Editing Hydrogeology of Chad

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The Lake Chad Basin aquifer has been widely studied and it is clear that it is highly sensitive to climatic changes (GWP 2013). Recharge to the aquifer has decreased in recent years, mainly due to drought, but also related to management decisions in upstream regions. Because recharge is derived from surface water (river and lake) infiltration as well as from direct rainfall infiltration, the decline in river flows and inflow to the lake (of nearly 50% since the 1960s) has had significant impact on groundwater recharge (GWP 2013).
 
The Lake Chad Basin aquifer has been widely studied and it is clear that it is highly sensitive to climatic changes (GWP 2013). Recharge to the aquifer has decreased in recent years, mainly due to drought, but also related to management decisions in upstream regions. Because recharge is derived from surface water (river and lake) infiltration as well as from direct rainfall infiltration, the decline in river flows and inflow to the lake (of nearly 50% since the 1960s) has had significant impact on groundwater recharge (GWP 2013).
  
A recent project by BGR found that point source nitrate pollution of groundwater was a concern around boreholes where livestock are watered in the Lake Chad area, with groundwater nitrate values up to 350 mg/l measured in some boreholes. This is thought to be caused by direct contamination of abstraction bucket ropes, and therefore of boreholes, by livestock faeces, rather than the infiltration  of nitrate into groundwater (Vassolo et al 2009).
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A recent project found that point source nitrate pollution of groundwater was a concern around boreholes where livestock are watered in the Lake Chad area, with groundwater nitrate values up to 350 mg/l measured in some boreholes. This is thought to be caused by direct contamination of abstraction bucket ropes, and therefore of boreholes, by livestock faeces, rather than the infiltration  of nitrate into groundwater (Vassolo et al 2009).  
  
 
==Groundwater use and management==
 
==Groundwater use and management==

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