Editing Hydrogeology of Benin

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Warning: You are not logged in. Your IP address will be publicly visible if you make any edits. If you log in or create an account, your edits will be attributed to your username, along with other benefits.

The edit can be undone. Please check the comparison below to verify that this is what you want to do, and then save the changes below to finish undoing the edit.

This page supports semantic in-text annotations (e.g. "[[Is specified as::World Heritage Site]]") to build structured and queryable content provided by Semantic MediaWiki. For a comprehensive description on how to use annotations or the #ask parser function, please have a look at the getting started, in-text annotation, or inline queries help pages.

Latest revision Your text
Line 3: Line 3:
 
  '''Lire cette page en français: [[Hydrogéologie du Bénin | Hydrogéologie du Bénin]]''' [[File: flag_of_france.png  | 50px]]
 
  '''Lire cette page en français: [[Hydrogéologie du Bénin | Hydrogéologie du Bénin]]''' [[File: flag_of_france.png  | 50px]]
  
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
  
 
From the 17th to 19th century the main political entity in the area of central present-day Benin was the Kingdom of Dahomey, a military power in the region and an active participant in the trans-Atlantic slave trade. This contact with the New World has made a lasting contribution to Benin’s culture. The Kingdom of Dahomey, and the city-state of Porto-Novo on the coast, were incorporated in the colony of French Dahomey in 1894. Independence from France was won as the country of Dahomey in 1960, after which was a period of civil and military unrest, culminating in the proclamation of a Marxist-Leninist state in 1975, when the country was renamed the People’s Republic of Benin. A change to multi-party democratic political system in 1991 saw the country officially renamed the Republic of Benin.  
 
From the 17th to 19th century the main political entity in the area of central present-day Benin was the Kingdom of Dahomey, a military power in the region and an active participant in the trans-Atlantic slave trade. This contact with the New World has made a lasting contribution to Benin’s culture. The Kingdom of Dahomey, and the city-state of Porto-Novo on the coast, were incorporated in the colony of French Dahomey in 1894. Independence from France was won as the country of Dahomey in 1960, after which was a period of civil and military unrest, culminating in the proclamation of a Marxist-Leninist state in 1975, when the country was renamed the People’s Republic of Benin. A change to multi-party democratic political system in 1991 saw the country officially renamed the Republic of Benin.  
Line 9: Line 8:
 
Benin’s economy is heavily dependent on agriculture. Most of the population is employed in subsistence agriculture, and commercial agriculture for export is a key contributor to the economy, particularly cotton, which accounts for around 40% of GDP and 80% of official export receipts. Other agricultural products are also important economically, including wood. The service sector is the largest single contributor to GDP, driven by trade and transportation links with neighbouring countries, and tourism. Petrochemical exports were significant in the 1980s, when offshore reserves were extracted, but these operations declined in the 1990s, although Benin is exploring the possibility of revamping petrochemical production post 2020.  
 
Benin’s economy is heavily dependent on agriculture. Most of the population is employed in subsistence agriculture, and commercial agriculture for export is a key contributor to the economy, particularly cotton, which accounts for around 40% of GDP and 80% of official export receipts. Other agricultural products are also important economically, including wood. The service sector is the largest single contributor to GDP, driven by trade and transportation links with neighbouring countries, and tourism. Petrochemical exports were significant in the 1980s, when offshore reserves were extracted, but these operations declined in the 1990s, although Benin is exploring the possibility of revamping petrochemical production post 2020.  
  
Average annual rainfall in Benin is relatively high, but varies considerably by season as well as across the country. The south of Benin, in particular, has good surface water resources in perennial rivers, but groundwater is widely used across the country in rural and urban areas for domestic water supply. The capital Cotonou depends extensively on groundwater. Aquastat figures (see below) show relatively high rates of access to improved water sources, but Benin government figures, which use a different definition of access, show much lower rates: 57% in urban areas and 55% in rural areas in 2009.  
+
Average annual rainfall in Benin is relatively high, but varies considerably by season as well as across the country. The south of Benin particularly has good surface water resources in perennial rivers. Groundwater is widely used in rural and urban areas for domestic water supply. Aquastat figures (see below) show relatively high rates of access to improved water sources, but Benin government figures, which use a different definition of access, show much lower rates: 57% in urban areas and 55% in rural areas in 2009.  
  
