Editing Geology and landscape of Upper Teesdale - an excursion

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The low and ill-drained ground around Pasture Foot ([[:File:YGS_NORTROCK_FIG_16_2.jpg|Figure 16.2]]) is part of a pre-glacial buried channel now partly choked by till.
 
The low and ill-drained ground around Pasture Foot ([[:File:YGS_NORTROCK_FIG_16_2.jpg|Figure 16.2]]) is part of a pre-glacial buried channel now partly choked by till.
  
=== Locality 13, Bracken Rigg [NY 863 281] ===
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=== Locality 13, Bracken Rigg [NY 863 281] ===
  
The Pennine Way ascends this small but steep hill, an erosional '''outlier''' of dolerite, that with Low Crag to the north [NY 863 287] has become detached from the main outcrop of the Whin Sill by post-glacial erosion of the River Tees. The south-facing columnar dolerite cliffs of Dene Holm Scar and the adjacent Tees valley are a splendid sight from the top of Bracken Rigg. Leave the Pennine Way at the western end of Bracken Rigg and walk southwards across the marshy ground of Fell Dike Sike (a continuation of the Pasture Foot buried channel) to join the well defined drove road 'Green Trod'. This possibly Iron Age trans-Pennine routeway can now be followed eastwards across the grouse moors to Holwick. Green Trod follows the Scar Limestone Cyclothem sediments above the Whin Sill and many swallow holes may be seen developed in the Scar Limestone.
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The Pennine Way ascends this small but steep hill, an erosional '''outlier''' of dolerite, that with Low Crag to the north [NY 863 287] has become detached from the main outcrop of the Whin Sill by post-glacial erosion of the River Tees. The south-facing columnar dolerite cliffs of Dene Holm Scar and the adjacent Tees valley are a splendid sight from the top of Bracken Rigg. Leave the Pennine Way at the western end of Bracken Rigg and walk southwards across the marshy ground of Fell Dike Sike (a continuation of the Pasture Foot buried channel) to join the well defined drove road 'Green Trod'. This possibly Iron Age trans-Pennine routeway can now be followed eastwards across the grouse moors to Holwick. Green Trod follows the Scar Limestone Cyclothem sediments above the Whin Sill and many swallow holes may be seen developed in the Scar Limestone.
  
=== Locality 14, Low Currick Rigg [NY 895 275] ===
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=== Locality 14, Low Currick Rigg [NY 895 275] ===
  
Below lies the dour gritstone Royal hunting lodge, Holwick House, prominently situated on top of a northwest–southeast elongated ice-moulded mound of glacial debris (one of many such glacial features in this part of Teesdale). On the skyline to the northeast is Coldberry Gutter, a man-made 30 m deep valley which cuts the watershed. This prominent feature is a ''''hush'''', produced by mining and repeated flushing which removed some 2.5 million tonnes of waste in the 17th–19th centuries to produce lead ore concentrate.
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Below lies the dour gritstone Royal hunting lodge, Holwick House, prominently situated on top of a northwest–southeast elongated ice-moulded mound of glacial debris (one of many such glacial features in this part of Teesdale). On the skyline to the northeast is Coldberry Gutter, a man-made 30 m deep valley which cuts the watershed. This prominent feature is a ''''hush'''', produced by mining and repeated flushing which removed some 2.5 million tonnes of waste in the 17th–19th centuries to produce lead ore concentrate.
  
=== Locality 15, Holwick [NY 901 271] ===
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=== Locality 15, Holwick [NY 901 271] ===
  
 
Fine cliffs of columnar dolerite form Holwick Scars and Crossthwaite Scars. These and the side valleys are probably fault controlled ([[:File:YGS_NORTROCK_FIG_16_2.jpg|Figure 16.2]]), but accentuated by the Devensian glaciation of the valley margin, which also accounts for the modified drainage, glacial deposits and periglacial scree slopes at the foot of these north-facing cliffs ([[:File:YGS_NORTROCK_FIG_16_4.jpg|Figure 16.4]]).
 
Fine cliffs of columnar dolerite form Holwick Scars and Crossthwaite Scars. These and the side valleys are probably fault controlled ([[:File:YGS_NORTROCK_FIG_16_2.jpg|Figure 16.2]]), but accentuated by the Devensian glaciation of the valley margin, which also accounts for the modified drainage, glacial deposits and periglacial scree slopes at the foot of these north-facing cliffs ([[:File:YGS_NORTROCK_FIG_16_4.jpg|Figure 16.4]]).
  
Walking northwards from Holwick Scars to Low Force (Locality 9) the route passes over two and possibly three faults of the Teesdale Fault complex, with a composite downthrow to the north of c. 100 m.
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Walking northwards from Holwick Scars to Low Force (Locality 9) the route passes over two and possibly three faults of the Teesdale Fault complex, with a composite downthrow to the north of c. 100 m.
  
 
== [[Northumbrian rocks and landscape: a field guide#Glossary|Glossary]] ==
 
== [[Northumbrian rocks and landscape: a field guide#Glossary|Glossary]] ==

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