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[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Côte d'Ivoire
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[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Côte d'Ivoire
  
'''Lire cette page en français: [[Hydrogéologie de la Côte d'Ivoire | Hydrogéologie de la Côte d'Ivoire]]''' [[File: flag_of_france.png  | 50px]]
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'''Most of the textual information on this page was taken from the chapter on Côte d'Ivoire in the report[http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/fulldetails.cfm?id=AGLA060034 ‘Groundwater in North and West Africa’] (UN 1988). Some of this information is outdated. If you have more recent information on the hydrogeology of Cote d'Ivoire, please get in touch.'''
 
 
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
 
 
In pre-colonial times, the present day area of Republic of Côte d'Ivoire included part of a number of states, including the Gyaaman, Kong Empire, and Baoulé. Côte d'Ivoire became a protectorate of France in 1843–1844 and a French colony in 1893. During colonial rule, France promoted the development of agricultural plantations along the coast, using forced labour. Côte d'Ivoire won independence in 1960. In the first decades after independence the country was notably stable and the economy grew rapidly, while it maintained close ties to France and neighbouring countries. Since the early 1990s, Côte d'Ivoire has experienced coup d’etat and two civil wars, first from 2002–2007 and again, following disputed elections, in 2010-2011.
 
 
 
At independence, Côte d'Ivoire had the strongest economy in West Africa, based largely on commercial agriculture for export, and it continued to develop this sector, particularly cocoa and coffee. A recession in the 1980s contributed to the increasing political unrest. Despite civil wars, falling global prices for agricultural products, and internal political pressures, the country remains the largest regional economy, largely based on agricultural and forestry product (including rubber) exports, and is the world’s largest exporter of cocoa beans. Employment opportunities attract large numbers of workers from neighbouring countries. Petroleum products also contribute to export earnings.
 
 
 
Côte d'Ivoire has high average annual rainfall and a number of major perennial rivers. However, rainfall is not evenly distributed seasonally, and many rural areas depend on groundwater for water supply. Groundwater from the shallow coastal Quaternary aquifer is also the main source of drinking water supply in Abidjan and much of the coastal zone.
 
 
 
Water and sanitation infrastructure was greatly damaged by the civil war that ended in 2007, particularly in the north, and much government and NGO effort in the years since has gone into rehabilitation of existing water infrastructure.  
 
  
  
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'''Dr Kirsty Upton''' and '''Brighid Ó Dochartaigh''', British Geological Survey, UK
 
'''Dr Kirsty Upton''' and '''Brighid Ó Dochartaigh''', British Geological Survey, UK
 
'''Dr Imogen Bellwood-Howard''', Institute of Development Studies
 
 
Please cite this page as: Upton, Ó Dochartaigh and Bellwood-Howard, 2018.
 
 
Bibliographic reference: Upton K, Ó Dochartaigh BÉ and Bellwood-Howard, I. 2018. Africa Groundwater Atlas: Hydrogeology of Cote d'Ivoire. British Geological Survey. Accessed [date you accessed the information]. http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/Hydrogeology_of_Cote_d%27Ivoire
 
 
==Terms and conditions==
 
 
The Africa Groundwater Atlas is hosted by the British Geological Survey (BGS) and includes information from third party sources. Your use of information provided by this website is at your own risk. If reproducing diagrams that include third party information, please cite both the Africa Groundwater Atlas and the third party sources. Please see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Terms of Use | Terms of use]] for more information.
 
  
 
==Geographical Setting==
 
==Geographical Setting==
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Côte d'Ivoire is in west Africa with a southern coast on the Gulf of Guinea. The country is largely flat, less than 500 m, with local relief. The west of the country is more hilly, with parts rising above 500 m, to a maximum of  about 1200 m elevation. The south has many low lying areas and a few isolated or groups of low hills rising to around 650 m elevation.  
 
Côte d'Ivoire is in west Africa with a southern coast on the Gulf of Guinea. The country is largely flat, less than 500 m, with local relief. The west of the country is more hilly, with parts rising above 500 m, to a maximum of  about 1200 m elevation. The south has many low lying areas and a few isolated or groups of low hills rising to around 650 m elevation.  
  