  
Line 132: Line 131:
 
|Fresh groundwater withdrawal (primary and secondary) (Million cubic metres/year) ||41|| ||  || ||
 
|Fresh groundwater withdrawal (primary and secondary) (Million cubic metres/year) ||41|| ||  || ||
 
|-
 
|-
|Groundwater: entering the country (total) (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data || No data || No data
+
|Groundwater: entering the country (total) (Million cubic metres/year) || || || || ||  
 
|-
 
|-
|Groundwater: leaving the country to other countries (total) (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data || No data || No data
+
|Groundwater: leaving the country to other countries (total) (Million cubic metres/year) || || || || ||  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Industrial water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year) ||30 || || || ||  
 
|Industrial water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year) ||30 || || || ||  
Line 165: Line 164:
  
 
==Geology==
 
==Geology==
 
 
This section provides a summary of the geology of Benin. More detail can be found in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=BJ&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
 
This section provides a summary of the geology of Benin. More detail can be found in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=BJ&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
  
The geology map on this page shows a simplified version of the geology of Benin at a national scale, based on 1:5 000 000 scale mapping (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details).  
+
The geology map on this page shows a simplified version of the geology of Benin at a national scale, based on 1:5 000 000 scale mapping (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details). A more detailed geological map at 1:200 000 scale was produced by BRGM (1978).
  
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Benin geology and hydrogeology map'''].
+
[[File:Benin_Geology2.png|border|center|thumb| 500px|Geology of Benin at 1:5million scale. Developed from USGS map (Persits et al. 2002). For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]]]]
 
 
A more detailed geological map at 1:200 000 scale was produced by BRGM (1978).
 
 
 
[[File:Benin_Geology3.png|border|center|thumb| 500px|Geology of Benin at 1:5million scale. Developed from USGS map (Persits et al. 2002). For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]].  [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Benin geology and hydrogeology map].]]
 
  
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
Line 232: Line 226:
 
This section provides a summary of the hydrogeology of the main aquifers in Benin.  More information is available in the references listed at the bottom of this page, many of which can be accessed through the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country=BJ&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
 
This section provides a summary of the hydrogeology of the main aquifers in Benin.  More information is available in the references listed at the bottom of this page, many of which can be accessed through the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country=BJ&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
  
The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified version of the type and productivity of aquifers in Benin at a national scale(see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map]] resource page for more details).  
+
The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified version of the type and productivity of aquifers in Benin, at 1:5 000 000 scale (see the [[Hydrogeology Map | Hydrogeology map]] resource page for more details). More detailed hydrogeological maps, at 1:500 000 scale and 1:200 000 scale, are produced by GIZ Germany/DGEau Benin (Achidi et al., 2012).  
  
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Benin geology and hydrogeology map'''].
+
[[File:Benin_Hydrogeology2.png | center |  thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Benin at 1:5million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Hydrogeology Map | hydrogeology map]] resource page]]
 
 
More detailed hydrogeological maps, at 1:500,000 scale and 1:200,000 scale, are produced by GIZ Germany/DGEau Benin (Achidi et al., 2012).
 
 
 
[[File:Benin_Hydrogeology3.png | center |  thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Benin at 1:5million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | hydrogeology map]] resource page. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Benin geology and hydrogeology map].]]
 
  
 
====Unconsolidated====
 
====Unconsolidated====
Line 319: Line 309:
  
 
===Groundwater status===
 
===Groundwater status===
 
 
Low yields from basement aquifers, which cover most of Benin, lead to difficulties with fresh water availability in medium to large cities.  
 
Low yields from basement aquifers, which cover most of Benin, lead to difficulties with fresh water availability in medium to large cities.  
  
 
Potable water supply is also an issue in parts of the coastal basin, where the saturated thickness of the shallow aquifers is not sufficient for large supplies. Where the shallow deposits are unable to sustain sufficient yields, boreholes are drilled deeper into the weathered basement below.
 
Potable water supply is also an issue in parts of the coastal basin, where the saturated thickness of the shallow aquifers is not sufficient for large supplies. Where the shallow deposits are unable to sustain sufficient yields, boreholes are drilled deeper into the weathered basement below.
  
Groundwater in shallow aquifers is often of poor quality due to contamination. Saline intrusion is a particular problem in the coastal aquifers. In the capital, Cotonou, groundwater is extensively abstracted, but studies have found that groundwater in the urban area contains levels of many contaminants above WHO guidelines, including lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, coliforms and E.coli ([https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjpr/article/view/14587 Erah and Akukieze 2002], [https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280839085_Groundwater_pollution_and_the_safe_water_supply_challenge_in_Cotonou_town_Benin_West_Africa Totin et al 2013).  
+
Groundwater in shallow aquifers is often of poor quality due to contamination. Saline intrusion is a particular problem in the coastal aquifers.  
  
