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[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Burkina Faso
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Burkina Faso
 
  '''Lire cette page en français: [[Hydrogéologie du Burkina Faso | Hydrogéologie du Burkina Faso]]''' [[File: flag_of_france.png  | 50px]]
 
 
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
 
Burkina Faso is a landlocked, francophone Sahelian country. Gaining independence in 1960 and changing its name from the Republic of Upper Volta in 1984, the country embarked on an ambitious programme of socioeconomic improvement with an autonomist agenda. A public uprising in 2014 and military uprising in 2015 was followed by elections, a new president, the reversal of many previous Marxist policies, and the country becoming a strong ally of the USA and France in West Africa.
 
 
Burkina Faso has a low GDP and rapid population growth of 3%. Agriculture is the main occupation of most of the population, but now represents only about one third of GDP. Livestock rearing is important across the country, with arable crops particularly in the south and southwest Mineral exports now make up the main export, replacing the previously dominant cotton, including gold, copper, iron and other metals. 
 
 
Rainfall is highly variable both annually and spatially. Most water needs are met by surface reservoirs, and irrigation by dams has been encouraged by government since 1973. Most of Burkina Faso is underlain by low productivity aquifers, and groundwater use for irrigation is minimal. Although many challenges remain in water services, the state owned water utility (ONEA) has made great improvements over recent decades, with more than 75% of the rural population and more than 97% of the urban population classed as having access to safe drinking water.
 
 
A food price spike in 2008 has had long-term impacts on agricultural activities, and consequently water use, including leading government to reinstate fertiliser subsidies and control prices of some commodities. Another current source of pressure on water and other resources is the presence of refugees from Mali and some other regions in the north of the country.
 
 
  
 
==Authors==
 
==Authors==
  
'''Dr Youssouf Koussoubé''', Université de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
+
'''Youssouf Koussoubé''', Université de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
  
 
'''Kirsty Upton''', '''Brighid Ó Dochartaigh''', British Geological Survey, UK
 
'''Kirsty Upton''', '''Brighid Ó Dochartaigh''', British Geological Survey, UK
  
'''Dr Imogen Bellwood-Howard''', Institute for Development Studies, UK
+
Please cite this page as: Koussobé, Upton and Ó Dochartaigh, 2016.
 
 
Please cite this page as: Koussoubé, Upton, Ó Dochartaigh and Bellwood-Howard, 2018.
 
  
Bibliographic reference: Koussoubé, Y, Upton, K, Ó Dochartaigh, B É and Bellwood-Howard, I. 2018. Africa Groundwater Atlas: Hydrogeology of Burkina Faso. British Geological Survey. Accessed [date you accessed the information]. http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/Hydrogeology_of_Burkina_Faso
+
Bibliographic reference: Koussobé, Y, Upton, K, and Ó Dochartaigh, B É. 2016. Africa Groundwater Atlas: Hydrogeology of Burkina Faso. British Geological Survey. Accessed [date you accessed the information]. http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/Hydrogeology_of_Burkina_Faso
  
 
==Terms and conditions==
 
==Terms and conditions==
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{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 +
|-
 +
|Estimated population in 2013* || 16 934 839
 +
|-
 +
|Rural population (% of total) (2013)* || 71.8%
 +
|-
 +
|Total surface area* || 273 600 sq km
 +
|-
 +
|Agricultural land (% of total area) (2012)* || 44.1%
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Capital city || Ouagadougou
 
|Capital city || Ouagadougou
 
|-
 
|-
|Region || Western Africa  
+
|Region || Western Africa
 +
|-
 +
|Border countries || Benin, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Togo 
 
|-
 
|-
|Border countries || Benin, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Togo
+
|Annual freshwater withdrawal (2013)* || 818 million cubic metres
 
|-
 
|-
|Total surface area* || 274,220 km<sup>2</sup> (27,422,200 ha)
+
|Annual freshwater withdrawal for agriculture (2013)* || 51.4%
 
|-
 
|-
|Total population (2015)* || 18,106,000
+
|Annual freshwater withdrawal for domestic use (2013)* || 45.9%
 
|-
 
|-
|Rural population (2015)* || 12,757,000 (70%)
+
|Annual freshwater withdrawal for industry (2013)* || 2.7%
 
|-
 
|-
|Urban population (2015)* || 5,349,000 (30%)
+
|Rural population with access to improved water source (2012)* || 75.8%
 
|-
 
|-
|UN Human Development Index (HDI) [highest = 1] (2014)*|| 0.4023
+
|Urban population with access to improved water source (2012)* || 97.5%
 
|}
 
|}
  
<nowiki>*</nowiki> Source: [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/query/index.html?lang=en FAO Aquastat]
+
<nowiki>*</nowiki> Source: World Bank
 +
 
