Hydrogeology of Burundi
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One of the smallest and most densely populated countries in Africa, Burundi was an independent kingdom for over 200 years until the early 20th century. It was colonised first by Germany, and after the First World War by Belgium, and governed together with present day Rwanda as Ruanda-Urundi until independence in 1962. Initially, independent Burundi was a monarchy, but after a period of civil and military unrest the monarchy was abolished and a one-party republic established in 1966. Burundi has continued to experience multiple periods of unrest, often involving ethnic violence between Hutu and Tutsi, including two periods in which genocide was identified, first in the 1970s and again in the 1990s. Since the 1990s Burundi has had a multi-party state, but has continued to experience periods of political and military unrest, such as disrupted presidential elections and a coup attempt in 2015. After the International Criminal Court (ICC) began to investigate potential human rights crimes by the country, Burundi left the ICC in 2017.
Decades of civil and military unrest has left the national infrastructure in very poor state, including water and sanitation services. Burundi has a largely rural population largely employed in subsistence agriculture, but high population density and lack of land access mean many farmers can’t support themselves. Pressure to increase agricultural land has resulted in widespread deforestation. Export earnings are also largely dominated by agriculture (mainly coffee and tea), but account for only a small proportion of GDP. External aid accounts for over 40% of the national income. Burundi has resources of a number of metal minerals, but a relatively small mining industry, of which gold provides the biggest export income. Most of the country’s electricity is produced by hydroelectric power stations.
With relatively high rainfall, Burundi has relatively abundant water resources, but because rainfall and surface water are unevenly distributed both spatially and seasonally, and because water supply infrastructure is poor, there is significant pressure on water resources. Most rural communities rely on groundwater, including numerous natural springs.
- 1 Compilers
- 2 Terms and conditions
- 3 Geographical setting
- 4 Geology
- 5 Hydrogeology
- 6 Groundwater use and management
- 7 References
- 8 Return to the index pages
Dr Kirsty Upton and Brighid Ó Dochartaigh, British Geological Survey, UK
Dr Imogen Bellwood-Howard, Institute of Development Studies, UK
Please cite this page as: Upton, Ó Dochartaigh and Bellwood-Howard, 2018.
Bibliographic reference: Upton K, Ó Dochartaigh B É and Bellwood-Howard, I. 2018. Africa Groundwater Atlas: Hydrogeology of Burundi. British Geological Survey. Accessed [date you accessed the information]. http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/Hydrogeology_of_Burundi
Terms and conditions
|Border countries||Rwanda, Tanzania, the Democratic Republic of the Congo|
|Total surface area*||27,830 km2 (2,783,000 ha)|
|Total population (2015)*||11,179,000|
|Rural population (2015)*||9,875,000 (88%)|
|Urban population (2015)*||1,304,000 (12%)|
|UN Human Development Index (HDI) [highest = 1] (2014)*||0.3999|
* Source: FAO Aquastat
These maps and graphs were developed from the CRU TS 3.21 dataset produced by the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia, UK. For more information see the climate resource page.
Burundi has relatively abundant surface water resources, because of high rainfall and storage in marshes and lakes. A dense hydrographic network means that it has a high hydroelectric potential. Among the internal rivers are the: Kaburantwa, Kagunuzi, Mpanda, Murembwe, Mugere, Mubarazi, Muhira, Mutsindosi, and Ruvubu rivers. There are also large areas of marshes, and the major lakes Cohoha and Rweru (African Development Fund 2005).
|Rural population with access to safe drinking water (%)||73.8|
|Urban population with access to safe drinking water (%)||91.1|
|Population affected by water related disease||No data||No data||No data||No data||No data|
|Total internal renewable water resources (cubic metres/inhabitant/year)||899.9|
|Total exploitable water resources (Million cubic metres/year)||No data||No data||No data||No data||No data|
|Freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources||2.297|
|Total renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year)||7,470|
|Exploitable: Regular renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year)||No data||No data||No data||No data||No data|
|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year)||7,470|
|Fresh groundwater withdrawal (primary and secondary) (Million cubic metres/year)||No data||No data||No data||No data||No data|
|Groundwater: entering the country (total) (Million cubic metres/year)|
|Groundwater: leaving the country to other countries (total) (Million cubic metres/year)|
|Industrial water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year)||15|
|Municipal water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year)||43.1|
|Agricultural water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year)||222|
|Irrigation water withdrawal (all water sources)1 (Million cubic metres/year)||200|
|Irrigation water requirement (all water sources)1 (Million cubic metres/year)||28.4|
|Area of permanent crops (ha)||350,000|
|Cultivated land (arable and permanent crops) (ha)||1,550,000|
|Total area of country cultivated (%)||55.7|
|Area equipped for irrigation by groundwater (ha)||No data||No data||No data||No data||No data|
|Area equipped for irrigation by mixed surface water and groundwater (ha)||No data||No data||No data||No data||No data|
These statistics are sourced from FAO Aquastat. They are the most recent available information in the Aquastat database. More information on the derivation and interpretation of these statistics can be seen on the FAO Aquastat website.
