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[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Burundi
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Burundi
  
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
  
One of the smallest and most densely populated countries in Africa, Burundi was an independent kingdom for over 200 years until the early 20th century. It was then colonised first by Germany, and after the First World War by Belgium, and governed with present day Rwanda as Ruanda-Urundi until independence in 1962. Initially, independent Burundi was a monarchy, but after a period of civil and military unrest the monarchy was abolished and a one-party republic established in 1966. Burundi has continued to experience multiple periods of unrest, sometimes with violence between the Hutu and Tutsi cultural groups, including two periods in which genocide was identified, first in the 1970s and then in the 1990s. Since the 1990s Burundi has had a multi-party state, but has continued to experience periods of political and military unrest, such as disrupted presidential elections and a coup attempt in 2015. After the International Criminal Court (ICC) began to investigate potential human rights crimes by the country, Burundi left the ICC in 2017.
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'''If you have more information on the hydrogeology of Burundi, please get in touch'''
  
Decades of civil and military unrest has left the national infrastructure in very poor state, including water and sanitation services. The population is mostly rural and employed in subsistence agriculture, but high population density and lack of land access mean many farmers can’t support themselves. Pressure to increase agricultural land has resulted in widespread deforestation. Export earnings are also dominated by agriculture (mainly coffee and tea), but these account for only a small proportion of GDP. External aid accounts for over 40% of the national income. Burundi has resources of a number of metal minerals but to date has a relatively small mining industry, of which gold provides the biggest export income. Most of the country’s electricity is produced by hydroelectric power.
 
  
With relatively high rainfall, Burundi has relatively abundant water resources, but because rainfall and surface water are unevenly distributed both spatially and seasonally, and because water supply infrastructure is poor, there is significant pressure on water resources. Most rural communities rely on groundwater, including from numerous natural springs.  
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One of the smallest and most densely populated countries in Africa, Burundi was an independent kingdom for over 200 years until the early 20th century. In the colonial era it was colonised first by Germany, and after the First World War by Belgium, and governed with present day Rwanda as Ruanda-Urundi until independence in 1962. Initially, independent Burundi was a monarchy, but after a period of civil and military unrest the monarchy was abolished and a one-party republic established in 1966. Burundi has continued to experience multiple periods of unrest, sometimes with violence between the Hutu and Tutsi cultural groups, including two periods in which genocide was identified, first in the 1970s and then in the 1990s. Since the 1990s Burundi has had a multi-party state, but has continued to experience periods of political and military unrest, such as disrupted presidential elections and a coup attempt in 2015. After the International Criminal Court (ICC) began to investigate potential human rights crimes by the country, Burundi left the ICC in 2017.
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Decades of civil and military unrest has left the national infrastructure in very poor state, including water and sanitation services. Burundi has a mostly rural population, largely employed in subsistence agriculture, but high population density and lack of land access mean many farmers can’t support themselves. Pressure to increase agricultural land has resulted in widespread deforestation. Export earnings are also dominated by agriculture (mainly coffee and tea), but these account for only a small proportion of GDP. External aid accounts for over 40% of the national income. Burundi has resources of a number of metal minerals but to date has a relatively small mining industry, of which gold provides the biggest export income. Most of the country’s electricity is produced by hydroelectric power.
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With relatively high rainfall, Burundi has relatively abundant water resources, but because rainfall and surface water are unevenly distributed both spatially and seasonally, and because water supply infrastructure is poor, there is significant pressure on water resources. Most rural communities rely on groundwater, including numerous natural springs.  
  
  
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The geology map shows a simplified version of the geology at 1:5 million scale.  
 
The geology map shows a simplified version of the geology at 1:5 million scale.  
  
Some more information on the geology of Burundi is available in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060003 United Nations (1989)] and in [http://www.geokniga.org/bookfiles/geokniga-geological-atlas-africa.pdf Schlüter (2006)].  
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Some more information on the geology of Burundi is available in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060003 UN (1988)].
  
  
{|
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[[File:Burundi_Geology.png | thumb| 500px| Geology of Burundi at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002/Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]].]]
[[File:Burundi_Geology2.png | centre| thumb| 500px| Geology of Burundi at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002/Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]].]]
 
|}
 
  
  
 
'''Summary'''
 
'''Summary'''
  
The geology of Burundi is dominated by Precambrian basement rocks, mostly of Proterozoic age.
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The geology of Burundi is dominated by Precambrian basement rocks. In the west, these mainly comprise metasedimentary rocks intruded by granites, while in eastern and central parts, the geology is dominated by quartzite, schist and gneiss.  
  