  
 
===Climate===
 
===Climate===
  
Burkina Faso can be divided into three climate zones, with rainfall decreasing from south to north. There is a distinct dry season during winter months, and wet season during summer months.
+
Burkina Faso can be divided into three climate zones, with rainfall decreasing from south to north. There is a distinct dry season during winter months, and wet season during summer months.  
+
 
[[File:Burkina Faso_ClimateZones.png | 375x365px |Koppen Geiger Climate Zones]][[File:Burkina Faso_ClimatePrecip.png | 375x365px |Average Annual Precipitation]][[File:Burkina Faso_ClimateTemp.png | 375x365px |Average Temperature]]
+
These maps and graphs were developed from the CRU TS 3.21 dataset produced by the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia, UK. For more information see the [[Climate | climate resource page]].
 +
<gallery widths="375px" heights=365px mode=nolines>
 +
File:Burkina Faso_ClimateZones.png |Koppen Geiger Climate Zones  
 +
File:Burkina Faso_ClimatePrecip.png |Average Annual Precipitation
 +
File:Burkina Faso_ClimateTemp.png |Average Temperature
 +
</gallery>
  
[[File: Burkina Faso_pre_Monthly.png| 255x124px| Average monthly precipitation for Burkina Faso showing minimum and maximum (light blue), 25th and 75th percentile (blue), and median (dark blue) rainfall]] [[File: Burkina Faso_tmp_Monthly.png| 255x124px| Average monthly temperature for Burkina Faso showing minimum and maximum (orange), 25th and 75th percentile (red), and median (black) temperature]] [[File: Burkina Faso_pre_Qts.png | 255x124px | Quarterly precipitation over the period 1950-2012]] [[File: Burkina Faso_pre_Mts.png|255x124px | Monthly precipitation (blue) over the period 2000-2012 compared with the long term monthly average (red)]]
 
  
More information on average rainfall and temperature for each of the climate zones in Burkina Faso can be seen at the [[Climate of Burkina Faso | Burkina Faso climate page]].
 
  
These maps and graphs were developed from the CRU TS 3.21 dataset produced by the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia, UK. For more information see the [[Climate | climate resource page]].
+
[[File: Burkina Faso_pre_Monthly.png| 255x124px| Average monthly precipitation for Burkina Faso showing minimum and maximum (light blue), 25th and 75th percentile (blue), and median (dark blue) rainfall]] [[File: Burkina Faso_tmp_Monthly.png| 255x124px| Average monthly temperature for Burkina Faso showing minimum and maximum (orange), 25th and 75th percentile (red), and median (black) temperature]] [[File: Burkina Faso_pre_Qts.png | 255x124px | Quarterly precipitation over the period 1950-2012]] [[File: Burkina Faso_pre_Mts.png|255x124px | Monthly precipitation (blue) over the period 2000-2012 compared with the long term monthly average (red)]]  
 +
  
 
===Surface water===
 
===Surface water===
  
The Volta river basin covers 63% of the country’s area, across the centre, south and west. Tributaries of the Volta system include the Nakambe, Mouhoun and Comoé rivers. The headquarters of the Volta basin authority are in Ouagadougou.
+
The centre, south and west of Burkina Faso are drained by tributaries of the Volta system, including the Nakambe, Mouhoun and Comoé rivers. The north and east are drained by rivers of the Niger basin. Many of the smaller rivers are ephemeral, drying during the dry season. There are a number of natural lakes. Many valleys are dammed to store wet season rainfall: in 2001 there were approximately 2000 reservoirs with a total storage volume estimated at 2.66 billion cubic metres (Obuobie and Barry, 2012)
 
 
The north and east are drained by rivers of the Niger basin.  
 