Further water and related statistics can be accessed at the Aquastat Main Database.
1 More information on irrigation water use and requirement statistics
The geology map shows a simplified version of the geology at a national scale. More information is available in the report UN (1988) and in reports from the work carried out by BRGM and BGR (see References section, below).
The geology of Burundi is dominated by Precambrian basement rocks. In the west, these mainly comprise metasedimentary rocks intruded by granites, while in eastern and central parts, the geology is dominated by quartzite, schist and gneiss.
|Alluvium and lake sediments||Cenozoic||Unconsolidated sediments primarily infilling the tectonic valley of the Western Rift; also alluvial sediments along rivers and lakes which form smaller outcrops that are too small to be shown on this map.|
|Cenozoic||Basaltic rocks outcrop in the extreme north-west of Burundi (not mapped at this scale).|
|Archean complex||Palaeoproterozoic||Predominantly gneiss, intercalated with amphibolite and quartzite.|
|Burudian||Mesoproterozoic||Metasedimentary rocks, largely quartzite with lesser amounts of intercalated schist.|
|Malagarasian||Metasedimentary rocks, largely schist and quartzite, which outcrops in the south-east and overlies the Burundian.|
The hydrogeology map below shows a simplified version of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the hydrogeology map resource page for more details).
Groundwater use and management
Records in 2005 showed that at one point there were at least 35,000 developed natural springs in Burundi tapping groundwater for water supply, and 811 groundwater-based drinking water systems (likely to be drilled or dug wells equipped with hand pumps), but that most of these were non-functional (African Development Bank 2005). Lack of infrastructure development means there has been relatively little borehole drilling for water supply. In rural areas it is likely that people make use of groundwater from hand dug wells, possibly on a seasonal basis, as well as the numerous natural springs.
Years of political instability have contributed to Burundi's water sector being in very poor state.
Several government bodies share responsibility for water resources and supplies. This can cause poor coordination of planning and water resource development, with competition in the allocation of water between sectors. The institutions involved include (USAID 2010):
- - The Directorate General for Water and Energy of the Ministry of Water, Energy and Mines, which leads overall water policy formulation
- - The Directorate of Water Resources (DRH), which develops and maintains the national water master plan
- - The Directorate General of Rural Water and Electricity(DGHER), which oversees rural drinking water and sanitation
- - The Water and Electric Authority ((REGIDESO), which is responsible for urban service provision
- - Communal Water Authorities, which are responsible for rural service provision and linked to District Users committees (African Development Fund 2005).
General improvement of water supplies in Burundi is a policy and development priority, and the urgency of this task means that there is a broad focus on all aspects of water resources and supply. Policies are focussed on implementing the principles of community based management and integrated water resource management (IWRM).
There is an attempt by government and some donors to encourage the development of the small amount of private sector involvement in the water sector. In 2005, the African Development Fund estimated there were 30 private consultancy firms in Burundi active in water services, such as borehole drilling.
A database which in 2009 had limited information about groundwater sources. A GTZ-supported project included work to develop a central database at the national water authority.
For further information about transboundary aquifers, please see the Transboundary aquifers resources page
References with more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Burundi can be accessed through the Africa Groundwater Literature Archive.
HAHNE, K. (2014): Lineament mapping for the localisation of high groundwater potential using remote sensing - Technical Report No. 4, prepared by IGEBU & BGR: 52 p., 53 fig., 2 tab.; Hannover. (PDF, 9 MB)
HECKMANN, M., VASSOLO, S. & TIBERGHIEN, C. (2016): Groundwater Vulnerability Map (COP) for the Nyanzari catchment, Gitega, Burundi. – Technical Report No. 7, prepared by IGEBU & BGR: 96 p., 33 fig., 14 tab.; Hannover. (PDF, 6 MB)
PFUNT, H., TIBERGHIEN, C. & VASSOLO, S. (2016): Numerical Groundwater Model for the Nyanzare well field at the town of Gitega, Burundi. – Technical Report No. 8, prepared by IGEBU & BGR: 46 p., 18 fig., 4 tab.; Hannover. (PDF, 2 MB)
Alexis Gutierrez, Jean-Marie Barrat. Groundwater resources of Burundi. New elements and decision making tools. 35th International Geological Congress : IGC 2016, Aug 2016, Cape Town, South Africa
African Development Fund. 2005. Burundi: The rural water infrastructure rehabilitation and extension project. Appraisal report. Infrastructure Departmetn Central and West Regions, Ocin, September 2005.
United Nations. 1989. Groundwater in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa: Burundi. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development.
USAID. 2010. Burundi Water and Sanitation Profile. March 2010.