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
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|-
 
|-
 
|Alluvium and lake sediments
 
|Alluvium and lake sediments
||Quaternary-Tertiary
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||Cenozoic
||Unconsolidated sediments that mainly infill the major tectonic rift valley in the west of Burundi, running down to Lake Tanganyika. These sediments comprise mainly alluvial sands, silts, gravels and clays. There are also smaller outcrops of alluvium in smaller river valleys and around lakes across the country, which are too small to be shown on this map.  
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||Unconsolidated sediments primarily infilling the major tectonic rift valley in the west of the country, running down to Lake Tanganyika. There are also smaller outcrops of alluvium in smaller river valleys and around lakes across the country, which are too small to be shown on this map.  
 
|-
 
|-
 
!colspan="4"|Volcanic rocks
 
!colspan="4"|Volcanic rocks
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|
 
|
 
||Cenozoic  
 
||Cenozoic  
||A small area of basaltic rocks is present in the extreme northwest of Burundi, but its outcrop is too small to be shown on the 1:5 million scale map.
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||A small outcrop of basaltic rocks is present in the extreme northwest of Burundi, but its outcrop is too small to be shown on the 1:5 million scale map.
 
|-
 
|-
 
!colspan="4"|Precambrian
 
!colspan="4"|Precambrian
A number of different units within the Precambrian are named, with complex outcrops across the country (e.g. see Schlüter 2006, UN 1988). These are not distinguished on this geology map because of its small scale. The main divisions are described below.
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A number of different Precambrian geological units are defined across the country, but they are not distinguished on the map because of its small scale. The main divisions are described below.
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Malagarasian Supergroup
 
|Malagarasian Supergroup
 
||  
 
||  
||Metasedimentary rocks, largely schist and quartzite, which outcrop in a narrow strip along the southeast border with Tanzania (UN 1989). This is equivalent to the Bukoban System in northwestern Tanzania (Schlüter 2006).
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||Metasedimentary rocks, largely schist and quartzite, which outcrop in a narrow strip along the southeast border with Tanzania (UN 1989). This is equivalent to the Bukoban System in northwestern Tanzania (
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Burundian Supergroup
 
|Burundian Supergroup
||Middle Proterozoic
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||Mesoproterozoic
||Metasedimentary rocks, largely quartzite with minor amounts of intercalated schist. These Burundian rocks cover most of Burundi, including all of the centre of the country (United Nations 1989). The group is also sometimes known as the Kibaran Belt.
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||Metasedimentary rocks, largely quartzite with minor amounts of intercalated schist. These Burundian rocks cover most of Burundi, including all of the centre of the country (UN 1989).
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Archean complex  
 
|Archean complex  
||Lower Proterozoic
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||Palaeoproterozoic
||Highly deformed metamorphic rocks, mainly gneiss, intercalated with amphibolite and quartzite. These rocks crop out only in small parts of the south and east of the country (United Nations 1989).
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||Mainly gneiss, intercalated with amphibolite and quartzite. These rocks crop out only in small parts of the south and east of the country (UN 1989).
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
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The hydrogeology map below shows a simplified version of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at 1:5 million scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | hydrogeology map]] resource page for more details).  
 
The hydrogeology map below shows a simplified version of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at 1:5 million scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | hydrogeology map]] resource page for more details).  
  
More information on the hydrogeology of Burundi is available in these documents:
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More information on the hydrogeology of Burundi is available in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060003 UN (1988)]; in reports from groundwater projects carried out by [https://www.bgr.bund.de/EN/Themen/Wasser/Projekte/laufend/TZ/Burundi/burundi_fb_en.html?nn=1546392 BGR]; and in a report by [http://www.brgm.eu/sites/default/brgm/publications/revue_geosciences21_en/files/assets/common/downloads/revue_geosciences21_en.pdf BRGM (2016)], which includes a map of the groundwater potential of Burundi (see also References section, below).
  
:- a number of reports from the groundwater project [https://www.bgr.bund.de/EN/Themen/Wasser/Projekte/laufend/TZ/Burundi/burundi_fb_en.html?nn=1546392 Management and Protection of Groundwater Resources] in Burundi carried out by BGR;
 
:- a report by BRGM (2016) on [https://www.brgm.eu/news-media/geosciences-journal-21-africa-land-of-knowledge '''mapping groundwater availability in basement rocks'''] (page 64), which includes a map of groundwater potential in Burundi (see also Gutierrez and Barrat 2016 in References section, below); and
 
:- a report by United Nations (1989) on [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060003 '''groundwater in Burundi'''].
 