 
 
Many smaller rivers are ephemeral, drying during the dry season. There are a number of natural lakes. Many valleys are dammed to store wet season rainfall: in 2001 there were approximately 2000 reservoirs with a total storage volume estimated at 2.66 billion cubic metres (Obuobie and Barry, 2012)
 
  
  
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| [[File: Burkina Faso_Hydrology.png | frame |
 
| [[File: Burkina Faso_Hydrology.png | frame |
  
Major surface water features of Burkina Faso. Map developed from World Wildlife Fund HydroSHEDS; Digital Chart of the World drainage; and FAO Inland Water Bodies. For more information on the datasets used to develop the map see the [[Surface water | surface water resource page]]]]
+
Major surface water features of Algeria. Map developed from World Wildlife Fund HydroSHEDS; Digital Chart of the World drainage; and FAO Inland Water Bodies. For more information on the datasets used to develop the map see the [[Surface water | surface water resource page]]]]
 
|}
 
|}
  
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|}
 
|}
  
===Water statistics===
 
  
{| class = "wikitable"
 
| || 1998 ||2001||2005||2011||2014||2015
 
|-
 
|Rural population with access to safe drinking water (%) || || ||  || || ||75.8
 
|-
 
|Urban population with access to safe drinking water (%) || || ||  || || ||97.5
 
|-
 
|Population affected by water related disease (per 1000 inhabitants)|| ||655,000||  || || ||
 
|-
 
|Total internal renewable water resources (cubic metres/inhabitant/year) || || ||  || ||690.4 ||
 
|-
 
|Total exploitable water resources (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  ||4,750 || ||
 
|-
 
|Freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources || || ||6.06  || || ||
 
|-
 
|Total renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) ||  || || || ||9,500 ||
 
|-
 
|Exploitable: Regular renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) ||No data||No data||No data||No data||No data||No data
 
|-
 
|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  || || 95,000 ||
 
|-
 
|Fresh groundwater withdrawal (primary and secondary) (Million cubic metres/year) ||11 || ||  || || ||
 
|-
 
|Groundwater: entering the country (total) (Million cubic metres/year) ||No data||No data||No data||No data||No data||No data
 
|-
 
|Groundwater: leaving the country to other countries (total) (Million cubic metres/year) ||No data||No data||No data||No data||No data||No data
 
|-
 
|Industrial water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year) || || || 21.7 || || ||
 
|-
 
|Municipal water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year)  || || || 375.6 || || ||
 
|-
 
|Agricultural water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year) || || || 420.7 || || ||
 
|-
 
|Irrigation water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year) || || 420.7||  || || ||
 
|-
 
|Irrigation water requirement (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year) || ||128.9 ||  || || ||
 
|-
 
|Area of permanent crops (ha) || || ||  || ||100,000||
 
|-
 
|Cultivated land (arable and permanent crops) (ha) || || ||  || ||6,100,000||
 
|-
 
|Total area of country cultivated (%) || || ||  || || 22.24||
 
|-
 
|Area equipped for irrigation by groundwater (ha) || 3,000|| ||  || || ||
 
|-
 
|Area equipped for irrigation by mixed surface water and groundwater (ha) ||No data||No data||No data||No data||No data||No data
 
|}
 
 
Source and more statistics at: [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/query/index.html?lang=en FAO Aquastat].
 
  
 
==Geology==
 
==Geology==
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The geology map on this page shows a simplified version of the geology at a national scale (see [[Geology | the Geology resources page]] for more details).  
 
The geology map on this page shows a simplified version of the geology at a national scale (see [[Geology | the Geology resources page]] for more details).  
 
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Burkina Faso geology and hydrogeology map'''].
 
  
 
A higher resolution map at 1:1 000 000 scale is published by the Ministere des Mines, des Carrieres et de l'Energie (Castaing et al., 2003a, 2003b).
 
A higher resolution map at 1:1 000 000 scale is published by the Ministere des Mines, des Carrieres et de l'Energie (Castaing et al., 2003a, 2003b).
  
[[File:BurkinaFaso_Geology4.png | centre | thumb| 500 px| Geology of Burkina Faso at 1:5 million scale. Developed from USGS map (Persits et al., 2002). For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Burkina Faso geology and hydrogeology map].]]
+
[[File:BurkinaFaso_Geology3.png | centre | thumb| 500 px| Geology of Burkina Faso at 1:5 million scale. Developed from USGS map (Persits et al., 2002). For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]]]
  
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
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|Birimian volcano-sedimentary and plutonic rocks; Eburnean granitoid rocks.
 
|Birimian volcano-sedimentary and plutonic rocks; Eburnean granitoid rocks.
 
