Editing History of the British Geological Survey

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[[File:P815508.jpg|thumbnail|The Geological Survey Act and the creation of the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom (Great Britain & Ireland)]]
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[[File:P815508.jpg|thumbnail|The Geological Survey Act and the creation of the Geological Survey of Great Britain & Ireland]]
 
== History of the British Geological Survey ==
 
== History of the British Geological Survey ==
  
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In August 1835, De la Beche obtained funding from the Board of Works to establish a museum at Craig's Court, Whitehall, London. The Museum of Economic Geology was furnished with a chemical laboratory which opened for commercial work in June 1839, while the museum itself was accessible to personal callers from August of that year, although its formal date of opening is usually stated to be 1841.
 
In August 1835, De la Beche obtained funding from the Board of Works to establish a museum at Craig's Court, Whitehall, London. The Museum of Economic Geology was furnished with a chemical laboratory which opened for commercial work in June 1839, while the museum itself was accessible to personal callers from August of that year, although its formal date of opening is usually stated to be 1841.
 
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'''
'''1840 — Mining Record Office'''
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1840 — Mining Record Office'''
  
 
In April 1839 approval was given by Treasury for the Museum of Economic Geology to take custody of a proposed collection of mining records; this led to the establishment of a Mining Record Office following the appointment of a Keeper of Mining Records in October 1840. Statistical information on mineral production and trade was collected for selected minerals from 1845 but was expanded thereafter as an annual publication covering a wider range of minerals produced and traded in the UK from 1853. Responsibility for mineral statistics passed to the Home Office in 1881 and returned to BGS in the 1960s.
 
In April 1839 approval was given by Treasury for the Museum of Economic Geology to take custody of a proposed collection of mining records; this led to the establishment of a Mining Record Office following the appointment of a Keeper of Mining Records in October 1840. Statistical information on mineral production and trade was collected for selected minerals from 1845 but was expanded thereafter as an annual publication covering a wider range of minerals produced and traded in the UK from 1853. Responsibility for mineral statistics passed to the Home Office in 1881 and returned to BGS in the 1960s.
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The Geological Survey Act of 1845 provided the Survey with a legal framework designed 'to facilitate the completion of a geological survey of Great Britain and Ireland.' Responsibility for the Survey, which now incorporated a geological department in Ireland, passed from the Board of Ordnance to the Office of Woods, Forests, Land Revenues, Works and Buildings. This transition meant that field officers of the Survey were no longer required to wear the military-style uniform of blue serge with brass buttons and a top hat!
 
The Geological Survey Act of 1845 provided the Survey with a legal framework designed 'to facilitate the completion of a geological survey of Great Britain and Ireland.' Responsibility for the Survey, which now incorporated a geological department in Ireland, passed from the Board of Ordnance to the Office of Woods, Forests, Land Revenues, Works and Buildings. This transition meant that field officers of the Survey were no longer required to wear the military-style uniform of blue serge with brass buttons and a top hat!
 
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1851 — A new Museum of Practical Geology
'''1851 — A new Museum of Practical Geology'''
 
 
 
 
Having outgrown the limited accommodation at Craig’s Court, arrangements were put in hand in 1845 for erecting a new museum and offices for the Geological Survey. On 12 May 1851, the year of the Great Exhibition, the new Geological Survey and Museum of Practical Geology was formally opened by Prince Albert in Jermyn Street, a prime London location. The Survey offices and library were situated in the rear of the building, which fronted onto Piccadilly. Also included was a lecture theatre, laboratories and the Mining Record Office.
 
Having outgrown the limited accommodation at Craig’s Court, arrangements were put in hand in 1845 for erecting a new museum and offices for the Geological Survey. On 12 May 1851, the year of the Great Exhibition, the new Geological Survey and Museum of Practical Geology was formally opened by Prince Albert in Jermyn Street, a prime London location. The Survey offices and library were situated in the rear of the building, which fronted onto Piccadilly. Also included was a lecture theatre, laboratories and the Mining Record Office.
  