[[File:Côte d'Ivoire_Political.png | right | frame | Côte d'Ivoire. Map developed from USGS GTOPOPO30; GADM global administrative areas; and UN Revision of World Urbanization Prospects. For more information on the map development and datasets see the For more information on the datasets used to develop the map see the [[Geography | geography resource page]]]]  
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[[File:Côte d'Ivoire_Political.png | right | frame | Map of Côte d'Ivoire (For more information on the datasets used in the map see the [[Geography | geography resources section]])]]  
  
 
===General===
 
===General===
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{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
|-
 
|-
|Capital city || Yamoussoukro
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|Estimated Population in 2013* || 20,316,086
 
|-
 
|-
|Region || Western Africa
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|Rural Population (% of total) (2013)* || 47.2%
 
|-
 
|-
|Border countries || Liberia, Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana
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|Total Surface Area* || 318,000 sq km
 
|-
 
|-
|Total surface area* || 322,460 km<sup>2</sup>  (32,246,000 ha)
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|Agricultural Land (% of total area) (2012)* || 64.8%
 
|-
 
|-
|Total population (2015)* || 22,702,000
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|Capital City || Yamoussoukro
 
|-
 
|-
|Rural population (2015)* ||11,164,000 (49%)
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|Region || Western Africa
 
|-
 
|-
|Urban population (2015)* ||11,538,000 (51%)
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|Border Countries || Liberia, Guinea, Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana
 
|-
 
|-
|UN Human Development Index (HDI) [highest = 1] (2014)*|| 0.4622
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|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal (2013)* || 1549 Million cubic metres
 +
|-
 +
|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Agriculture (2013)* || 38.4%
 +
|-
 +
|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Domestic Use (2013)* || 41.1%
 +
|-
 +
|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Industry (2013)* || 20.5%
 +
|-
 +
|Rural Population with Access to Improved Water Source (2012)* || 67.8%
 +
|-
 +
|Urban Population with Access to Improved Water Source (2012)* || 91.5%
 
|}
 
|}
  
<nowiki>*</nowiki> Source: [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/query/index.html?lang=en FAO Aquastat]
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<nowiki>*</nowiki> Source: World Bank
 +
 
 +
 
  
 
===Climate===
 
===Climate===
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The southern coastal zone has an equatorial climate with the highest rainfall, at around 2,400 mm/year, and rainfall is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year. The centre of the country has a tropical climate, with average annual rainfall of around 1,000 to 1,400 mm, and two wet seasons: the main one starting in December and the smaller one from August to October. The north is drier, with average annual rainfall betweewn 400 and 1,000 mm, concentrated in a short rainy season from July to September.  
 
The southern coastal zone has an equatorial climate with the highest rainfall, at around 2,400 mm/year, and rainfall is fairly evenly distributed throughout the year. The centre of the country has a tropical climate, with average annual rainfall of around 1,000 to 1,400 mm, and two wet seasons: the main one starting in December and the smaller one from August to October. The north is drier, with average annual rainfall betweewn 400 and 1,000 mm, concentrated in a short rainy season from July to September.  
  
[[File:Côte d'Ivoire_ClimateZones.png | 375x365px |Koppen Geiger Climate Zones]][[File:Côte d'Ivoire_ClimatePrecip.png | 375x365px |Average Annual Precipitation]][[File:Côte d'Ivoire_ClimateTemp.png | 375x365px |Average Temperature]]
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<gallery widths="375px" heights=365px mode=nolines>
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File:Côte d'Ivoire_ClimateZones.png |Koppen Geiger Climate Zones
 +
File:Côte d'Ivoire_ClimatePrecip.png |Average Annual Precipitation
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File:Côte d'Ivoire_ClimateTemp.png |Average Temperature
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</gallery>
  
[[File:Côte d'Ivoire_pre_Monthly.png| 255x124px| Average monthly precipitation for Côte d'Ivoire showing minimum and maximum (light blue), 25th and 75th percentile (blue), and median (dark blue) rainfall]] [[File:Côte d'Ivoire_tmp_Monthly.png| 255x124px| Average monthly temperature for Côte d'Ivoire showing minimum and maximum (orange), 25th and 75th percentile (red), and median (black) temperature]] [[File:Côte d'Ivoire_pre_Qts.png | 255x124px | Quarterly precipitation over the period 1950-2012]] [[File:Côte d'Ivoire_pre_Mts.png|255x124px | Monthly precipitation (blue) over the period 2000-2012 compared with the long term monthly average (red)]]
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[[File:Côte d'Ivoire_pre_Monthly.png| 255x124px| Average monthly precipitation for Côte d'Ivoire showing minimum and maximum (light blue), 25th and 75th percentile (blue), and median (dark blue) rainfall]] [[File:Côte d'Ivoire_tmp_Monthly.png| 255x124px| Average monthly temperature for Côte d'Ivoire showing minimum and maximum (orange), 25th and 75th percentile (red), and median (black) temperature]] [[File:Côte d'Ivoire_pre_Qts.png | 255x124px | Quarterly precipitation over the period 1950-2012]] [[File:Côte d'Ivoire_pre_Mts.png|255x124px | Monthly precipitation (blue) over the period 2000-2012 compared with the long term monthly average (red)]]  
 