||Precambrian
 
||Precambrian
||Basement complex of Archaean and Birimian age, consisting of belts of Birimian volcano-sedimentary and plutonic rocks intruded by large batholiths of Eburnean granitoid rocks. It includes basalt, andesite, rhyolite, rhyodacite, dacite, felsic tuffs, gabbro, diorite, granites, gneisses, shales, schists, quartzites and greenstones (Castaing et al., 2003b).  
+
||Basement complext of Archaean and Birimian age, consisting of belts of Birimian volcano-sedimentary and plutonic rocks intruded by large batholiths of Eburnean granitoid rocks. It includes basalt, andesite, rhyolite, rhyodacite, dacite, felsic tuffs, gabbro, diorite, granites, gneisses, shales, schists, quartzites and greenstones (Castaing et al., 2003b).  
 
||Two major north-north-east-trending sinistral shear zones divide the Basement rocks into three domains: eastern, central and western, with variably north-east or north to north-north-east-trending  structural features (Castaing et al., 2003b).  
 
||Two major north-north-east-trending sinistral shear zones divide the Basement rocks into three domains: eastern, central and western, with variably north-east or north to north-north-east-trending  structural features (Castaing et al., 2003b).  
 
|}
 
|}
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==Hydrogeology==
 
==Hydrogeology==
  
Geology is the main control on aquifer productivity and groundwater potential.
+
This section provides a summary of the hydrogeology of the main aquifers in Burkina Faso.  More information is available in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/index.cfm Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
  
This section provides a summary of the hydrogeology of the main aquifers in Burkina Faso.  More information is available in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country=BF&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
+
The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified version of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Hydrogeology Map | Hydrogeology map]] resource page for more details).  
  
The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified version of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map]] resource page for more details).
+
  [[File:BurkinaFaso_Hydrogeology3.png| center | thumb| 500px|| Hydrogeology of Burkina Faso at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Hydrogeology Map | Hydrogeology map]] resource page]]
 
+
Geology is the main control on aquifer productivity and groundwater potential.  
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Burkina Faso geology and hydrogeology map'''].
 
 
 
  [[File:BurkinaFaso_Hydrogeology4.png| center | thumb| 500px|| Hydrogeology of Burkina Faso at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map]] resource page. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Burkina Faso geology and hydrogeology map].]]
 
  
 
====Unconsolidated====
 
====Unconsolidated====
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|}
 
|}
  
==== Sedimentary - intergranular flow====
+
==== Sedimentary - Intergranular Flow====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
|Named aquifers||General description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
+
|Named Aquifers||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Continental Terminal
 
|Continental Terminal
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The water table can range from 10 m to more than 90 m below the ground surface. Borehole depths typically range from 40 m to 120 m.
 
The water table can range from 10 m to more than 90 m below the ground surface. Borehole depths typically range from 40 m to 120 m.
  
Relatively high yields of at least 10 m³/hour may be obtainable from deep boreholes into sandstone layers (Obuobie and Barry, 2012). Data from the Burkina national borehole database indicate that average yields may be over 30 m³/hour.  
+
Relatively high yields of at least 10 m³/hour may be obtainable from deep boreholes into sandstone layers (Obuobie and Barry 2012). Data from the Burkina national borehole database indicate that average yields may be over 30 m³/hour.  
 
||
 
||
 
||
 
||
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|}
 
|}
  
==== Sedimentary - fracture flow====
+
==== Sedimentary - Fracture Flow====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
|Named aquifers||General description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
+
|Named Aquifers||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Proterozoic to Palaeozoic (meta)sedimentary rocks
 
|Proterozoic to Palaeozoic (meta)sedimentary rocks
||Sandstones, dolomites and limestones form generally low productivity aquifer layers, which range from 50 to 1000 m thick. Dolomitic limestones form the best aquifers (BGS, 2002). The permeability of the upper aquifer layers has sometimes been enhanced by weathering (Obuobie and Barry, 2012). In some places they can be overlain by up to 60 m of alluvium, and groundwater is often in hydraulic continuity with the unconfined upper bedrock aquifer layers, with the water table ranging from 10 m to 60 m below the ground surface. The upper aquifer layers are typically unconfined.  
+
||Sandstones, dolomites and limestones form generally low productivity aquifer layers, which range from 50 to 1000 m thick. Dolomitic limestones form the best aquifers (BGS 2002). The permeability of the upper aquifer layers has sometimes been enhanced by weathering (Obuobie and Barry 2012). In some places they can be overlain by up to 60 m of alluvium, and groundwater is often in hydraulic continuity with the unconfined upper bedrock aquifer layers, with the water table ranging from 10 m to 60 m below the ground surface. The upper aquifer layers are typically unconfined.  
  