  
[[File:Burundi_Hydrogeology2.png| 500px|thumb|center| Hydrogeology of Burundi at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | hydrogeology map]] resource page]]  
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[[File:Burundi_Hydrogeology.png| 500px|thumb|center| Hydrogeology of Burundi at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | hydrogeology map resource page]]]]
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[[File: Hydrogeology_Key.png | center| 500x195px]]
  
 
====Unconsolidated====
 
====Unconsolidated====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
|Aquifer Productivity||Named Aquifers and General Description||Recharge
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|Aquifer Productivity||Named Aquifers and General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
 
|-
 
|-
|Variable Productivity (Low to High)
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|Variable Productivity
||These unconsolidated alluvial sediments have variable aquifer properties, depending largely on lithology. Where the alluvium is dominated by coarser grained deposits (gravel and coarse sand), storage capacity and transmissivity may be high. The only areas known in Burundi where alluvial sediments are thick enough to form productive aquifers are on the Moso Plain in south Burundi and Imbo Valley in west Burundi (Gutierrez and Barrat 2016). However, there may be other smaller alluvial aquifers in other smaller valleys, which have local potential.   
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|| Unconsolidated sedimentary deposits largely consist of alluvial sands, silts, gravels and clays, forming narrow aquifers along river valleys and terrace deposits along Lake Tanganyika. Aquifer properties are variable, depending largely on lithology, but where the alluvium is dominated by coarser grained deposits, storage capacity and transmissivity may be high. Sediments are only sufficiently thick to form productive aquifers on the Moso Plain in south Burundi and Imbo Valley in west Burundi (Gutierrez & Barrat, 2016).   
||Recharge is generally high, fed by both rainfall and close hydraulic connection with rivers and valley wetlands.
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||
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||
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||Recharge is generally high due to close connection with rivers and wetlands.
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
====Volcanic====
 
====Volcanic====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
|Aquifer Productivity||Named Aquifers and General Description
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|Aquifer Productivity||Named Aquifers and General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
 
|-
 
|-
|Unknown Productivity
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|Moderate Productivity
||Little or nothing is known about groundwater in the small areas of volcanic rocks in Burundi.
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||Little is known about groundwater in the volcanic rocks, which are largely basaltic lava flows.  
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||
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||
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||
 
|}
 
|}
  
====Weathered, Fractured Basement====
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====Fractured Basement====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
|Aquifer Productivity||Named Aquifers and General Description
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|Aquifer Productivity||Named Aquifers and General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
 
|-
 
|-
|Variable Productivity (generally Low to Moderate but sometimes High)
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|Variable Productivity
||The productivity of the basement aquifer depends on the localised nature and extent of fracturing and weathering - how thick is the weathered zone and how developed are water-bearing fractures? A thick weathered zone - in some parts of granite and schist basement, such as at Kirundo, this can be up to 100 m (Gutierrez and Barrat 2016) - can provide significant groundwater storage potential. Where tectonic activity has caused increased rock fracturing , such as in fault zones, local basement aquifer productivity can be moderate or high. Fracturing may also, however, act to compartmentalise an aquifer and reduce groundwater flow, which can affect the long-term sustainable yield of a borehole - for example, as suggested in Gitega in central Burundi (Pfunt et al. 2016).
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||The productivity of fractured basement rocks depends on the localised nature and extent of fracturing, and the presence and thickness of a weathered zone. Due to tectonic activity, the basement can be well fractured, with boreholes appropriately sited in fault zones indicating transmissivities of 100 - 1000 m2/day. A thick weathered zone, which can be up to 100 m over granite and schist basement rocks, can also provide significant storage. Fracturing can, however, compartmentalise an aquifer which can affect the long-term sustainable yield of a borehole. This is the case, for example, in Gitega in Central Burundi.
  
BGR have carried out [https://www.geozentrum-hannover.de/EN/Themen/Wasser/Projekte/laufend/TZ/Burundi/burundi_fb_en.html?nn=1546392 hydrogeological studies] of the basement aquifer at sites at Gitega (the second largest city in Burundi), Kirundo and Rumonge.
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Borehole yields up to 20 m3/hour have been reported in the weathered zone of the Kirundo granites.
  