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More information on average rainfall and temperature for each of the climate zones in Cote d'Ivoire can be seen at the [[Climate of Cote d'Ivoire | Côte d'Ivoire climate page]].
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For further detail on the climate datasets used see the [[Climate | climate resources section]].
 
 
These maps and graphs were developed from the CRU TS 3.21 dataset produced by the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia, UK. For more information see the [[Climate | climate resource page]].
 
  
 
===Surface water===
 
===Surface water===
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| [[File:Côte d'Ivoire_Hydrology.png | frame | Major surface water features of Côte d'Ivoire. Map developed from World Wildlife Fund HydroSHEDS; Digital Chart of the World drainage; and FAO Inland Water Bodies. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Surface water | surface water resource page]]]]
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| [[File:Côte d'Ivoire_Hydrology.png | frame | Surface Water Map of Côte d'Ivoire (For more information on the datasets used in the map see the [[Surface water | surface water resources section]])]]
 
|}
 
|}
  
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{|
 
{|
 
|-
 
|-
| [[File:Côte d'Ivoire_soil.png | frame | Soil Map of Côte d'Ivoire, from the European Commission Joint Research Centre: European Soil Portal. For more information on the map see the [[Soil | soil resource page]]]]
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| [[File:Côte d'Ivoire_soil.png | frame | Soil Map of Côte d'Ivoire (For map key and more information on the datasets used in the map see the [[Soil | soil resources section]])]]
  
 
|
 
|
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The south of the country is equatorial with forest; the centre is dominated by tropical forest; and the north is dominated by savannah vegetation.
 
The south of the country is equatorial with forest; the centre is dominated by tropical forest; and the north is dominated by savannah vegetation.
  
| [[File:Côte d'Ivoire_LandCover.png | frame | Land Cover Map of Côte d'Ivoire, from the European Space Agency GlobCover 2.3, 2009. For more information on the map see the [[Land cover | land cover resource page]]]]
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| [[File:Côte d'Ivoire_LandCover.png | frame | Land Cover Map of Côte d'Ivoire (For map key and more information on the datasets used in the map see the [[Land cover | land cover resources section]])]]
|}
 
 
 
===Water statistics===
 
 
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
| || 1997 ||2005||2008||2014||2015
 
|-
 
|Rural population with access to safe drinking water (%) || || ||  || || 68.8
 
|-
 
|Urban population with access to safe drinking water (%) || || ||  || || 93.1
 
|-
 
|Population affected by water related disease (per 1000 inhabitants)||1,423,000 || ||  || ||
 
|-
 
|Total internal renewable water resources (cubic metres/inhabitant/year) || || ||  ||3,385 ||
 
|-
 
|Total exploitable water resources (Million cubic metres/year) || No data|| No data|| No data|| No data|| No data
 
|-
 
|Freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources || ||1.841 || || ||
 
|-
 
|Total renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) ||  || || ||37,840 ||
 
|-
 
|Exploitable: Regular renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) || No data|| No data|| No data|| No data|| No data
 
|-
 
|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  ||37,840 ||
 
|-
 
|Fresh groundwater withdrawal (primary and secondary) (Million cubic metres/year) || No data|| No data|| No data|| No data|| No data
 
|-
 
|Groundwater: entering the country (total) (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  || ||
 
|-
 
|Groundwater: leaving the country to other countries (total) (Million cubic metres/year) || || || || ||
 
|-
 
|Industrial water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year) || ||318 || || ||
 
|-
 
| Municipal water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year)  || || 635.9|| || ||
 
|-
 
|Agricultural water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year) || || || 595.3|| ||
 
|-
 
|Irrigation water withdrawal (all water sources)<sup>1</sup> (Million cubic metres/year) || || || 595.3 || ||
 
|-
 
|Irrigation water requirement (all water sources)<sup>1</sup> (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||143.2 || ||
 
