Editing Geology and landscape of Upper Teesdale - an excursion

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From the lay-by on the B6282 is a panoramic view southwards of the southern marginal area of the Alston Block. Crags of Whin Sill can be seen below the skyline to the right, whilst the Lunedale–Butterknowle Fault runs just below the skyline on the left and out through the Lune Valley to the south. The Tees valley in the foreground is filled by late Quaternary tills and outwash alluvial deposits.
 
From the lay-by on the B6282 is a panoramic view southwards of the southern marginal area of the Alston Block. Crags of Whin Sill can be seen below the skyline to the right, whilst the Lunedale–Butterknowle Fault runs just below the skyline on the left and out through the Lune Valley to the south. The Tees valley in the foreground is filled by late Quaternary tills and outwash alluvial deposits.
  
=== Localities 3–5, Hudeshope Beck [NY 947 258]–[NY 948 275] ===
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=== Localities 3–5, Hudeshope Beck [NY 947 258]–[NY 948 275] ===
  
 
Park in Middleton-in-Teesdale. Walk north from the town on the Stanhope road past the parish chruch. Viewed from the wall on the west side of the road after the last house, the disturbed limestones at river level mark the position where a fault ('''downthrowing''' to the southwest) cuts the deep valley of Hudeshope Beck. Take the first pathway on the west side of the road through the woods on the east side of the beck to the first footbridge.
 
Park in Middleton-in-Teesdale. Walk north from the town on the Stanhope road past the parish chruch. Viewed from the wall on the west side of the road after the last house, the disturbed limestones at river level mark the position where a fault ('''downthrowing''' to the southwest) cuts the deep valley of Hudeshope Beck. Take the first pathway on the west side of the road through the woods on the east side of the beck to the first footbridge.
  
=== Locality 3 [NY 947 258] ===
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=== Locality 3 [NY 947 258] ===
  
 
The footbridge is sited on the thickest '''post''' of the Three Yard Limestone (Lower Carboniferous, Alston Group) where it also forms a small waterfall ([[:File:YGS_NORTROCK_FIG_16_1.jpg|Figure 16.1]]a). Downstream the base of the limestone is exposed where it overlies the sandstones, '''ganister''' and thin shale partings at the top of the Five Yard Limestone Cyclothem. In the low river cliffs on the east side of the valley upstream of the footbridge a sequence of thin limestones with intercalated calcareous shales (with scattered corals and crinoidal debris) is gradually replaced vertically by deltaic non-marine shales with ironstone nodules followed by flaggy sandstones, all part of the Three Yard Limestone Cyclothem.
 
The footbridge is sited on the thickest '''post''' of the Three Yard Limestone (Lower Carboniferous, Alston Group) where it also forms a small waterfall ([[:File:YGS_NORTROCK_FIG_16_1.jpg|Figure 16.1]]a). Downstream the base of the limestone is exposed where it overlies the sandstones, '''ganister''' and thin shale partings at the top of the Five Yard Limestone Cyclothem. In the low river cliffs on the east side of the valley upstream of the footbridge a sequence of thin limestones with intercalated calcareous shales (with scattered corals and crinoidal debris) is gradually replaced vertically by deltaic non-marine shales with ironstone nodules followed by flaggy sandstones, all part of the Three Yard Limestone Cyclothem.
  
Further upstream the sandstone of the Three Yard Limestone Cyclothem forms a low river cliff. This disappears where a fault (the continuation of the Holm Head Vein), downthrowing c. 10 m southeast, cuts the valley in a northeast–southwest direction and results in the repetition of the geological succession so that the second footbridge [NY 947 262] is also sited on the thickest post of the Three Yard Limestone. Around the second footbridge, a c.0.4 m bed of calcareous shale separates the two principal posts of the Three Yard Limestone. As the river bed gradient is the same as the local '''dip''' the stream bed follows the top of the limestone for 150 m upstream where a small fault causes flexure in the top of the upper post.
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Further upstream the sandstone of the Three Yard Limestone Cyclothem forms a low river cliff. This disappears where a fault (the continuation of the Holm Head Vein), downthrowing c. [o m southeast, cuts the valley in a northeast–southwest direction and results in the repetition of the geological succession so that the second footbridge [NY 947 262] is also sited on the thickest post of the Three Yard Limestone. Around the second footbridge, a c.0.4 m bed of calcareous shale separates the two principal posts of the Three Yard Limestone. As the river bed gradient is the same as the local '''dip''' the stream bed follows the top of the limestone for 150 m upstream where a small fault causes flexure in the top of the upper post.
  
 
=== Locality 4 [NY 947 264] ===
 
=== Locality 4 [NY 947 264] ===

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