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'''1853 — The Survey passed from the First Commissioner of Woods and Forests to the Department of Science and Art'''
 
'''1853 — The Survey passed from the First Commissioner of Woods and Forests to the Department of Science and Art'''
  
'''1856 — The Survey passed from the Department of Science and Art to the Education Department of the Privy Council (Board of Education from 1899)''' <ref>In 1857 the Survey’s governing Department of Science and Art was formally transferred from the Board of Trade to become the Science and Art Department of the Committee of Council on Education, a move that displeased Murchison because he would no longer have direct access to a Minister of State (the President of the Board of Trade) but had instead to deal with an intermediary (the Privy Council on Education)</ref>
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''1856 — The Survey passed from the Department of Science and Art to the Education Department of the Privy Council (Board of Education from 1899)''
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[This is not quite accurate, but the new status is probably a bit messy to explain, so this will do. Also the Privy Council may have been under the Board of Education from the beginning, but I have found it impossible so far to track the history of the Board of Education and the Council’s relationship to it, though I think it is mentioned in 1855. Murchison was greatly annoyed at the new arrangement because he no longer had direct access to a Minister of State, the Privy Council being an inserted additional layer with the slightly renamed Science and Art Department below it, and the Survey below that.]
  
 
'''1872 — Separation of the Geological Survey and Museum from the Royal School of Mines'''
 
'''1872 — Separation of the Geological Survey and Museum from the Royal School of Mines'''
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== List of Directors of the British Geological Survey ==
 
== List of Directors of the British Geological Survey ==
  
[[Henry Thomas De la Beche|Sir Henry Thomas De la Beche, 1835–1855. Director General from 1845]]
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Sir Henry Thomas De la Beche, 1835–1855
  
[[Roderick Impey Murchison Bart., K.C.B., LL.D., D.C.L., M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S. etc.|Sir Roderick Impey Murchison, 1855–1871 Director General]]
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Sir Roderick Impey Murchison, 1855–1871 Director General
  
[[Andrew Crombie Ramsay|Sir Andrew Crombie Ramsay, 1871–1881 Director General]]
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Sir Andrew Crombie Ramsay, 1871–1881 Director General
  
[[Archibald Geikie|Sir Archibald Geikie, 1882–1901 Director General]]
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Sir Archibald Geikie, 1882–1901 Director General
  
[[Jethro Justinian Harris Teall M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.G.S., LL.D.|Sir Jethro Justinian Harris Teall, 1901–1914]]
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Sir Jethro Justinian Harris Teall, 1901–1914
  
[[Aubrey Strahan M.A., K.B.E., D.Sc., F.R.S.|Sir Aubrey Strahan,1914–1920]]
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Sir Aubrey Strahan,1914–1920
  
[[John Smith Flett Sir|Sir John Smith Flett, 1920–1935]]
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Sir John Smith Flett, 1920–1935
  
[[Bernard Smith|Bernard Smith 1935–1936]]
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Bernard Smith 1935–1936
  
[[Edward Battersby Bailey|Sir Edward Battersby Bailey 1937–1945]]
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Sir Edward Battersby Bailey 1937–1945
  
[[William Francis Porter McLintock|Dr William Francis Porter McLintock 1945–1950]]
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Dr. William Francis Porter McLintock 1945–1950
  
[[William John Pugh|Sir William John Pugh 1950–1960]]
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Sir William John Pugh 1950–1960
  
[[Cyril James Stubblefield|Sir Cyril James Stubblefield 1960–1966]]
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Sir Cyril James Stubblefield 1960–1966
  
[[Kingsley Charles Dunham Sir|Sir Kingsley Charles Dunham 1967–1976]]
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Sir Kingsley Charles Dunham 1967–1976
  
[[Austin William Woodland|Dr Austin William Woodland 1976–1979]]
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Dr. Austin William Woodland 1976–1979
  
Sir George Malcolm Brown 1979–1985
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Dr. George Malcolm Brown 1979–1985
  