 
Lower aquifer formations can be confined if overlain by dolerite intrusions or clayey layer. In confined aquifer layers, borehole water levels are typically less than 5 m below the ground surface, and in some cases are artesian.
 
Lower aquifer formations can be confined if overlain by dolerite intrusions or clayey layer. In confined aquifer layers, borehole water levels are typically less than 5 m below the ground surface, and in some cases are artesian.
  
In the Bobo Diaoulasso area, fractured and weathered schists and dolomites form a 10-30 m thick weathered aquifer, in which average borehole yields of 0.5 to 5 m³/hour and transmissivity values of between approximately 15 and 50 m²/day have been recorded (Obuobie and Barry, 2012).  
+
In the Bobo Diaoulasso area, fractured and weathered schists and dolomites form a 10-30 m thick weathered aquifer, in which average borehole yields of 0.5 to 5 m³/hour and transmissivity values of between approximately 15 and 50 m²/day have been recorded (Obuobie and Barry 2012).  
  
The Gres and Intracambrian aquifers in the Bobo Dioulasso area are thought to be particularly productive aquifers. They are thought to be around 100 m thick and to have a transmissivity of approximately 120 to 415 m²/day and a specific capacity of 1 m³/hour/m (Obuobie and Barry, 2012).  
+
The Gres and Intracambrian aquifers in the Bobo Dioulasso area are thought to be particularly productive aquifers. They are thought to be around 100 m thick and to have a transmissivity of approximately 120 to 415 m²/day and a specific capacity of 1 m³/hour/m (Obuobie and Barry 2012).  
  
 
Yield data from the Burkina national borehole database indicates average borehole yields of around 4.5 m³/hour.  
 
Yield data from the Burkina national borehole database indicates average borehole yields of around 4.5 m³/hour.  
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||The aquifer is used for water supply in rural and urban areas (70% of abstraction from the aquifer); and also for mineral water and other commercial/industrial use (25%) and other uses.
 
||The aquifer is used for water supply in rural and urban areas (70% of abstraction from the aquifer); and also for mineral water and other commercial/industrial use (25%) and other uses.
 
||  
 
||  
||Most recharge to the aquifer is thought to occur from seasonal rainfall infiltration by preferential flow through fractures (Obuobie and Barry, 2012).  
+
||Most recharge to the aquifer is thought to occur from seasonal rainfall infiltration by preferential flow through fractures (Obuobie and Barry 2012).  
 
|}
 
|}
  
====Crystalline basement====
+
====Crystalline Basement====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
|Named aquifers||General description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
+
|Named Aquifers||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Granites, gneisses, schists, quartzites and greenstones.
 
|Granites, gneisses, schists, quartzites and greenstones.
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Fractured bedrock, sometimes underlying and associated with, weathered zones, also forms an aquifer in the basement rocks. Fractured aquifer zones can range from 10 m to 80 m thick, and the water table can range from 20 m to 60 m below the ground surface. Boreholes abstracting from this aquifer are between 40 and 150 m deep.
 
Fractured bedrock, sometimes underlying and associated with, weathered zones, also forms an aquifer in the basement rocks. Fractured aquifer zones can range from 10 m to 80 m thick, and the water table can range from 20 m to 60 m below the ground surface. Boreholes abstracting from this aquifer are between 40 and 150 m deep.
  
Average borehole yields are around 2 m³/hour (Obuobie and Barry, 2012; yield data from the Burkina national borehole database).
+
Average borehole yields are around 2 m³/hour (Obuobie and Barry 2012; yield data from the Burkina national borehole database).
  
 
||Groundwater from crystalline basement aquifers is dominantly used for rural water supplies (70%), with other uses being for mineral water and other commercial/industrial use (25%) and a small amount of abstraction for agriculture (2%).
 