 
The Oueme River loses water to the permeable coastal sedimentary aquifer, and river flow depletion is therefore an issue in this river downstream of the contact between the Precambrian basement aquifer and the coastal sedimentary aquifer.  
 
The Oueme River loses water to the permeable coastal sedimentary aquifer, and river flow depletion is therefore an issue in this river downstream of the contact between the Precambrian basement aquifer and the coastal sedimentary aquifer.  
Line 332: Line 321:
 
==Groundwater use and  management==
 
==Groundwater use and  management==
  
===Groundwater use===
+
=== Groundwater use===
 
 
 
The main uses of groundwater in Benin are domestic supply (both urban and rural), agriculture, livestock and fish farming, tourism, industry and transport.  
 
The main uses of groundwater in Benin are domestic supply (both urban and rural), agriculture, livestock and fish farming, tourism, industry and transport.  
  
 
Groundwater sources vary from boreholes with electric pumps, hand pumps and foot pumps, modern and traditional wells, and traditional and improved springs.  
 
Groundwater sources vary from boreholes with electric pumps, hand pumps and foot pumps, modern and traditional wells, and traditional and improved springs.  
  
===Groundwater development and drilling===
+
=== Groundwater management===
 
 
In 2009 the cost of water borehole drilling in Benin was estimated at an average of 5000 FCFA per metre (about 9 USD per metre) ([https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1474706508000697 Bartel et al 2009]).
 
 
 
===Groundwater management===
 
  
 
The key groundwater institutions in Benin are:
 
The key groundwater institutions in Benin are:
Line 349: Line 333:
 
* General Directorate of Water (DG-Eau) -  responsible for groundwater supply in rural areas.
 
* General Directorate of Water (DG-Eau) -  responsible for groundwater supply in rural areas.
  
The "Code of Water in Benin" is the key piece of legislation related to groundwater management. Permits are required for drilling and groundwater abstraction. These are issued by the government through the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Water.  
+
The "Code of Water in Benin" is the key piece of legislation related to groundwater management. Permits are required for drilling and groundwater abstraction. These are issued by the government through the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Water. Groundwater protection is very difficult particularly in more densely populated areas because the disposal of waste is largely uncontrolled.  
 
 
Groundwater protection is very difficult, particularly in more densely populated areas, because the disposal of waste is largely uncontrolled.  
 
  
A water point database exists, with information about more than 15 000 boreholes and wells across the country, although no geological logs are available.  
+
A water point database exists, with information about more than 15 000 boreholes and wells across the country, although no geological logs are available for these sources.  
  
===Groundwater monitoring===
+
=== Groundwater monitoring===
  
 
Groundwater monitoring is carried out by the National Company of Urban Water Supply (SONEB), the General Directorate of Water (DG-Eau) and the National Institute of Water.  
 
Groundwater monitoring is carried out by the National Company of Urban Water Supply (SONEB), the General Directorate of Water (DG-Eau) and the National Institute of Water.  
Line 369: Line 351:
 
For further general information about transboundary aquifers, please see the [[Transboundary aquifers | Transboundary aquifers resource page]]
 
For further general information about transboundary aquifers, please see the [[Transboundary aquifers | Transboundary aquifers resource page]]
  
==References==
+
== References ==
 
 
 
The following references provide more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Benin.
 
The following references provide more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Benin.
  
Line 418: Line 399:
  
 
===Hydrogeology references===
 
===Hydrogeology references===
 
 
Key references are highlighted in '''bold'''.
 
Key references are highlighted in '''bold'''.
  
Line 426: Line 406:
  
 
Alidou, S, et Oyédé, L M. 1984. Quaternaire du Bénin. ASEQUA, Dakar. Bulletin de Liaison, 72–73, 42–43.
 
Alidou, S, et Oyédé, L M. 1984. Quaternaire du Bénin. ASEQUA, Dakar. Bulletin de Liaison, 72–73, 42–43.
 
Barthel, R, Sonneveld, BGJS, Goetzinger, J, Keyzer, M A, Pande, S, Printz, A and Gaiser, T. 2009. [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1474706508000697 Integrated assessment of groundwater resources in the Oueme basin, Benin, West Africa]. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 34(4-5), 236-250.
 
  
 
'''Boukari, M. 1980'''. Contribution à l’étude hydrogéologique des régions de socle de l’Afrique occidentale : mise au point des connaissances relatives à la République Populaire du Bénin. Rapport Département de Géologie. No. 4. Nouvelle série. Mémoire de DEA, 141 p. Université de Dakar, Sénégal.  
 