|-
 
|Area of permanent crops (ha) || || ||  ||4,500,000 ||
 
|-
 
|Cultivated land (arable and permanent crops) (ha) || || ||  ||7,400,000||
 
|-
 
|Total area of country cultivated (%) || || ||  ||22.95 ||
 
|-
 
|Area equipped for irrigation by groundwater (ha) || No data|| No data|| No data|| No data|| No data
 
|-
 
|Area equipped for irrigation by mixed surface water and groundwater (ha) || No data|| No data|| No data|| No data|| No data
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
These statistics are sourced from [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/main/index.stm FAO Aquastat]. They are the most recent available information in the Aquastat database. More information on the derivation and interpretation of these statistics can be seen on the FAO Aquastat website.
 
  
Further water and related statistics can be accessed at the [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/query/index.html?lang=en Aquastat Main Database].
 
 
<sup>1</sup> More information on [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/water_use_agr/index.stm irrigation water use and requirement statistics]
 
  
 
==Geology==
 
==Geology==
  
This section provides a summary of the geology of Côte d'Ivoire. More information is available in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060034 ‘Groundwater in North and West Africa: Côte d'Ivoire’] (UN 1988) (see References section, below).
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This section provides a summary of the geology of Côte d'Ivoire. More information is available in the report [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/fulldetails.cfm?id=AGLA060034 ‘Groundwater in North and West Africa: Côte d'Ivoire’] (UN 1988). (see References section, below).
  
 
The geology map shows a simplified version of the geology at a national scale (see [[Geology | the Geology resources page]] for more details).
 
The geology map shows a simplified version of the geology at a national scale (see [[Geology | the Geology resources page]] for more details).
  
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Cote d’Ivoire geology and hydrogeology map'''].
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  [[File:CotedIvoire_Geology2.png | 500 px | center]]
 
 
  [[File:CotedIvoire_Geology3.png | 500 px | center | thumb|  Geology of Côte d'Ivoire at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002 / Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Cote d’Ivoire geology and hydrogeology map].]]
 
  
  
 
'''Summary'''  
 
'''Summary'''  
  
Ancient Precambrian basement rocks cover most of the country, apart from a narrow coastal basin along the southern coast. Here, sedimentary rocks of Cretaceous-Tertiary age and unconsolidated Quaternary sediments form a wedge which narrows towards the north, where it terminates at the edge of the basement rock, less than 35 km from the coast. The basin is crossed from west to east by a fault with a displacement of several thousand metres, which separates two distinct zones:  
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A narrow strip along the southern coast forms the coastal basin. Here, sedimentary rocks of Cretaceous-Tertiary age and unconsolidated Quaternary sediments form a wedge which narrows towards the north, where it terminates at the edge of the basement rock, less than 35 km from the coast. The basin is crossed from west to east by a fault with a displacement of several thousand metres, which separates two distinct zones:  
  
 
- to the north is a shallower basin where the sedimentary infill is not usually more than 300 m thick
 
- to the north is a shallower basin where the sedimentary infill is not usually more than 300 m thick
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There is a series of lagoons, part of an ancient hydrographic system, which have very thick mud deposits and are now submerged.
 
There is a series of lagoons, part of an ancient hydrographic system, which have very thick mud deposits and are now submerged.
 +
 +
Across the rest of the country are basement rocks.
  
  
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|Continental Terminal
 
|Continental Terminal
 
||Cretaceous-Tertiary
 
||Cretaceous-Tertiary
||Subsidence of the coastal basin began in the Cretaceous and reached a maximum in the Pliocene (late Tertiary), but continues today (JICA). The lower part of the sedimentary infill in the coastal basin comprises detrital continental Tertiary (Miocene-Pliocene) formations - mostly coarse sands -  and, in the deepest areas, Upper and Middle Cretaceous marine formations, mostly sandstone, including ferruginous sandstone, and clays. Together, these form the Continental Terminal formation (sometimes, the Cretaceous is treated as a separate aquifer). Examples of lithological (geological) logs of boreholes through the Continental Terminal can be seen in [https://www.ircwash.org/sites/default/files/824AFW78-3855.pdf Bourgeois (1978)] (Figure 1C, page 48).
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||The lower part of the sedimentary infill in the coastal basin comprises detrital continental Tertiary (Miocene-Pliocene) formations - mostly coarse sands -  and, in the deepest areas, Upper and Middle Cretaceous marine formations, mostly sandstone, including ferruginous sandstone, and clays. Together, these form the Continental Terminal formation (sometimes, the Cretaceous is treated as a separate aquifer).  
|-
+
|-
!colspan="4"|Precambrian Basement (West African Shield)
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!colspan="4"|Basement (West African Shield)
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Birrimian
 
|Birrimian
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||Metamorphic rocks, mainly of sedimentary origin. These are generally schists, with meta-sandstones and meta-conglomerates in places. In places there are granitic intrusions, accompanied by volcano-sedimentary formations of tuffs, breccias, and green rocks. These form bands running from north-northeast to south-southwest, and are heavily folded, sometimes vertical.  
 
