Editing Hydrogeology of Benin

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==Groundwater use and  management==
 
==Groundwater use and  management==
  
===Groundwater use===
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=== Groundwater use===
 
 
 
The main uses of groundwater in Benin are domestic supply (both urban and rural), agriculture, livestock and fish farming, tourism, industry and transport.  
 
The main uses of groundwater in Benin are domestic supply (both urban and rural), agriculture, livestock and fish farming, tourism, industry and transport.  
  
 
Groundwater sources vary from boreholes with electric pumps, hand pumps and foot pumps, modern and traditional wells, and traditional and improved springs.  
 
Groundwater sources vary from boreholes with electric pumps, hand pumps and foot pumps, modern and traditional wells, and traditional and improved springs.  
  
===Groundwater development and drilling===
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=== Groundwater management===
 
 
In 2009 the cost of water borehole drilling in Benin was estimated at an average of 5000 FCFA per metre (about 9 USD per metre) ([https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1474706508000697 Bartel et al 2009]).
 
 
 
===Groundwater management===
 
  
 
The key groundwater institutions in Benin are:
 
The key groundwater institutions in Benin are:
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* General Directorate of Water (DG-Eau) -  responsible for groundwater supply in rural areas.
 
* General Directorate of Water (DG-Eau) -  responsible for groundwater supply in rural areas.
  
The "Code of Water in Benin" is the key piece of legislation related to groundwater management. Permits are required for drilling and groundwater abstraction. These are issued by the government through the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Water.  
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The "Code of Water in Benin" is the key piece of legislation related to groundwater management. Permits are required for drilling and groundwater abstraction. These are issued by the government through the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Water. Groundwater protection is very difficult particularly in more densely populated areas because the disposal of waste is largely uncontrolled.  
  
Groundwater protection is very difficult, particularly in more densely populated areas, because the disposal of waste is largely uncontrolled.  
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A water point database exists, with information about more than 15 000 boreholes and wells across the country, although no geological logs are available for these sources.  
  
A water point database exists, with information about more than 15 000 boreholes and wells across the country, although no geological logs are available.
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=== Groundwater monitoring===
 
 
===Groundwater monitoring===
 
  
 
Groundwater monitoring is carried out by the National Company of Urban Water Supply (SONEB), the General Directorate of Water (DG-Eau) and the National Institute of Water.  
 
Groundwater monitoring is carried out by the National Company of Urban Water Supply (SONEB), the General Directorate of Water (DG-Eau) and the National Institute of Water.  
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Alidou, S, et Oyédé, L M. 1984. Quaternaire du Bénin. ASEQUA, Dakar. Bulletin de Liaison, 72–73, 42–43.
 
Alidou, S, et Oyédé, L M. 1984. Quaternaire du Bénin. ASEQUA, Dakar. Bulletin de Liaison, 72–73, 42–43.
 
Barthel, R, Sonneveld, BGJS, Goetzinger, J, Keyzer, M A, Pande, S, Printz, A and Gaiser, T. 2009. [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1474706508000697 Integrated assessment of groundwater resources in the Oueme basin, Benin, West Africa]. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 34(4-5), 236-250.
 
  
 
'''Boukari, M. 1980'''. Contribution à l’étude hydrogéologique des régions de socle de l’Afrique occidentale : mise au point des connaissances relatives à la République Populaire du Bénin. Rapport Département de Géologie. No. 4. Nouvelle série. Mémoire de DEA, 141 p. Université de Dakar, Sénégal.  
 
'''Boukari, M. 1980'''. Contribution à l’étude hydrogéologique des régions de socle de l’Afrique occidentale : mise au point des connaissances relatives à la République Populaire du Bénin. Rapport Département de Géologie. No. 4. Nouvelle série. Mémoire de DEA, 141 p. Université de Dakar, Sénégal.  

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