||Groundwater from crystalline basement aquifers is dominantly used for rural water supplies (70%), with other uses being for mineral water and other commercial/industrial use (25%) and a small amount of abstraction for agriculture (2%).
||Groundwater is thought to be generally of Ca-Mg-HCO<sub>3</sub> type (BGS 2002). Arsenic has been identified as a problem in some areas, particularly associated with zones of gold mineralisation in Birimian (Lower Proterozoic) volcano-sedimentary rocks (Smedley et al., 2007).
+
||Groundwater is thought to be generally of Ca-Mg-HCO3 type (BGS 2002). Arsenic has been identified as a problem in some areas, particularly associated with zones of gold mineralisation in Birimian (Lower Proterozoic) volcano-sedimentary rocks (Smedley et al. 2007).
||Recharge occurs from rainfall infiltration and is typically low. Indirect recharge in local depressions can be important (Obuobie and Barry, 2012).  
+
||Recharge occurs from rainfall infiltration and is typically low. Indirect recharge in local depressions can be important (Obuobie and Barry 2012).  
 
|}
 
|}
  
==Groundwater status==
+
==Groundwater Status==
  
 
===Groundwater quantity===
 
===Groundwater quantity===
  
Average recharge rates are estimated at 5 mm/year in the drier north and 50 mm/year in the south, but locally, recharge can be much higher, with estimates ranging up to 250 mm/year (Obuobie and Barry, 2012). Estimates indicate that over the whole countries, groundwater abstraction is only a small proportion of recharge - less than 1% in the Volta basin, and more than 5% in the far north. However, locally, groundwater abstraction may exceed recharge.  
+
Average recharge rates are estimated at 5 mm/year in the drier north and 50 mm/year in the south, but local estimates range up to 250 mm/year (Obuobie and Barry 2012).  
  
  
 
===Groundwater quality===
 
===Groundwater quality===
  
Generally, groundwater in Burkina Faso is of suitable quality for drinking water supplies, although there are local problems. Naturally occuring arsenic has been identified as a problem in some areas, particularly associated with zones of gold mineralisation in Birimian (Lower Proterozoic) volcano-sedimentary rocks (Smedley et al., 2007). Pollution from nitrate is thought to be common in shallow groundwater sources, derived from domestic waste as well as agricultural sources, often highest in areas of high housing density (BGS, 2002). Groundwater in some areas of north-west Burkina Faso has high salinity (BGS, 2002).  
+
Generally, groundwater in Burkina Faso is of suitable quality for drinking water supplies, although there are local problems. Naturally occuring arsenic has been identified as a problem in some areas, particularly associated with zones of gold mineralisation in Birimian (Lower Proterozoic) volcano-sedimentary rocks (Smedley et al. 2007). Pollution from nitrate is thought to be common in shallow groundwater sources, derived from domestic waste as well as agricultural sources, often highest in areas of high housing density (BGS 2002). Groundwater in some areas of northwest Burkina Faso has high salinity (BGS 2002).  
  
 
==Groundwater use and management==
 
==Groundwater use and management==
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=== Groundwater use===
 
=== Groundwater use===
  
Groundwater in Burkina Faso is used mainly for drinking water supply, particularly for small supplies in rural areas and smaller towns. The second city of Bobo Diolasso, which lies on a moderately productive aquifer, relies relatively heavily on groundwater. The capital Ouagadougou, lying on the relatively low productivity basement aquifer, is largely dependent on surface water, but some 15% of its water supply comes from groundwater, which is particularly important in the dry season.  
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Groundwater in Burkina Faso is used mainly for domestic water supply, particularly in small towns and rural areas; the city of Bobo Diolasso also relies on groundwater. Groundwater supplies around 15% of water supply to the capital Ouagadougou, but is particularly important in the dry season. Some groundwater is used for small scale market garden irrigation, for example supporting dry season cultivation in the south. It is also used for for livestock watering. Industry is the smallest user of groundwater in the country (Obuobie and Barry 2012).  
  
Some groundwater is used for small-scale market garden irrigation, for example supporting dry season cultivation in the south. It is also used for for livestock watering. Industry is the smallest user of groundwater in the country (Obuobie and Barry 2012).  
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Groundwater abstraction is mainly from boreholes and wells. Most boreholes are fitted with pumps: typically mechanised in urban areas, and hand pumps in rural areas.  
  
Groundwater abstraction is mainly from drilled boreholes and hand-dug wells. The total estimated number of boreholes in Burkina Faso was 24,350 in 2005. Most boreholes are fitted with pumps: these are typically mechanised in urban areas, and hand pumps in rural areas.
 
  
 
=== Groundwater management===
 
=== Groundwater management===
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There are no major transboundary aquifers in Burkina Faso.  
 
There are no major transboundary aquifers in Burkina Faso.  
  
