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[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Comoros
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Comoros
  
'''This page has limited information. If you have more recent information on the hydrogeology of Comoros, please get in touch!'''  
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'''This page has limited information and needs to be updated. If you have more recent information on the hydrogeology of Comoros, please get in touch!'''  
  
 
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
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==Geographical Setting==
 
==Geographical Setting==
  
The largest islands of the Comoros archipelago are Ngazidja (Grande Comore), Ndzuani (Anjouan) and Mwali (Mohéli). Moroni, the capital, is on Ngazidja, the largest and westernmost island. The neighbouring island of Mayotte is under French administration.
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The Comoros archipelago includes Ngazidja (Grande Comore), Ndzuani (Anjouan) and Mwali (Mohéli). Moroni, the capital, is on Ngazidja, the largest and westernmost island. The neighbouring island of Mayotte is under French administration.
  
  
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{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
|-
 
|-
|Capital city || Moroni
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|Estimated Population in 2013* || 734,917
 
|-
 
|-
|Region || Eastern Africa
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|Rural Population (% of total) (2013)* || 71.9%
 
|-
 
|-
|Border countries || none - Indian Ocean. Nearby countries are Mozambique, Madagascar, Tanzania and the Seychelles.
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|Total Surface Area* || 1,861 sq km
 
|-
 
|-
|Total surface area* ||1,861 km<sup>2</sup>  (186,100 ha)
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|Agricultural Land (% of total area) (2012)* || 84.9%
 
|-
 
|-
|Total population (2015)* || 788,900
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|Capital City || Moroni
 
|-
 
|-
|Rural population (2015)* ||570,600 (72%)
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|Region || Eastern Africa
 
|-
 
|-
|Urban population (2015)* || 217,900 (28%)
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|Border Countries || none - Indian Ocean. Nearby countries are Mozambique, Madagascar, Tanzania and the Seychelles.
 
|-
 
|-
|UN Human Development Index (HDI) [highest = 1] (2014)*|| 0.5032
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|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal (2013)* || 10 Million cubic metres
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|-
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|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Agriculture (2013)* || 47%
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|-
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|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Domestic Use (2013)* || 48%
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|-
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|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Industry (2013)* || 5%
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|-
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|Rural Population with Access to Improved Water Source (2012)* || 96.7%
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|-
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|Urban Population with Access to Improved Water Source (2012)* || n/a
 
|}
 
|}
  
<nowiki>*</nowiki> Source: [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/query/index.html?lang=en FAO Aquastat]
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<nowiki>*</nowiki> Source: World Bank
  
  
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|}
 
|}
  
===Water statistics===
 
  
{| class = "wikitable"
 
| ||1997||1999||2012||2014||2015
 
|-
 
|Rural population with access to safe drinking water (%) || || ||  || || 89.1
 
|-
 
|Urban population with access to safe drinking water (%) || || ||  || || 92.6
 
|-
 
|Population affected by water related disease ||No data|| No data|| No data|| No data|| No data
 
|-
 
|Total internal renewable water resources (cubic metres/inhabitant/year) || || ||  ||1522 ||
 
|-
 
|Total exploitable water resources (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||1,020||||
 
|-
 
|Freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources || ||0.8333 || || ||
 
|-
 
|Total renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) ||  || || ||1,000 ||
 
|-
 
|Exploitable: Regular renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) ||No data|| No data|| No data|| No data|| No data
 
|-
 
|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  ||1,000 ||
 
|-
 
|Fresh groundwater withdrawal (primary and secondary) (Million cubic metres/year) ||No data|| No data|| No data|| No data|| No data
 
|-
 
|Groundwater: entering the country (total) (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  || ||
 
|-
 
|Groundwater: leaving the country to other countries (total) (Million cubic metres/year) || || || || ||
 
|-
 
|Industrial water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year) || ||0.5 || || ||
 
|-
 
| Municipal water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year)  || ||4.8 || || ||
 
|-
 
|Agricultural water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year) || || 4.7|| || ||
 
|-
 
|Irrigation water withdrawal (all water sources)<sup>1</sup> (Million cubic metres/year) ||No data|| No data|| No data|| No data|| No data
 
|-
 
|Irrigation water requirement (all water sources)<sup>1</sup> (Million cubic metres/year) ||No data|| No data|| No data|| No data|| No data
 
|-
 
|Area of permanent crops (ha) || || ||  ||53,000 ||
 
|-
 
|Cultivated land (arable and permanent crops) (ha) || || ||  ||118,000||
 
|-
 
|Total area of country cultivated (%) || || ||  ||63.41 ||
 
|-
 
|Area equipped for irrigation by groundwater (ha) ||No data|| No data|| No data|| No data|| No data
 
|-
 
|Area equipped for irrigation by mixed surface water and groundwater (ha) ||No data|| No data|| No data|| No data|| No data
 
|}
 
 
These statistics are sourced from [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/main/index.stm FAO Aquastat]. They are the most recent available information in the Aquastat database. More information on the derivation and interpretation of these statistics can be seen on the FAO Aquastat website.
 
 
Further water and related statistics can be accessed at the [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/query/index.html?lang=en Aquastat Main Database].
 
 
<sup>1</sup> More information on [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/water_use_agr/index.stm irrigation water use and requirement statistics]
 
  
 
==Geology==
 
==Geology==
  
More information is available in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060004 UN (1988)] (see References section, below).  
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More information is available in the report [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/fulldetails.cfm?id=AGLA060004 UN (1988)] (see References section, below).  
  
 
The Comoros are volcanic basalt islands, the tips of a submerged range. There are at least three main phases of volcanic activity, separated by phases of rest and alteration. Almost the whole of Ngazidja island is covered with ouctrops of volcanic materials of the most recent upper phase, surrounded by lavas of the intermediate phase. At the ground surface there are also layers of red clay several metres thick, indicating advanced laterisation of the early phases (United Nations 1989).  
 
The Comoros are volcanic basalt islands, the tips of a submerged range. There are at least three main phases of volcanic activity, separated by phases of rest and alteration. Almost the whole of Ngazidja island is covered with ouctrops of volcanic materials of the most recent upper phase, surrounded by lavas of the intermediate phase. At the ground surface there are also layers of red clay several metres thick, indicating advanced laterisation of the early phases (United Nations 1989).  
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==Hydrogeology==
 
==Hydrogeology==
  
More information on the hydrogeology of Comoros is available in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060004 UN (1988)] (see References section, below).  
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More information on the hydrogeology of Comoros is available in the report [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/fulldetails.cfm?id=AGLA060004 UN (1988)] (see References section, below).  
  
 
The basaltic lavas have high permeability. Other formations are thought to be of little hydrogeological interest. Direct rainfall recharge is likely to be rapid and high, infiltrating down to the aquifer base roughly at sea level (United Nations 1989). The degree of alteration of the volcanic rocks, and therefore their
 
The basaltic lavas have high permeability. Other formations are thought to be of little hydrogeological interest. Direct rainfall recharge is likely to be rapid and high, infiltrating down to the aquifer base roughly at sea level (United Nations 1989). The degree of alteration of the volcanic rocks, and therefore their
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==References==
 
==References==
  
References with more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Comoros can be accessed through the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=KM&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=11 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
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References with more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Comoros can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/searchResults.cfm?title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=KM&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=11 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
 
 
United Nations. 1989. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060004 Groundwater in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa: Comoros]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development.
 
  
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United Nations. 1989. [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/fulldetails.cfm?id=AGLA060004 Groundwater in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa: Comoros]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development. 
  
Return to the index pages:
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==Return to the index pages==
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Comoros
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Comoros
  

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