'''Boukari, M. 1980'''. Contribution à l’étude hydrogéologique des régions de socle de l’Afrique occidentale : mise au point des connaissances relatives à la République Populaire du Bénin. Rapport Département de Géologie. No. 4. Nouvelle série. Mémoire de DEA, 141 p. Université de Dakar, Sénégal.  
Line 468: Line 446:
  
 
'''Engalenc, M. 1978b'''. Méthode d’étude et de recherche de l’eau souterraine des roches cristallines de l’Afrique de l’Ouest. Rapport CIEH, 318 p. Ouagadougou. Haute-Volta.  
 
'''Engalenc, M. 1978b'''. Méthode d’étude et de recherche de l’eau souterraine des roches cristallines de l’Afrique de l’Ouest. Rapport CIEH, 318 p. Ouagadougou. Haute-Volta.  
 
Erah, P O and Akujieze, C N. 2002. [https://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjpr/article/view/14587 The Quality of Groundwater in Benin City: A baseline study on inorganic chemicals and microbial contaminants of health importance in boreholes and open wells]. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 1(2), 75-82.
 
  
 
'''Falola E, et Sotognon, F C. 2002'''. Impact de l’utilisation des intrants agricoles sur la qualité Chimique des nappes d’eaux souterraines dans les Départements du Borgou et de l’Alibori. Mémoire de Maîtrise, 59 p. Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin.
 
'''Falola E, et Sotognon, F C. 2002'''. Impact de l’utilisation des intrants agricoles sur la qualité Chimique des nappes d’eaux souterraines dans les Départements du Borgou et de l’Alibori. Mémoire de Maîtrise, 59 p. Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin.
Line 526: Line 502:
 
Practica Foundation, UNICEF and Enterprise Works/VITA. 2014. [https://www.practica.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/BENIN_FINAL_carte_finale_A2.jpg Republique du Bénin: Etude de faisabilite des forages manuels: Carte de faisabilite finales forages manuels]. Practica/Enterprise Works/VITA/UNICEF
 
Practica Foundation, UNICEF and Enterprise Works/VITA. 2014. [https://www.practica.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/BENIN_FINAL_carte_finale_A2.jpg Republique du Bénin: Etude de faisabilite des forages manuels: Carte de faisabilite finales forages manuels]. Practica/Enterprise Works/VITA/UNICEF
  
'''Practica Foundation, UNICEF and Enterprise Works/VITA. 2014.''' [https://www.practica.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Rapport_final_Forages_manuels_Unicef_final.pdf Republique du Bénin: Etude de faisabilite des forages manuels: Identification des zones potentiellement favorables]. Practica/Enterprise Works/VITA/UNICEF
+
Practica Foundation, UNICEF and Enterprise Works/VITA. 2014. [https://www.practica.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Rapport_final_Forages_manuels_Unicef_final.pdf Republique du Bénin: Etude de faisabilite des forages manuels: Identification des zones potentiellement favorables]. Practica/Enterprise Works/VITA/UNICEF
  
 
Practica Foundation, UNICEF and Enterprise Works/VITA. 2014. [https://www.practica.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Identification_des_Zones_Favorables_Pour_les_Forages_Manuels_FINAL.pdf Identification des zones favorables pour les forages manuels: rapport final sur la methodologie utilise et les resultas obtenus]. Practica/Enterprise Works/VITA/UNICEF
 
Practica Foundation, UNICEF and Enterprise Works/VITA. 2014. [https://www.practica.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Identification_des_Zones_Favorables_Pour_les_Forages_Manuels_FINAL.pdf Identification des zones favorables pour les forages manuels: rapport final sur la methodologie utilise et les resultas obtenus]. Practica/Enterprise Works/VITA/UNICEF
Line 540: Line 516:
 
SOGREAH/SCET-Tunisie. 1998. Etude de la stratégie nationale de gestion des ressources en eau du Bénin: assistance à la définition de la stratégie nationale de gestion des ressources en eau du Bénin. 7 volumes. Rapport final, Ministère des Mines, de l’Energie et de l’Hydraulique, Cotonou, Bénin.
 
SOGREAH/SCET-Tunisie. 1998. Etude de la stratégie nationale de gestion des ressources en eau du Bénin: assistance à la définition de la stratégie nationale de gestion des ressources en eau du Bénin. 7 volumes. Rapport final, Ministère des Mines, de l’Energie et de l’Hydraulique, Cotonou, Bénin.
  