 
G. I. Lumsden 1985–1987
 
G. I. Lumsden 1985–1987
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F. G. Larminie 1987–1990
 
F. G. Larminie 1987–1990
  
Dr Peter Cook 1990–1998
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Dr. Peter Cook 1990–1998
  
Dr David Falvey 1998–2006
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Dr. David Falvey 1998–2006
  
 
Professor John Ludden CBE 2006–2019
 
Professor John Ludden CBE 2006–2019
  
Dr Karen Hanghøj 2019–
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Dr. Karen Hanghøj 2019–
  
 
== Survey name changes ==
 
== Survey name changes ==
  
1832 Henry De la Beche contracted to map the geology of Devon
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1832 Henry De la Beche begins mapping as a private endeavour in Devon and Cornwall
  
 
1835 Ordnance Geological Survey
 
1835 Ordnance Geological Survey
  
1845 Geological Survey of the United Kingdom (Great Britain and Ireland)
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1845 Geological Survey of Great Britain and Ireland
  
 
1905 Geological Survey of Great Britain
 
1905 Geological Survey of Great Britain
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== Location of Survey headquarters over time ==
 
== Location of Survey headquarters over time ==
  
1841-1851 Initially operating from temporary field addresses, but from 1845 based at the Museum of Economic Geology, Craig’s Court (cul-de-sac on the south side of Whitehall, 100 yards from Trafalgar Square)
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1841-1851 Craig’s Court (cul-de-sac on the south side of Whitehall, 100 yards from Trafalgar Square)
  
1851-1933 Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn Street, backing onto Piccadilly, London
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1851-1933 Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn Street, London
  
 
1933-1984 New Museum of Practical Geology, later called The Geological Museum, Exhibition Road, London
 
1933-1984 New Museum of Practical Geology, later called The Geological Museum, Exhibition Road, London
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Flett, Sir John S. 1937. [[First hundred years of the Geological Survey of Great Britain|The first hundred years of the Geological Survey of Great Britain]]. (London: HMSO)
 
Flett, Sir John S. 1937. [[First hundred years of the Geological Survey of Great Britain|The first hundred years of the Geological Survey of Great Britain]]. (London: HMSO)
 
Bailey, Sir Edward. 1952. [[Geological Survey of Great Britain (by E.B. Bailey)|Geological Survey of Great Britain]]. (London: Thomas Murby)
 
 
Wilson, H E. 1985. [[Down to earth - one hundred and fifty years of the British Geological Survey|Down to earth: one hundred and fifty years of the British Geological Survey]]. (Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press) (Including the activities of the former Overseas Geological Surveys)
 
  
 
Cook, P J. 1998. [[History of the British Geological Survey 1990–1997|A history of the British Geological Survey, 1990-1997.]] British Geological Survey Technical Report WQ/98/1.
 
Cook, P J. 1998. [[History of the British Geological Survey 1990–1997|A history of the British Geological Survey, 1990-1997.]] British Geological Survey Technical Report WQ/98/1.
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Browitt, C. 1997. [[British Geological Survey in Scotland|The British Geological Survey in Scotland]] Unpublished ms.  
 
Browitt, C. 1997. [[British Geological Survey in Scotland|The British Geological Survey in Scotland]] Unpublished ms.  
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'''Others to follow:'''
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Bailey, Sir Edward. 1952. Geological Survey of Great Britain. (London: Thomas Murby)
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Wilson, H E. 1985. Down to earth: one hundred and fifty years of the British Geological Survey. (Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press) (Including the activities of the former Overseas Geological Surveys)
  
 
[[Category:History of the British Geological Survey]]
 
[[Category:History of the British Geological Survey]]
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=== Biographical information on early Survey staff ===
 
=== Biographical information on early Survey staff ===
  
[[Pioneers of the British Geological Survey]] — brief details of all Survey staff up to c 1933. Includes listings of biographical works and obituaries.
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[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/discoveringGeology/geologyOfBritain/archives/pioneers/home.html Pioneers of the British Geological Survey] — brief details of all Survey staff up to c 1933. Includes listings of biographical works and obituaries.
  
