 four Sheets had been published (20, 21, 22, 23, mostly Devonshire); in 1835 four Sheets (24, 25, 26, 27, Cornwall and Devon); in 1839 six Sheets (28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, completing Cornwall and Devon). In 1844 and 1845 ten Sheets appeared from the press (19, Somersetshire; 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, South Wales). Thus in ten years twenty-four Sheets had been surveyed and brought to publication, representing the geology of two important mineral districts (Cornwall and Devon, and South Wales) and over 6,000 square miles of difficult ground.
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It was evidently the intention of the authorities to extend and accelerate the Survey’s work. In this they were no doubt stimulated by the interest shown by prominent geologists. The new maps and sections were equal or superior to those produced in any other country and were adding precision to the knowledge of important districts of England and Wales. The rapidity of publication was very striking. In 1834 four Sheets had been published (20, 21, 22, 23, mostly Devonshire); in 1835 four Sheets (24, 25, 26, 27, Cornwall and Devon); in 1839 six Sheets (28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, completing Cornwall and Devon). In 1844 and 1845 ten Sheets appeared from the press (19, Somersetshire; 35, 36, 37, 38, ''39, ''40, 41, 42, 43, South Wales). Thus in ten years twenty-four Sheets had been surveyed and brought to publication, representing the geology of two important mineral districts (Cornwall and Devon, and South Wales) and over 6,000 square miles of difficult ground.
  
 
By 1845 about twenty Sheets of Horizontal Sections had also been engraved and about seventeen of Vertical Sections. It is not possible to give exact figures as the dates of publication are in some cases not precisely known.
 
By 1845 about twenty Sheets of Horizontal Sections had also been engraved and about seventeen of Vertical Sections. It is not possible to give exact figures as the dates of publication are in some cases not precisely known.
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It was evidently intended to launch two new series of publications which were to expound the results of the Survey’s work and to take the form of Memoirs. One series was to contain general reports on geological topics and special descriptions of various districts prepared by the English staff; the other was to be devoted to Irish geology. As has been mentioned above, the first volume of Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain appeared in 1846 and contained two notable memoirs on South Wales by De la Beche and by Ramsay, together with other less important contributions. The second volume appeared in 1848 and contained John Phillips’s memoir on the Malvern Hills, and various papers on palaeobotany by Sir Joseph Hooker and on palaeontology by Edward Forbes. In this volume (Part 2) there was also the ‘First Report on the Coals suited to the Steam Navy’ by De la Beche and Lyon Playfair. The third volume, containing Ramsay’s description of North Wales, did not appear till 1866.
 
It was evidently intended to launch two new series of publications which were to expound the results of the Survey’s work and to take the form of Memoirs. One series was to contain general reports on geological topics and special descriptions of various districts prepared by the English staff; the other was to be devoted to Irish geology. As has been mentioned above, the first volume of Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great Britain appeared in 1846 and contained two notable memoirs on South Wales by De la Beche and by Ramsay, together with other less important contributions. The second volume appeared in 1848 and contained John Phillips’s memoir on the Malvern Hills, and various papers on palaeobotany by Sir Joseph Hooker and on palaeontology by Edward Forbes. In this volume (Part 2) there was also the ‘First Report on the Coals suited to the Steam Navy’ by De la Beche and Lyon Playfair. The third volume, containing Ramsay’s description of North Wales, did not appear till 1866.
  
From this time onward De la Beche was to a large extent confined to the office in London, where he had many important schemes in hand and much official business to transact He had been knighted in 1842 and was recognized as the principal official authority on questions in which British geology was involved. The field work was under the superintendence of Ramsay, who showed extraordinary activity and capacity. Ramsay and Aveline, with the aid of the fossil collectors, were busily engaged in completing the primary survey of Central and North Wales, a task which they brought to completion in 1850 or 1851. The whole series of Welsh maps was then published except Sheet 78, containing Anglesey and part of Snowdonia, which appeared in 1852. These two men were geologists of the highest ability and their great achievement in preparing the first complete survey of the geology of Wales has received full recognition from all succeeding geologists. They were assisted by Selwyn, who joined in 1845, and at a later stage by Jukes, who started work in 1846, both geologists who later achieved distinction and fame. D. H. Williams assisted in the survey of the coalfield of South Wales, but left the Survey in 1845 and died in 1849.
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From this time onward De la Beche was to a large extent confined to the office in London, where he had many important schemes in hand and much official business to transact He had been knighted in 1842 and was recognized as the principal official authority on questions in which British geology was involved. The field work was under the superintendence of Ramsay, who showed extraordinary activity and capacity. Ramsay and Aveline, with the aid of the fossil collectors, were busily engaged in completing the primary survey of Central and North Wales, a task which they brought to completion in 1850 or 1851''. ''The whole series of Welsh maps was then published except Sheet 78, containing Anglesey and part of Snowdonia, which appeared in 1852. These two men were geologists of the highest ability and their great achievement in preparing the first complete survey of the geology of Wales has received full recognition from all succeeding geologists. They were assisted by Selwyn, who joined in 1845, and at a later stage by Jukes, who started work in 1846, both geologists who later achieved distinction and fame. D. H. Williams assisted in the survey of the coalfield of South Wales, but left the Survey in 1845 and died in 1849.
  
 
Many interesting descriptions of the progress of work in North Wales can be found in the letters of Ramsay and Jukes which have been published in Geikie’s ‘Life of Ramsay’ and the biography of Jukes which was edited by his sister, Mrs. Browne, and published in 1871. They attacked the geological problems with great energy, spending long days in the field in good weather tracing the boundary lines of the subdivisions of Cambrian and Silurian rocks which were then recognized. In North Wales particularly the physical difficulties were great and the geology extraordinarily complex. In the determination of the fossils they had the assistance of Edward Forbes, but as yet the microscope had not been applied to the study of rocks in thin sections, and the fine-grained lavas and ash beds of the Snowdonian Mountains presented many puzzling questions on which the geologists were by no means unanimous. On the other hand, however, they did not concern themselves with the Drift deposits; and the glacial phenomena, which subsequently became of paramount interest and importance, were passed over almost without scrutiny. In after years Ramsay was to be captivated by this subject and became a leader in the interpretation of the glaciation of North Wales.
 
Many interesting descriptions of the progress of work in North Wales can be found in the letters of Ramsay and Jukes which have been published in Geikie’s ‘Life of Ramsay’ and the biography of Jukes which was edited by his sister, Mrs. Browne, and published in 1871. They attacked the geological problems with great energy, spending long days in the field in good weather tracing the boundary lines of the subdivisions of Cambrian and Silurian rocks which were then recognized. In North Wales particularly the physical difficulties were great and the geology extraordinarily complex. In the determination of the fossils they had the assistance of Edward Forbes, but as yet the microscope had not been applied to the study of rocks in thin sections, and the fine-grained lavas and ash beds of the Snowdonian Mountains presented many puzzling questions on which the geologists were by no means unanimous. On the other hand, however, they did not concern themselves with the Drift deposits; and the glacial phenomena, which subsequently became of paramount interest and importance, were passed over almost without scrutiny. In after years Ramsay was to be captivated by this subject and became a leader in the interpretation of the glaciation of North Wales.

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