For further general information about transboundary aquifers, please see the [[Transboundary aquifers | Transboundary aquifers resources page]]
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For further information about transboundary aquifers, please see the [[Transboundary aquifers | Transboundary aquifers resources page]]
 +
 
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
  
 
The following references provide more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Burkina Faso.
 
The following references provide more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Burkina Faso.
These, and others, can be accessed through the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=BF&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
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These, and others, can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/searchResults.cfm?title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=BF&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
  
  
 
'''Useful websites'''
 
'''Useful websites'''
  
[http://www.bumigeb.bf/index.htm Bureau des Mines et de la Geologie du Burkina].
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Bureau des Mines et de la Geologie du Burkina. http://www.bumigeb.bf/index.htm
  
===Geology references===
 
  
Castaing, C, Le Metour, J, et Billa, M (Coordonnateurs). 2003a. Carte géologique et minière du Burkina Faso à 1/1 000 000. Projet SYSMIN 7 ACP BK 074: Cartographie géologique au Burkina Faso; Ministere des Mines, des Carriers et de l'Energie; Direction des Etudes et de la Planification; financé par l'Union Européenne.
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===Geology: key references===
  
Castaing, C, Billa, M, Milési, J P, Thieblemont, D, Le Metour, J, Egal, F, et Donzea, U M (Coordonnateurs). 2003b. Notice explicative de la carte géologique et minière du Burkina Faso à 1/1 000 000. Projet SYSMIN 7 ACP BK 074: Cartographie géologique au Burkina Faso; Ministere des Mines, des Carriers et de l'Energie; Direction des Etudes et de la Planification; financé par l'Union Européenne.
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Castaing C, Le Metour J et Billa M (Coordonnateurs). 2003a. Carte géologique et minière du Burkina Faso à 1/1 000 000. Projet SYSMIN 7 ACP BK 074: Cartographie géologique au Burkina Faso; Ministere des Mines, des Carriers et de l'Energie; Direction des Etudes et de la Planification; financé par l'Union Européenne.
  
Hottin, G, et Ouédraogo, O F. 1975. Notice explicative de la carte géologique à 1/1 000 000 de la -
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Castaing C, Billa M, Milési J P, Thieblemont D, Le Metour J, Egal F, Donzeau M (Coordonnateurs). 2003b. Notice explicative de la carte géologique et minière du Burkina Faso à 1/1 000 000. Projet SYSMIN 7 ACP BK 074: Cartographie géologique au Burkina Faso; Ministere des Mines, des Carriers et de l'Energie; Direction des Etudes et de la Planification; financé par l'Union Européenne.
  
IWACO. 1989· Etude du bilan du Burkina Faso. Rapport intermédiaire de la deuxième phase 1987-1990. Tome 2 : inventaire des ressources en eau
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Hottin G et Ouédraogo OF. 1975. Notice explicative de la carte géologique à 1/1 000 000 de la
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- IWACO ·1989· Etude du bilan du Burkina Faso. Rapport intermédiaire de la deuxième phase 1987-1990. Tome 2 : inventaire des ressources en eau
  
Sattran, V, et Wenmenga, U. 2002. Géologie du Burkina Faso (Czech Edition), 10 dec 2002, République de Haute-Volta, Edition BRGM, 56p
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Sattran V et Wenmenga U. 2002. Géologie du Burkina Faso (Czech Edition), 10 dec 2002, République de Haute-Volta, Edition BRGM, 56p
  
===Hydrogeology references===
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===Hydrogeology: key references===
  
 
BGS. 2002. Groundwater Quality: Burkina Faso. British Geological Survey. http://www.wateraid.org/~/media/Publications/groundwater-quality-information-burkina-faso.pdf
 
BGS. 2002. Groundwater Quality: Burkina Faso. British Geological Survey. http://www.wateraid.org/~/media/Publications/groundwater-quality-information-burkina-faso.pdf
  
Bretzler A, Lalanne F, Nikiema J, Podgorski J, Pfenninger N, Berg M and Schirmer M. 2017. [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969717301572?via%3Dihub Groundwater arsenic contamination in Burkina Faso, West Africa: Predicting and verifying regions at risk]. Science of The Total Environment, 584, 958-970.
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Ministère de l'eau. 1993. Notice explicative de la carte hydrogéologique du Burkina Faso échelle 1:5OO.OOO, feuille Ouagadougou - DEP du Ministètre de l'eau, Assistance technique : IWACO B.V., Financement: Burkina FasolPays-Bas, 4Sp. + cartes
 