Data from the Nyanzare wellfield at Gitega where boreholes abstract from fractured zones in the fractured schist and amphibolitic basement indicate that appropriately sited boreholes in the basement aquifer have typical transmissivity values of between 20 and 500 m<sup>2</sup>/day, possibly up to 700 m<sup>2</sup>/day (Tiberghien et al. 2014, Pfunt et al. 2016).  Borehole yields of up to 60 m<sup>3</sup>/hour are reported (Gutierrez and Barrat 2016), but compartmentalisation of the aquifer by fracturing suggests that these abstraction rates are not likely to be sustainable (Pfunt et al. 2016). [https://www.geozentrum-hannover.de/EN/Themen/Wasser/Projekte/laufend/TZ/Burundi/burundi_fb_en.html?nn=1546392 BGR] quote transmissivity values of around 35 m<sup>2</sup>/day, and borehole yields of up to 20 m<sup>3</sup>/hour, from the weathered zone of granites at Kirundo. However, more typical borehole yields across most of the basement aquifer are likely to be lower: from around <0.5 to 5 m m<sup>3</sup>/hour (Gutierrez and Barrat 2016).
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Borehole yields up to 60 m3/hour have been reported from fracture zones in Gitega schisto-quartzite formation, however, compartmentalization of the aquifer means these abstraction rates are not likely to be sustainable.  
 
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Groundwater levels (water table) in the basement aquifer at Gitega are around 15 m below ground level in the base of the valley (Pfunt et al. 2016); they may be deeper at higher elevations.
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||
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===Groundwater use===
 
===Groundwater use===
  
Most groundwater used in Burundi is from springs: in 2016 a report said that some 22,000 springs were used for water in 2010, compared to no more than 30 boreholes (Gutierrez and Barrat 2016). An earlier report (African Development Bank 2005) showed that at one point there were at least 35,000 developed natural springs in Burundi tapping groundwater for water supply, and 811 groundwater-based drinking water systems (likely to be drilled or dug wells equipped with hand pumps), but that most of these were non-functional. Lack of infrastructure development means there has been relatively little borehole drilling for water supply. In rural areas it is likely that people make use of groundwater from hand dug wells, possibly on a seasonal basis, as well as the numerous natural springs.  
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Records in 2005 showed that at one point there were at least 35,000 developed natural springs in Burundi tapping groundwater for water supply, and 811 groundwater-based drinking water systems (likely to be drilled or dug wells equipped with hand pumps), but that most of these were non-functional (African Development Bank 2005). Lack of infrastructure development means there has been relatively little borehole drilling for water supply. In rural areas it is likely that people make use of groundwater from hand dug wells, possibly on a seasonal basis, as well as the numerous natural springs.  
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===Groundwater management===
 
===Groundwater management===
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=== Transboundary aquifers===
 
=== Transboundary aquifers===
  
For general information about transboundary aquifers, please see the [[Transboundary aquifers | Transboundary aquifers resources page]]
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For further information about transboundary aquifers, please see the [[Transboundary aquifers | Transboundary aquifers resources page]]
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
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References with more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Burundi can be accessed through the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=BI&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
 
References with more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Burundi can be accessed through the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=BI&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
  
African Development Fund. 2005. [https://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Project-and-Operations/Burundi_-_The_Rural_Water_Infrastructure_Rehabilitation_and_Extension_Project_-_Appraisal_Report.pdf Burundi: The rural water infrastructure rehabilitation and extension project. Appraisal report]. Infrastructure Department Central and West Regions, Ocin, September 2005.
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HAHNE, K. (2014): [https://www.bgr.bund.de/EN/Themen/Wasser/Projekte/laufend/TZ/Burundi/techn_rep04_en.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=5 Lineament mapping for the localisation of high groundwater potential using remote sensing - Technical Report No. 4], prepared by IGEBU & BGR: 52 p., 53 fig., 2 tab.; Hannover. (PDF, 9 MB)
  
BRGM. 2016. [https://www.brgm.eu/news-media/geosciences-journal-21-africa-land-of-knowledge Africa, a land of knowledge]. Geosciences, no. 21. BRGM.
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HECKMANN, M., VASSOLO, S. & TIBERGHIEN, C. (2016): [https://www.bgr.bund.de/EN/Themen/Wasser/Projekte/laufend/TZ/Burundi/techn_rep07_en.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=3 Groundwater Vulnerability Map (COP) for the Nyanzari catchment, Gitega, Burundi. – Technical Report No. 7], prepared by IGEBU & BGR: 96 p., 33 fig., 14 tab.; Hannover. (PDF, 6 MB)
  