||Metamorphic rocks, mainly of sedimentary origin. These are generally schists, with meta-sandstones and meta-conglomerates in places. In places there are granitic intrusions, accompanied by volcano-sedimentary formations of tuffs, breccias, and green rocks. These form bands running from north-northeast to south-southwest, and are heavily folded, sometimes vertical.  
 
|-
 
|-
|Pre-Birrimian
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|Prebirrimian
 
||Lower Precambrian
 
||Lower Precambrian
 
||The oldest basement formations include crystalline gneiss, granites and migmatites. They are most common in the west of the country (although migmatites are found everywhere).  
 
||The oldest basement formations include crystalline gneiss, granites and migmatites. They are most common in the west of the country (although migmatites are found everywhere).  
 
|}
 
|}
 +
  
 
==Hydrogeology==
 
==Hydrogeology==
  
This section provides a summary of the hydrogeology of the main aquifers in Côte d'Ivoire. More information is available in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060034 United Nations (1988)] (see References section, below).
+
This section provides a summary of the hydrogeology of the main aquifers in Côte d'Ivoire. More information is available in the report [ADD LINK UN] (1988) (see References section, below).
 
 
The hydrogeology map shows a simplified version of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology Map]] resource page for more details).
 
 
 
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Cote d’Ivoire geology and hydrogeology map'''].
 
  
An early detailed overview of groundwater in Côte d’Ivoire (in French) can be seen in the report [https://www.ircwash.org/sites/default/files/824AFW78-3855.pdf Notice Explicative de la Carte de Planification des Ressources en Eau de Côte d'Ivoire, du Ghana, du Togo et du Benin] (Bourgeois 1978). A summary in English can be seen in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060034 Groundwater in North and West Africa: Côte d'Ivoire] (United Nations, 1988).  
+
The hydrogeology map shows a simplified version of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see [[Aquifer properties| the Aquifer properties resource page]] for more details).  
  
  [[File:CotedIvoire_Hydrogeology3.png | center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Côte d'Ivoire at 1:5million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | hydrogeology map]] resource page. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Cote d’Ivoire geology and hydrogeology map].]]
+
  [[File:CotedIvoire_Hydrogeology2.png | 500 px| center ]]
  
'''Summary'''
+
'''Note:''' the term Continental Terminal is sometimes used to describe the whole of the coastal basin aquifer, from Cretaceous to Quaternary, and sometimes to describe only the Quaternary, or only the Tertiary, or both the Cretaceous and Tertiary formations. Here, it is used to describe the Cretaceous-Tertiary aquifer in the coastal basin that underlies the Quaternary aquifer. The Quaternary aquifer is described separately, highlighting its unconsolidated nature and high vulnerability.
 
 
The most widespread aquifer type in Côte d'Ivoire is weathered and fractured basement rocks, which underlie most of the country.
 
 
 
The narrow sedimentary coastal basin, with Cretaceous-Tertiary consolidated sedimentary rocks overlain by unconsolidated Quaternary sediments, contains two highly permeable aquifer zones at depth. '''Continental Terminal''' is the name sometimes given to the whole of this coastal basin aquifer, from Cretaceous to Quaternary, and sometimes to describe only the Quaternary, or only the Tertiary, or both the Cretaceous and Tertiary formations. Here, it is used to describe the Cretaceous-Tertiary aquifer in the coastal basin that underlies the Quaternary aquifer. The Quaternary aquifer is described separately below, highlighting its unconsolidated nature and high vulnerability.
 