 
Martin N and van de Giesen N. 2005. [http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02508060508691852 Spatial Distribution of Groundwater Production and Development Potential in the Volta River basin of Ghana and Burkina Faso]. Water International, 30:2, 239-249, DOI: 10.1080/02508060508691852
 
 
 
Ministère de l'eau. 1993. Notice explicative de la carte hydrogéologique du Burkina Faso échelle 1:5OO OOO, feuille Ouagadougou - DEP du Ministètre de l'eau, Assistance technique : IWACO B.V., Financement: Burkina FasolPays-Bas, 4Sp. + cartes
 
  
 
Ministère de l'eau. 1988. Rapport de fin de projet : travaux et résultats hydrogéologiques - projet d'hydraulique villageoise Yatenga II, CCE, FED, Convention n034981BF, 48 p+annexes
 
Ministère de l'eau. 1988. Rapport de fin de projet : travaux et résultats hydrogéologiques - projet d'hydraulique villageoise Yatenga II, CCE, FED, Convention n034981BF, 48 p+annexes
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Ministère de l'eau. 1990. Etude des ressources en eau souterraine du Yatenga - CIEH, série hydrogéologie, 138p.
 
Ministère de l'eau. 1990. Etude des ressources en eau souterraine du Yatenga - CIEH, série hydrogéologie, 138p.
  
Obuobie E and Barry B. 2012. Burkina Faso, in Groundwater Availability and Use in Sub-Saharan Africa; a review of fifteen countries. Pavelic, P, et al. (Eds). International Water Management Institute, Sri Lanka.  
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Ministère de l'environnement et de l'eau. 1998. Politique et stratégies en matière d'eau 126p.
  
Smedley PL, Knudsen J and Maiga D. 2007. Arsenic in groundwater from mineralised Proterozoic basement rocks of Burkina Faso. Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 22, 1074-1092.
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Obuobie E and Barry B. 2012. Burkina Faso, in Groundwater Availability and Use in Sub-Saharan Africa; a review of fifteen countries. Pavelic P et al. (Eds). International Water Management Institute, Sri Lanka.  
 
 
Traoré U. 2019. [http://www.rural-water-supply.net/en/resources/details/875 Challenges of Water Well Drillers & Water Well Drillers Associations: Case Studies of Six Countries (Angola, Burkina Faso, Mozambique, Nigeria, United States of America, and Uganda)]. Skat Foundation and the Rural Water Supply Network, St. Gallen Switzerland, September 2019.
 
 
 
United Nations. 1988. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060029 Burkina Faso, in Groundwater in North and West Africa]. Natural Resources/Water Series No. 18, ST/TCD/5. Department of Technical Co-operation for Development and Economic Commission for Africa.  
 
 
 
===General references===
 
 
 
Barry B, Obuobie E, Andreini M, Andah W and Pluquet M. 2005. [http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/assessment/files_new/research_projects/river_basin_development_and_management/VoltaRiverBasin_Boubacar.pdf Comprehensive assessment of water management in agriculture (comparative study of river basin development and management)]. Int. Water Manag. Inst.
 
 
 
Danert K. 2019. Concerns about corrosion and the quality of handpump components in Burkina Faso and beyond. Skat Foundation. Report available [http://skat.ch/book/concerns-about-corrosion-and-the-quality-of-handpump-components/ in English] and [http://skat.ch/book/qualite-et-corrosion-des-pieces-composantes-des-pompes-a-motricite/ en français].
 
 
 
Ministère de l'environnement et de l'eau. 1998. Politique et stratégies en matière d'eau 126p.
 
  
WaterAid. 2013. [https://washmatters.wateraid.org/publications/strengthening-wash-services-and-community-resilience-through-community-based-water Strengthening WASH services and community resilience through community-based water resource management]. Briefing note. WaterAid, Burkina Faso
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Smedley PL, Knudsen J and Maiga D. 2007. Arsenic in groundwater from mineralised Proterozoic basement rocks of Burkina Faso. Applied Geochemistry 22, 1074-1092.  
  
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UN. 1988. Burkina Faso, in Ground water in North and West Africa. Natural Resources/Water Series No. 18, ST/TCD/5. Department of Technical Co-operation for Development and Economic Commission for Africa.
  
Return to  
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==Return to the index pages==
[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  
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[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Burkina Faso
  
 
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