Difference between revisions of "Hydrogeology of Burkina Faso"

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|Alluvial and other detrital aquifers
 
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|Continental Terminal
 
||This aquifer has variable lithology and irregular structure, with non-continuous layers. Unconfined. Typically 10 m thick at its edges, ranging up to 100 m thick in the centre of the aquifer in the plain of Gondo.  
 
||This aquifer has variable lithology and irregular structure, with non-continuous layers. Unconfined. Typically 10 m thick at its edges, ranging up to 100 m thick in the centre of the aquifer in the plain of Gondo.  
  
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|Consolidated Sedimentary rocks of Proterozoic to Palaeozoic age
 
||Upper sandstone is unconfined. Lower formations can be confined if overlain by dolerite intrusion or a clayey layer.
 
||Upper sandstone is unconfined. Lower formations can be confined if overlain by dolerite intrusion or a clayey layer.
  
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|Granites, gneisses, etc
 
||The upper part of the aquifer is weathered, and can be in hydraulic continuity with overlyilng alluvial aquifers (see Unconsolidated, above). The weathered zone can be 10 m to 80 m thick. The water table in the weathered zone can lie between 5 m and 30 m below the ground surface. Boreholes are typically from 40 m to 80 m deep. Groundwater in the weathered zone aquifer is typically unconfined.
 
||The upper part of the aquifer is weathered, and can be in hydraulic continuity with overlyilng alluvial aquifers (see Unconsolidated, above). The weathered zone can be 10 m to 80 m thick. The water table in the weathered zone can lie between 5 m and 30 m below the ground surface. Boreholes are typically from 40 m to 80 m deep. Groundwater in the weathered zone aquifer is typically unconfined.
  
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==Groundwater Status==
 
==Groundwater Status==

Revision as of 16:15, 30 June 2015

Africa Groundwater Atlas >> Hydrogeology by country >> Hydrogeology of Burkina Faso

Authors

Author 1, Affiliation

Author 2, Affiliation


Geographical Setting

Map of Burkina Faso (For more information on the datasets used in the map see the geography resources section)

General

Estimated Population in 2013* XXX
Rural Population (% of total) (2013)* XXX%
Total Surface Area* XXX sq km
Agricultural Land (% of total area) (2012)* XXX%
Capital City XXX
Region XXX
Border Countries XXX
Annual Freshwater Withdrawal (2013)* XXX Million cubic metres
Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Agriculture (2013)* XXX%
Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Domestic Use (2013)* XXX%
Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Industry (2013)* XXX%
Rural Population with Access to Improved Water Source (2012)* XXX%
Urban Population with Access to Improved Water Source (2012)* XXX%

* Source: World Bank


Climate

Rainfall time-series and graphs of monthly average rainfall and temperature for each individual climate zone can be found on the Burkino Faso Climate Page.


Average monthly precipitation for Burkina Faso showing minimum and maximum (light blue), 25th and 75th percentile (blue), and median (dark blue) rainfall Average monthly temperature for Burkina Faso showing minimum and maximum (orange), 25th and 75th percentile (red), and median (black) temperature Quarterly precipitation over the period 1950-2012 Monthly precipitation (blue) over the period 2000-2012 compared with the long term monthly average (red)

For further detail on the climate datasets used see the climate resources section.

Surface water


Surface Water Map of Burkina Faso (For more information on the datasets used in the map see the surface water resources section)

Soil

Soil Map of Burkina Faso (For map key and more information on the datasets used in the map see the soil resources section)

Land cover

Land Cover Map of Burkina Faso (For map key and more information on the datasets used in the map see the land cover resources section)


Geology

This section provides a summary of the geology of Burkina Faso. More detail can be found in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the Africa Groundwater Literature Archive. The geology map on this page shows a simplified version of the geology at a national scale (see the Geology resources page for more details). The map is available to download as a shapefile (.shp) for use in GIS packages.

Burkina Faso Geology.png
Geological Environments
Key Formations Period Lithology Structure
Unconsolidated
Quaternary Detrital deposits.
Continental Terminal
Continental Terminal of Gondo Cenozoic - Tertiary Mainly sandstones, with interbedded mudstones. Unconformable overlie Consolidated Sedimentary dolomites and other formations.
Consolidated Sedimentary
Gobinangou Sandstone, Gourma, Gres (calcaire) late Precambrian (Proterozoic) to Palaeozoic These are consolidated, indurated sedimentary rocks, including sandstone-quartzites and conglomerates at the base, which are overlain by largely sandstone formations, interbedded with schists and rare dolomitic limestones in the west of the country. At the top of the sequence are mixed formations including argillaceous schists; quartzitic sandstones; interbedded limestones and dolomites; breccias; and marbled conglomerates. In the southeast are sandstone facies (eg the Gobinangau Sandstone) with pelitic schists and calcareous and phosphated strata.
Crystalline Basement
Precambrian Granites, gneisses, schists, quartzites and green rocks.