  
  
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|Coastal basin
 
|Coastal basin
 
||Quaternary
 
||Quaternary
||The southern part of the coastal basin consists of Quaternary formations, including coastal and marine sands. In their upper part, these form a moderately to highly productive aquifer, capable of sustaining borehole yields of at least 5 to 50 m³/hour. In some places with very permeable coarse sands, a borehole yield of at least 210 m³/hour for a drawdown of 3.1 m was recorded (a specific capacity of at least 1600 m³/day/m) (Bourgeous 1978). Permeability values of 10<sup>-3</sup> for the marine sands and 10<sup>-4</sup> to 10<sup>-3</sup> m/sec for clayey sands are given (Issiaka et al. 2006). Groundwater flow velocity in the aquifer is high and believed to be relatively uniform, as the sands are relatively homogeneous (Douagui et al 2012).
+
||The southern part of the coastal basin consists of Quaternary formations, including coastal and marine sands. In their upper part, these form a moderately to highly productive aquifer, capable of sustaining borehole yields of at least 5 to 50 m³/hour. In some places with very permeable coarse sands, a borehole yield of at least 210 m³/hour for a drawdown of 3.1 m was recorded (a specific capacity of at least 1600 m³/day/m) (an underlying clay layer protects the aquifer from intrusion by the underlying salt water).  
 
 
In some places there is a clay layer underlying the sand aquifer, below which is often saline water.  
 
  
 
The aquifer is recharged by direct infiltration of rainwater, and recharge is high, with effective infiltration of 50 percent of rainfall.  
 
The aquifer is recharged by direct infiltration of rainwater, and recharge is high, with effective infiltration of 50 percent of rainfall.  
  
Fresh water lies in density equilibrium on a layer (or wedge) of salt water, or on impermeable strata such as a clay layer.
+
Fresh water lies in density equilibrium on a layer (or wedge) of salt water, or on impermeable strata.
||Where there is no seawater intrusion, groundwater in the upper layers is fresh. Seawater intrusion can raise the salinity of groundwater in this aquifer significantly. Salt water at depth has salinity ranging from 100 to 2500 mg/l.  
+
||Where there is no seawater intrusion, groundwater in the upper layers is fresh. The salt water at depth has salinity ranging from 100 to 2500 mg/l.  
 
|}
 
|}
  
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||Groundwater has moderate mineral content, with dry residues of between 250 and 500 mg/l, sometimes up to 650 mg/l, and a pH close to 7 (neutral).
 
||Groundwater has moderate mineral content, with dry residues of between 250 and 500 mg/l, sometimes up to 650 mg/l, and a pH close to 7 (neutral).
 
|-
 
|-
|Granito-gneiss aquifers
+
|Granitogneiss aquifers
||Lower Precambrian
+
|| Lower Precambrian
||Groundwater occurs here mostly in shallow weathered zones, where the rock has weathered to sand and gravel; and in deeper fractures in unweathered bedrock. Groundwater resources are therefore found in discontinuous localised aquifers.  
+
||In the quartz grained granitogneiss rocks, groundwater occurs in shallow weathered zones, where the rock has weathered to sand and gravel; and in deeper fractures in unweathered bedrock.  
  
 
The weathered zone is 20 to 30 m thick on average, but sometimes as much as 60 m. Transmissivity values for this zone are in the order of 8 to 85 m²/day. Generally speaking, the most weathered (the most sandy and gravelly) zones, which have the highest permeability, are found at the base of the weathered zone.  
 
The weathered zone is 20 to 30 m thick on average, but sometimes as much as 60 m. Transmissivity values for this zone are in the order of 8 to 85 m²/day. Generally speaking, the most weathered (the most sandy and gravelly) zones, which have the highest permeability, are found at the base of the weathered zone.  
Line 274: Line 205:
 
||Groundwater has moderate mineral content, with dry residues of between 250 and 500 mg/l, sometimes up to 650 mg/l, and a pH close to 7 (neutral).   
 
||Groundwater has moderate mineral content, with dry residues of between 250 and 500 mg/l, sometimes up to 650 mg/l, and a pH close to 7 (neutral).   
 
|}
 
|}
 +
  
 
==Groundwater Status==
 
==Groundwater Status==
  
The high, intergranular permeability of the coastal Quaternary and Continental Terminal aquifers, combined with shallow groundwater tables, makes them highly vulnerable to contamination, both by seawater intrusion and by pollution from urban industry and domestic waste. Many studies have been done of the risks to and effects on groundwater, particularly in the Abidjan area (e.g. Douagui et al. 2012, Kouamé et al. 2013 and Issiaka et al. 2006).  
+
Groundwater in the coastal Quaternary and Continental Terminal aquifers is highly vulnerable to contamination, both by seawater intrusion and by pollution from urban industry and domestic waste. Many studies have been done of the risks to and effects on groundwater, particularly in the Abidjan area (e.g. Douagui et al. 2012, Kouassi et al. 2013 and Issiaka et al. 2006).  
  