 
[[Staff list of the Geological Survey and Museum, 1835–1935]] (from Flett's history)
 
[[Staff list of the Geological Survey and Museum, 1835–1935]] (from Flett's history)
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[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/discoveringGeology/geologyOfBritain/archives//DeLaBeche/home.html Henry De la Beche]
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[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/discoveringGeology/geologyOfBritain/archives/ahgreen/home.html Alexander Henry Green]
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[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/discoveringGeology/geologyOfBritain/archives/jdhooker/home.html Joseph Hooker]
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[[Robert Kidston - biographical information]]
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[[The Kidston Collection of fossil plants, with an account of the life and work of Robert Kidston]]
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[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/discoveringGeology/geologyOfBritain/archives/WELogan/home.html William Edmond Logan]
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[[Benjamin Neeve Peach - biographical information]]
  
 
=== Photographs and archives on Geoscenic ===
 
=== Photographs and archives on Geoscenic ===
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[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/discoveringGeology/geologyOfBritain/archives/ACenturyOnFilm/home.html A century on film—a brief history of photography in BGS]
 
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/discoveringGeology/geologyOfBritain/archives/ACenturyOnFilm/home.html A century on film—a brief history of photography in BGS]
  
[[Geologists at war, 1939–1945]] contributions made by geologists to the war effort  
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[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/discoveringGeology/geologyOfBritain/archives/geologistsAtWar/home.html Geologists at War 1939–1945]—contributions made by geologists to the war effort  
  
 
[[The Royal Hammerers and The Grizzly Bears - the dining clubs of the early Geological Survey]]
 
[[The Royal Hammerers and The Grizzly Bears - the dining clubs of the early Geological Survey]]
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McIntosh, R P. 2012. Geological Survey of Great Britain and Ireland — a contemporary account of the Survey, 1897. Extract and illustrated from 1897 Geological Survey of Great Britain. Summary of Progress. [Unpublished].
 
McIntosh, R P. 2012. Geological Survey of Great Britain and Ireland — a contemporary account of the Survey, 1897. Extract and illustrated from 1897 Geological Survey of Great Britain. Summary of Progress. [Unpublished].
  
McIntosh, R P. Origins of the British Geological Survey.
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McIntosh, R P. Origins of the British Geological Survey.  
 
 
Paul [https://blog.geolsoc.org.uk/2014/01/16/the-unfortunate-tale-of-the-museum-of-practical-geology-pt-i/  The Unfortunate Tale of the Museum of Practical Geology Pt I]  Geological Society of London Blog. January 16th 2014.
 
 
 
Paul [https://blog.geolsoc.org.uk/2014/01/16/the-unfortunate-tale-of-the-museum-of-practical-geology-pt-i/ The Unfortunate Tale of the Museum of Practical Geology Pt II. Dippy and the Nippies]  Geological Society of London Blog. January 17th 2014.
 
  
 
Portlock, J E. 1843. Report on the geology of Londonderry, and of parts of Tyrone and Fermanagh. (Dublin: HMSO), Preface pp. iii-xi, for an account of the origins of the geological department of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland.
 
Portlock, J E. 1843. Report on the geology of Londonderry, and of parts of Tyrone and Fermanagh. (Dublin: HMSO), Preface pp. iii-xi, for an account of the origins of the geological department of the Ordnance Survey of Ireland.
  
 
Seymour, W A. (ed.) 1980. A history of the Ordnance Survey. (Folkestone: Dawson)
 
Seymour, W A. (ed.) 1980. A history of the Ordnance Survey. (Folkestone: Dawson)
 
[https://www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-london/vol38/pp257-259 Geological Muesum] In: Survey of London. Volume 38. South Kensington Museums Area. London: London County Council, 1975. p257-259.
 
  
 
Wilson, H E. 1985. Down to earth: one hundred and fifty years of the British Geological Survey. (Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press) (Including the activities of the former Overseas Geological Surveys)
 
Wilson, H E. 1985. Down to earth: one hundred and fifty years of the British Geological Survey. (Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press) (Including the activities of the former Overseas Geological Surveys)
 
== References ==
 
 
<references/>
 

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