Editing Geology and landscape of Holy Island and Bamburgh - an excursion

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=== Bamburgh ===
 
=== Bamburgh ===
  
Drive to Bamburgh and park either in the car park or at the side of The Wynding ([[:File:YGS_NORTROCK_FIG_06_5.jpg|Figure 6.5]]).
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Drive to Bamburgh and park either in the car park or at the side ofThe Wynding ([[:File:YGS_NORTROCK_FIG_06_5.jpg|Figure 6.5]]).
  
=== Locality 11, Bamburgh Castle [NU 183 351] ===
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=== Locality 11, Bamburgh Castle [NU 183 351] ===
  
In the crag below the castle the Whin Sill is '''transgressive''' across the cross-bedded, red Carboniferous sandstone, rising from northeast to southwest.
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In the crag below the castle the Whin Sill is transgressive across the cross-bedded, red Carboniferous sandstone, rising from northeast to southwest.
  
==== Locality 12, Harkess Rocks [NU 177 356] ====
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==== Locality 12, Harkess Rocks [NU 177 356] ====
  
Here the upper chilled margin of the Whin Sill is well exposed on the foreshore close to the base of the small cliff. Just below the chilled contact are numerous elongated amygdales (of a similar nature to those seen in the Holy Island Dyke), indicating that this upper contact was horizontal during sill emplacement. The amygdales can often be measured in metres, are often filled with quartz and calcite with a little '''chlorite''', and frequently have ropy-flow structures, the latter indicating an east–west flow direction. A few inclusions of limestone and shale are visible close to the contact.
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Here the upper chilled margin of the Whin Sill is well exposed on the foreshore close to the base of the small cliff. Just below the chilled contact are numerous elongated amygdales (of a similar nature to those seen in the Holy Island Dyke), indicating that this upper contact was horizontal during sill emplacement. The amygdales can often be measured in metres, are often filled with quartz and calcite with a little chlorite, and frequently have ropy-flow structures, the latter indicating an east–west flow direction. A few inclusions of limestone and shale are visible close to the contact.
  
To the northwest the sill is covered by sand, but reappears at a higher level as a 1.50 m fault scarp, perpendicular to the coastline, in which inclusions of shale can be seen. Towards the sea, the sill transgresses up through shale along a north–south line; this exposure is terminated by a fracture zone with several splay faults trending east-northeast. A second complex fracture zone occurs some 20–30 m further northwest, with the dips of coarse sandstones changing from 35° east to 20° northwest across the fault zone.
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To the northwest the sill is covered by sand, but reappears at a higher level as a 1.50 m fault scarp, perpendicular to the coastline, in which inclusions of shale can be seen. Towards the sea, the sill transgresses up through shale along a north–south line; this exposure is terminated by a fracture zone with several splay faults trending east-northeast. A second complex fracture zone occurs some 20–30 m further northwest, with the dips of coarse sandstones changing from 35° east to 20° northwest across the fault zone.
  
 
==== Locality 13, Stag Rock [NU 175 358] ====
 
==== Locality 13, Stag Rock [NU 175 358] ====

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