Gutierrez A and Barrat J-M. 2016. [https://hal-brgm.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01307031/document Groundwater resources of Burundi. New elements and decision making tools]. 35th International Geological Congress : IGC 2016, Aug 2016, Cape Town, South Africa.
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PFUNT, H., TIBERGHIEN, C. & VASSOLO, S. (2016): [https://www.bgr.bund.de/EN/Themen/Wasser/Projekte/laufend/TZ/Burundi/techn_rep08_en.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=4 Numerical Groundwater Model for the Nyanzare well field at the town of Gitega, Burundi. – Technical Report No. 8], prepared by IGEBU & BGR: 46 p., 18 fig., 4 tab.; Hannover. (PDF, 2 MB)
  
Hahne K. 2014. [https://www.bgr.bund.de/EN/Themen/Wasser/Projekte/laufend/TZ/Burundi/techn_rep04_en.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=5 Lineament mapping for the localisation of high groundwater potential using remote sensing - Technical Report No. 4], prepared by IGEBU & BGR: 52 p, Hannover. (PDF, 9 MB)
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Alexis Gutierrez, Jean-Marie Barrat. [https://hal-brgm.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01307031/document Groundwater resources of Burundi. New elements and decision making tools]. 35th International Geological Congress : IGC 2016, Aug 2016, Cape Town, South Africa
  
Heckmann M, Vassolo S and Tiberghien C. 2016. [https://www.bgr.bund.de/EN/Themen/Wasser/Projekte/laufend/TZ/Burundi/techn_rep07_en.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=3 Groundwater Vulnerability Map (COP) for the Nyanzari catchment, Gitega, Burundi. – Technical Report No. 7], prepared by IGEBU & BGR: 96 p, Hannover. (PDF, 6 MB)
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BRGM. 2016. [http://www.brgm.eu/sites/default/brgm/publications/revue_geosciences21_en/files/assets/common/downloads/revue_geosciences21_en.pdf Africa, a land of knowledge]. Geosciences, no. 21. BRGM.
  
Pfunt H, Tiberghien C and Vassolo S. 2016. [https://www.bgr.bund.de/EN/Themen/Wasser/Projekte/laufend/TZ/Burundi/techn_rep08_en.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=4 Numerical Groundwater Model for the Nyanzare well field at the town of Gitega, Burundi. – Technical Report No. 8], prepared by IGEBU & BGR: 46 p, Hannover. (PDF, 2 MB)
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African Development Fund. 2005. [https://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Project-and-Operations/Burundi_-_The_Rural_Water_Infrastructure_Rehabilitation_and_Extension_Project_-_Appraisal_Report.pdf Burundi: The rural water infrastructure rehabilitation and extension project. Appraisal report]. Infrastructure Departmetn Central and West Regions, Ocin, September 2005.
 
 
Schlüter T. 2006. [http://www.geokniga.org/bookfiles/geokniga-geological-atlas-africa.pdf Geological Atlas of Africa]. 
 
 
 
Tiberghien C, Nahimana N, Baranyiwa D, Valley S and Vassolo S. 2014. [https://www.bgr.bund.de/EN/Themen/Wasser/Projekte/laufend/TZ/Burundi/techn_rep02_fr.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=2 Présentation des captages d’eau potable de la ville de Gitega et évaluation de leurs qualités chimiques et bactériologiques en vue de la définition des périmètres de protection]. Technical Report No 2 of the project “Management and Protection of Groundwater Resources in Burundi”, prepared by IGEBU & BGR: 42 p, Hanover.
 
 
 
Tiberghien C and Baranyikwa D. 2018. Estimation de volumes d‘eau prélevables de l’aquifère cristallin du champ captant de Gitega et de sa recharge. BGR Report No. 9, 29 p,
 
  
 
United Nations. 1989. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060003 Groundwater in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa: Burundi]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development.  
 
United Nations. 1989. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060003 Groundwater in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa: Burundi]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development.  
 
Vassolo S and Krekeler T. 2013. [https://www.geozentrum-hannover.de/EN/Themen/Wasser/Projekte/laufend/TZ/Burundi/techn_rep01_en.pdf;jsessionid=095336822C7F2048F0FED64D7321C124.2_cid292?__blob=publicationFile&v=5 Tracer Tests at Birohe Water Catchment, Gitega]. Technical Report No 1 of the project “Management and Protection of Groundwater Resources in Burundi”, prepared by IGEBU & BGR: 12 p, Hanover.
 
  
 
USAID. 2010. [http://www.washplus.org/sites/default/files/burundi2010.pdf Burundi Water and Sanitation Profile]. March 2010.
 
USAID. 2010. [http://www.washplus.org/sites/default/files/burundi2010.pdf Burundi Water and Sanitation Profile]. March 2010.
  
 
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==Return to the index pages==
 
 
Return to the index pages:
 
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Burundi
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Burundi
  

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