Hydrogeology

This section provides a summary of the hydrogeology of the main aquifers in Burkina Faso. More information is available in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the Africa Groundwater Literature Archive. The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified version of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the Aquifer properties resource page for more details). The map is available to download as a shapefile (.shp) for use in GIS packages.

Burkina Faso Hydrogeology.png Hydrogeology Key.png


Unconsolidated

Named Aquifers General Description Water quantity issues Water quality issues Recharge
Alluvial and other detrital aquifers

Sedimentary - Intergranular Flow

Named Aquifers General Description Water quantity issues Water quality issues Recharge
Continental Terminal This aquifer has variable lithology and irregular structure, with non-continuous layers. Unconfined. Typically 10 m thick at its edges, ranging up to 100 m thick in the centre of the aquifer in the plain of Gondo.

The water table can range from 10 m to more than 90 m below the ground surface. Borehole depths typically range from 40 m to 120 m.

This aquifer is generally used for rural water supplies.


Sedimentary - Fracture Flow

Named Aquifers General Description Water quantity issues Water quality issues Recharge
Consolidated Sedimentary rocks of Proterozoic to Palaeozoic age Upper sandstone is unconfined. Lower formations can be confined if overlain by dolerite intrusion or a clayey layer.


The aquifer is used for water supply in rural and urban areas (70% of abstraction from the aquifer); and also for mineral water and other commercial/industrial use (25%) and other uses.

Crystalline Basement

Named Aquifers General Description Water quantity issues Water quality issues Recharge
Granites, gneisses, etc The upper part of the aquifer is weathered, and can be in hydraulic continuity with overlyilng alluvial aquifers (see Unconsolidated, above). The weathered zone can be 10 m to 80 m thick. The water table in the weathered zone can lie between 5 m and 30 m below the ground surface. Boreholes are typically from 40 m to 80 m deep. Groundwater in the weathered zone aquifer is typically unconfined.

In some areas, fractured zones form aquifers, sometimes underlying, and associated with, weathered zones. These fractured aquifer zones can range from 10 m to 80 m thick, and the water table can range from 20 m to 60 m below the ground surface. Boreholes abstracting from this aquifer are between 40 and 150 m deep.

Groundwater from crystalline basement aquifers is dominantly used for rural water supplies (70%), with other uses being for mineral water and other commercial/industrial use (25%) and a small amount of abstraction for agriculture (2%).

Groundwater Status

Groundwater quantity

Groundwater quality

Groundwater use and management

Groundwater use

Groundwater management

Groundwater monitoring

Transboundary aquifers

For further information about transboundary aquifers, please see the Transboundary aquifers resources page


References

The following references provide more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Burkina Faso. These, and others, can be accessed through the Africa Groundwater Literature Archive.


Geology: key references

Castaing C, Billa M, Milési J P, Thieblemont D, Le Metour J, Egal F, Donzeau M et al. 2003. Notice explicative de la carte géologique et minière à 1/1 000 000ème du Burkina Faso. Proj. SYSMIN 7

Hottin G et Ouédraogo OF. 1975. Notice explicative de la carte géologique à 1/1 000 000 de la - IWACO ·1989· Etude du bilan du Burkina Faso. Rapport intermédiaire de la deuxième phase 1987-1990. Tome 2 : inventaire des ressources en eau

Sattran V et Wenmenga U. 2002. Géologie du Burkina Faso (Czech Edition), 10 dec 2002, République de Haute-Volta, Edition BRGM, 56p

Hydrogeology: key references

Ministère de l'eau. 1993. Notice explicative de la carte hydrogéologique du Burkina Faso échelle 1:5OO.OOO, feuille Ouagadougou - DEP du Ministètre de l'eau, Assistance technique : IWACO B.V., Financement: Burkina FasolPays-Bas, 4Sp. + cartes

Ministère de l'eau. 1988. Rapport de fin de projet : travaux et résultats hydrogéologiques - projet d'hydraulique villageoise Yatenga II, CCE, FED, Convention n034981BF, 48 p+annexes

Ministère de l'eau. 1990. Etude des ressources en eau souterraine du Yatenga - CIEH, série hydrogéologie, 138p.

Ministère de l'environnement et de l'eau. 1998. Politique et stratégies en matière d'eau 126p.


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Africa Groundwater Atlas >> Hydrogeology by country >> Hydrogeology of Burkina Faso