Totin, H. S., Amoussou, ERNEST, Odoulami, LÉOCADIE, Edorh, P A. Boukari M and Boko, M. 2013. [https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280839085_Groundwater_pollution_and_the_safe_water_supply_challenge_in_Cotonou_town_Benin_West_Africa Groundwater pollution and the safe water supply challenge in Cotonou town, Benin (West Africa). Proceedings of H, 4, 191-196].  
+
Totin, V H S. 2003. Changements climatiques et vulnérabilité des ressources en eau sur le plateau d’Allada : approche prospective. Mémoire de Maîtrise, Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin, Cotonou, Bénin, 101 p.
  
 
Totin,  V S H. 2010. Sensibilité des eaux souterraines du bassin sédimentaire côtier du Bénin à l’évolution du climat et aux modes d’exploitation : Stratégies de gestion durable. Thèse de Doctorat, Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Bénin, 283 p.
 
Totin,  V S H. 2010. Sensibilité des eaux souterraines du bassin sédimentaire côtier du Bénin à l’évolution du climat et aux modes d’exploitation : Stratégies de gestion durable. Thèse de Doctorat, Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Bénin, 283 p.
 
Totin, V H S. 2003. Changements climatiques et vulnérabilité des ressources en eau sur le plateau d’Allada : approche prospective. Mémoire de Maîtrise, Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin, Cotonou, Bénin, 101 p.
 
  
 
Turkpak International-SCET-Tunisie. 1991. Inventaire des ressources en eaux souterraines au Bénin. Rapport final, Direction de l’Hydraulique, Cotonou, Bénin. 1. 284 p.  
 
Turkpak International-SCET-Tunisie. 1991. Inventaire des ressources en eaux souterraines au Bénin. Rapport final, Direction de l’Hydraulique, Cotonou, Bénin. 1. 284 p.  
Line 555: Line 529:
  
 
'''WAKUTI. 1968'''. Reconnaissance géophysique et sondages mécaniques dans le Centre, Nord-Est et Nord-Ouest du Dahomey. Rapport Direction Hydraulique, Mines et Travaux Publics. Cotonou, Bénin.
 
'''WAKUTI. 1968'''. Reconnaissance géophysique et sondages mécaniques dans le Centre, Nord-Est et Nord-Ouest du Dahomey. Rapport Direction Hydraulique, Mines et Travaux Publics. Cotonou, Bénin.
 
Zevounou C, Alassane A, Kaki C, Bacharou T and Koudemekpo J. 2017. [https://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=81033 Piezometry of the Aquifer of the Continental Terminal in the Borehole Fields of Godomey and Ouedo for the Delimitation of the Protection Areas around Boreholes of Ouedo]. Scientific Research 7(12), 1786-1800. ojg.2017.712120.
 
  
 
Zimé Mora, B M, et Mondja Chabi, T-K. 2006. Analyses statistiques des données hydrochimiques dans les régions de socle et de couvertures anciennes du Bénin : intérêt pour la compréhension des processus de minéralisation des eaux souterraines de ces régions. Mémoire de Maîtrise, 63 p. Université d’Abomey-Calavi. Bénin.
 
Zimé Mora, B M, et Mondja Chabi, T-K. 2006. Analyses statistiques des données hydrochimiques dans les régions de socle et de couvertures anciennes du Bénin : intérêt pour la compréhension des processus de minéralisation des eaux souterraines de ces régions. Mémoire de Maîtrise, 63 p. Université d’Abomey-Calavi. Bénin.

Please note that all contributions to Earthwise may be edited, altered, or removed by other contributors. If you do not want your writing to be edited mercilessly, then do not submit it here.
You are also promising us that you wrote this yourself, or copied it from a public domain or similar free resource (see Earthwise:Copyrights for details). Do not submit copyrighted work without permission!

Cancel Editing help (opens in new window)

  [] · [[]] · [[|]] · {{}} · · “” ‘’ «» ‹› „“ ‚‘ · ~ | °   · ± × ÷ ² ³ ½ · §
[[Category:]] · [[:File:]] · <code></code> · <syntaxhighlight></syntaxhighlight> · <includeonly></includeonly> · <noinclude></noinclude> · #REDIRECT[[]] · <translate></translate> · <languages/> · ==References== · {{reflist}} · ==Footnote== · {{reflist|group=note}} · <ref group=note> · __notoc__ · {{DEFAULTSORT:}} <div class="someclass noprint"></div> {{clear}} <br>