Seawater intrusion may be caused by falling groundwater levels, which themselves may be linked to intensive groundwater pumping and/or to rainfall variability (Oga et al. 2006).
+
Seawater intrusion may be caused by falling groundwater levels, which themselves may be linked to intensive groundwater pumping and/or to rainfall variability (Oga et al. 2006).  
  
 
==Groundwater use and management==
 
==Groundwater use and management==
  
===Groundwater use===
+
Groundwater from the Quaternary aquifer is the main source of drinking water supply in Abidjan and most of the rest of the coastal zone. Groundwater from shallow boreholes and hand dug wells in the basement aquifer is the main source of water in rural areas across the rest of the country.
  
Groundwater from the Quaternary aquifer is the main source of drinking water supply in Abidjan and most of the rest of the coastal zone. Groundwater from shallow boreholes and hand dug wells in the basement aquifer is the main source of water in rural areas across the rest of the country. Many boreholes have been drilled in both rural and urban areas, mainly for domestic water supply.  
+
At least 13,000 groundwater sources had been recorded in the country in 2008, mostly boreholes, with hand dug wells the next numerous.  
  
===Groundwater management===
 
 
Key institutions with a role in groundwater management are:
 
 
* The Office of the High Commissioner for Hydraulics (HCH), created in 1996 under the supervision of the Prime Minister's Office, is responsible for national water sector policy. Its role is to put in place an adequate institutional framework able to take charge of water and sanitation-specific problems, and to ensure integrated management of water and sanitation.
 
* The Ministry of Economic Infrastructure, through its Department of Water (DE), plays a key role in developing policy on water resources. It is composed of three sub-divisions: i) the hydrology sub-directorate, ii) the urban hydraulics sub-directorate, and iii) the village hydraulics sub-directorate.
 
 
In the late 1990s, Côte d’Ivoire, with the support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and FAO, undertook preliminary studies towards an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) system in the country. Some of the results of these studies were:
 
 
* A draft country integrated water resources management policy document
 
* A water related Law and 20 draft enforcement decrees
 
* A draft integrated water resources management institutional framework
 
* • A National Hydraulic Programme project involving about ten integrated water resources management programmes
 
 
However, the IWRM implementation process met with difficulties due to the civil war after 1999. Much work has been done since 2007 to restore water supply infrastructure and water management procedures, including starting to reactivate village-level water management committees.
 
 
Records of drilled water boreholes are stored and managed in rural water supply subdirections within the Department of Water in the Ministry of Economic Infrastructure. A JICA (undated but post 2015) report records of a total of 17,532 groundwater wells and boreholes, of which 12,639 are boreholes and 4094 are hand dug wells. Most of these are in the Precambrian Basement aquifer, but a large proportion are in the coastal basin aquifers. 
 
 
A private enterprise, the Société de Distribution d’Eau de Côte d’Ivoire (SODECI), has been responsible for operation and maintenance of the Abidjan water system since 1959, the year before independence, and has been responsible for operation and maintenance of all urban water systems in Côte d’Ivoire since 1974.
 
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
  
The following references provide more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Côte d'Ivoire.
+
The following references provide more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Cote d'Ivoire.
 
 
Many of these, and others, can be found in [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=CI&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive]
 
  
Bourgeois M. 1978. [https://www.ircwash.org/sites/default/files/824AFW78-3855.pdf Notice Explicative de la Carte de Planification des Ressources en Eau de Côte d'Ivoire, du Ghana, du Togo et du Benin]. BRGM / Agence d'Études de Géologie Appliquée a l'Étranger.
+
These, and others, can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/searchResults.cfm?title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=CI&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive]
  
Douagui et al. 2012. [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1570644312000470 Assessment of the bacteriological quality and nitrate pollution risk of Quaternary groundwater in the southern part of Abidjan District (Côte d’Ivoire)]. Journal of Hydro-environment Research, Vol.6, Issue 3, pp 227-238
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Douagui et al. 2012. Assessment of the bacteriological quality and nitrate pollution risk of Quaternary groundwater in the southern part of Abidjan District (Côte d’Ivoire). Journal of Hydro-environment Research, Vol.6, Issue 3, pp 227-238
  
