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[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Burundi
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Burundi
  
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
  
One of the smallest and most densely populated countries in Africa, Burundi was an independent kingdom for over 200 years until the early 20th century. It was then colonised first by Germany, and after the First World War by Belgium, and governed with present day Rwanda as Ruanda-Urundi until independence in 1962. Initially, independent Burundi was a monarchy, but after a period of civil and military unrest the monarchy was abolished and a one-party republic established in 1966. Burundi has continued to experience multiple periods of unrest, sometimes with violence between the Hutu and Tutsi cultural groups, including two periods in which genocide was identified, first in the 1970s and then in the 1990s. Since the 1990s Burundi has had a multi-party state, but has continued to experience periods of political and military unrest, such as disrupted presidential elections and a coup attempt in 2015. After the International Criminal Court (ICC) began to investigate potential human rights crimes by the country, Burundi left the ICC in 2017.
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One of the smallest and most densely populated countries in Africa, Burundi was an independent kingdom for over 200 years until the early 20th century. In the colonial era it was colonised first by Germany, and after the First World War by Belgium, and governed with present day Rwanda as Ruanda-Urundi until independence in 1962. Initially, independent Burundi was a monarchy, but after a period of civil and military unrest the monarchy was abolished and a one-party republic established in 1966. Burundi has continued to experience multiple periods of unrest, sometimes with violence between the Hutu and Tutsi cultural groups, including two periods in which genocide was identified, first in the 1970s and then in the 1990s. Since the 1990s Burundi has had a multi-party state, but has continued to experience periods of political and military unrest, such as disrupted presidential elections and a coup attempt in 2015. After the International Criminal Court (ICC) began to investigate potential human rights crimes by the country, Burundi left the ICC in 2017.
  
Decades of civil and military unrest has left the national infrastructure in very poor state, including water and sanitation services. The population is mostly rural and employed in subsistence agriculture, but high population density and lack of land access mean many farmers can’t support themselves. Pressure to increase agricultural land has resulted in widespread deforestation. Export earnings are also dominated by agriculture (mainly coffee and tea), but these account for only a small proportion of GDP. External aid accounts for over 40% of the national income. Burundi has resources of a number of metal minerals but to date has a relatively small mining industry, of which gold provides the biggest export income. Most of the country’s electricity is produced by hydroelectric power.  
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Decades of civil and military unrest has left the national infrastructure in very poor state, including water and sanitation services. Burundi has a mostly rural population, largely employed in subsistence agriculture, but high population density and lack of land access mean many farmers can’t support themselves. Pressure to increase agricultural land has resulted in widespread deforestation. Export earnings are also dominated by agriculture (mainly coffee and tea), but these account for only a small proportion of GDP. External aid accounts for over 40% of the national income. Burundi has resources of a number of metal minerals but to date has a relatively small mining industry, of which gold provides the biggest export income. Most of the country’s electricity is produced by hydroelectric power.  
  
 
With relatively high rainfall, Burundi has relatively abundant water resources, but because rainfall and surface water are unevenly distributed both spatially and seasonally, and because water supply infrastructure is poor, there is significant pressure on water resources. Most rural communities rely on groundwater, including from numerous natural springs.  
 
With relatively high rainfall, Burundi has relatively abundant water resources, but because rainfall and surface water are unevenly distributed both spatially and seasonally, and because water supply infrastructure is poor, there is significant pressure on water resources. Most rural communities rely on groundwater, including from numerous natural springs.  
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[[File:Burundi_Geology2.png | centre| thumb| 500px| Geology of Burundi at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002/Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]].]]
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[[File:Burundi_Geology.png | centre| thumb| 500px| Geology of Burundi at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002/Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]].]]
 
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More information on the hydrogeology of Burundi is available in these documents:
 
More information on the hydrogeology of Burundi is available in these documents:
  
:- a number of reports from the groundwater project [https://www.bgr.bund.de/EN/Themen/Wasser/Projekte/laufend/TZ/Burundi/burundi_fb_en.html?nn=1546392 Management and Protection of Groundwater Resources] in Burundi carried out by BGR;  
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:- a number of reports from the groundwater project[https://www.bgr.bund.de/EN/Themen/Wasser/Projekte/laufend/TZ/Burundi/burundi_fb_en.html?nn=1546392 Management and Protection of Groundwater Resources] in Burundi carried out by BGR;  
 
:- a report by BRGM (2016) on [https://www.brgm.eu/news-media/geosciences-journal-21-africa-land-of-knowledge '''mapping groundwater availability in basement rocks'''] (page 64), which includes a map of groundwater potential in Burundi (see also Gutierrez and Barrat 2016 in References section, below); and
 
:- a report by BRGM (2016) on [https://www.brgm.eu/news-media/geosciences-journal-21-africa-land-of-knowledge '''mapping groundwater availability in basement rocks'''] (page 64), which includes a map of groundwater potential in Burundi (see also Gutierrez and Barrat 2016 in References section, below); and
 
:- a report by United Nations (1989) on [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060003 '''groundwater in Burundi'''].  
 
:- a report by United Nations (1989) on [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060003 '''groundwater in Burundi'''].  
  
[[File:Burundi_Hydrogeology2.png| 500px|thumb|center| Hydrogeology of Burundi at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | hydrogeology map]] resource page]]  
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[[File:Burundi_Hydrogeology.png| 500px|thumb|center| Hydrogeology of Burundi at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | hydrogeology map resource page]]]]
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[[File: Hydrogeology_Key.png | center| 500x195px]]
  
 
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