 
Issiaka et al. 2006. Vulnerability assessment of the Abidjan Quaternary aquifer using the DRASTIC method. In: Groundwater quality in Africa, ed. Y Xu and B Usher, Taylor and Francis/Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 115-124
 
Issiaka et al. 2006. Vulnerability assessment of the Abidjan Quaternary aquifer using the DRASTIC method. In: Groundwater quality in Africa, ed. Y Xu and B Usher, Taylor and Francis/Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 115-124
  
JICA Report (date unknown but after 2015) - extract. Chapter 5 - [http://open_jicareport.jica.go.jp/pdf/11634250_10.pdf Geology and Groundwater] (of Côte d’Ivoire).
+
Kouassi et al. 2013. Modeling of Quaternary Groundwater Pollution Risk by GIS and Multicriteria Analysis in the Southern Part of Abidjan District (Côte d’Ivoire). Journal of Hydro-environment Research, Vol.6, Issue 3, pp 227-238.
 
 
Kouame KJ, Jourda JP, Biemi J, and Leblanc Y. 2008. Groundwater Modelling and Implication for Groundwater Protection: Case Study of the Abidjan Aquifer, Côte d’Ivoire. In: Adelana and MacDonald (eds.) Applied Groundwater Studies in Africa: IAH Selected Papers on Hydrogeology 13.
 
 
 
Kouamé el al. 2013. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/efaf/9192096b978b14d291a31660d8314276f9a9.pdf Modeling of Groundwater Flow and Drawdown Evolution Simulation of Abidjan Aquifer (Côte d’Ivoire)]. Journal of Asian Scientific Research, Vol. 3 (4), pp 344-364.
 
 
 
Kouamé et al. 2013. [https://www.researchgate.net/publication/268504582_Modeling_of_Quaternary_Groundwater_Pollution_Risk_by_GIS_and_Multicriteria_Analysisin_the_Southern_Part_of_Abidjan_District_Cote_d'Ivoire Modeling of Quaternary Groundwater Pollution Risk by GIS and Multicriteria Analysis in the Southern Part of Abidjan District (Côte d’Ivoire)]. Journal of Environmental Protection Vol. 4 (11), pp 1213-1223. Doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.411139
 
 
 
Lasm T, Razack M and Youan Ta M. 2008. Geostatistical Assessment of the Transmissivity of Crystalline Fissured Aquifer in the Bondoukou Region, North-Eastern Cote d’Ivoire. In: Adelana and MacDonald (eds.) Applied Groundwater Studies in Africa: IAH Selected Papers on Hydrogeology 13.
 
 
 
Oga MS, Marlin C, Dever L, Filly A and Njitchoua R. 2008 . Hydrochemical and isotopic characteristics of coastal Groundwater near Abidjan. In: Adelana and MacDonald (eds) Applied Groundwater Studies in Africa: IAH Selected Papers on Hydrogeology 13, pp 371-389.
 
  
Practica Foundation, UNICEF and Enterprise Works/VITA. 2014. [https://www.practica.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/COTE_IVOIRE_carte_finale_A2.pdf Etude de faisabilite des techniques de forages manuelle: Carte des zones favorables - Republique de la Côte d'Ivoire]. Practica/Enterprise Works/VITA/UNICEF
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Oga MS, Marlin C, Dever L, Filly A and Njitchoua R. 2008 . Hydrochemical and isotopic characteristics of coastal Groundwater near Abidjan. In: Adelana and MacDonald (eds) Applied Groundwater Studies in Africa, pp 371-389.
  
Practica Foundation, UNICEF and Enterprise Works/VITA. 2014. [https://www.practica.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Cote_Ivoire_Rapport_final_des_zones_favorables_FINAL.pdf Republique de la Côte d'Ivoire: Etude de faisabilite des forages manuels: Identification des zones potentiellement favorables]. Practica/Enterprise Works/VITA/UNICEF
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United Nations. 1988. [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/fulldetails.cfm?id=AGLA060034 Groundwater in North and West Africa: Côte d'Ivoire]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development and Economic Commission for Africa, Natural Resources/Water Series No.18, ST/TCD/5
  
United Nations. 1988. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060034 Groundwater in North and West Africa: Côte d'Ivoire]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development and Economic Commission for Africa, Natural Resources/Water Series No.18, ST/TCD/5
 
  
Return to the index pages:
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==Return to the index pages==
[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]
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[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Cote d'Ivoire
  
  
 
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