Editing Hydrogeology of Cote d'Ivoire

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In pre-colonial times, the present day area of Republic of Côte d'Ivoire included part of a number of states, including the Gyaaman, Kong Empire, and Baoulé. Côte d'Ivoire became a protectorate of France in 1843–1844 and a French colony in 1893. During colonial rule, France promoted the development of agricultural plantations along the coast, using forced labour. Côte d'Ivoire won independence in 1960. In the first decades after independence the country was notably stable and the economy grew rapidly, while it maintained close ties to France and neighbouring countries. Since the early 1990s, Côte d'Ivoire has experienced coup d’etat and two civil wars, first from 2002–2007 and again, following disputed elections, in 2010-2011.  
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In pre-colonial times, the present day area of Republic of Côte d'Ivoire included part of a number of states, including the Gyaaman, Kong Empire, and Baoulé. Côte d'Ivoire became a protectorate of France in 1843–1844 and a French colony in 1893. During colonial rule, France promoted the development of agricultural plantations along the coast, using forced labour. Côte d'Ivoire won independence in 1960. In the first decades after independence the country was notably stable and the economy grew rapidly, while it maintained close ties to France and neighbouring countries. Since the early 1990s, Côte d'Ivoire has experienced coup d’etat and two civil wars, first from 2002 – 2007 and again, following disputed elections, in 2011.  
  
 
At independence, Côte d'Ivoire had the strongest economy in West Africa, based largely on commercial agriculture for export, and it continued to develop this sector, particularly cocoa and coffee. A recession in the 1980s contributed to the increasing political unrest. Despite civil wars, falling global prices for agricultural products, and internal political pressures, the country remains the largest regional economy, largely based on agricultural and forestry product (including rubber) exports, and is the world’s largest exporter of cocoa beans. Employment opportunities attract large numbers of workers from neighbouring countries. Petroleum products also contribute to export earnings.  
 
At independence, Côte d'Ivoire had the strongest economy in West Africa, based largely on commercial agriculture for export, and it continued to develop this sector, particularly cocoa and coffee. A recession in the 1980s contributed to the increasing political unrest. Despite civil wars, falling global prices for agricultural products, and internal political pressures, the country remains the largest regional economy, largely based on agricultural and forestry product (including rubber) exports, and is the world’s largest exporter of cocoa beans. Employment opportunities attract large numbers of workers from neighbouring countries. Petroleum products also contribute to export earnings.  
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==Groundwater use and management==
 
==Groundwater use and management==
 
===Groundwater use===
 
  
 
Groundwater from the Quaternary aquifer is the main source of drinking water supply in Abidjan and most of the rest of the coastal zone. Groundwater from shallow boreholes and hand dug wells in the basement aquifer is the main source of water in rural areas across the rest of the country. Many boreholes have been drilled in both rural and urban areas, mainly for domestic water supply.  
 
Groundwater from the Quaternary aquifer is the main source of drinking water supply in Abidjan and most of the rest of the coastal zone. Groundwater from shallow boreholes and hand dug wells in the basement aquifer is the main source of water in rural areas across the rest of the country. Many boreholes have been drilled in both rural and urban areas, mainly for domestic water supply.  
  
===Groundwater management===
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Records of drilled water boreholes are stored and managed in rural water supply subdirections within the Department of Hydrology, MIE. JICA (undated) report records of a total of 17,532 groundwater wells and boreholes, of which 12,639 are boreholes and 4094 are hand dug wells. Most of these are in the Precambrian Basement aquifer, but a large proportion are in the coastal basin aquifers.   
 
 
Key institutions with a role in groundwater management are:
 
 
 
* The Office of the High Commissioner for Hydraulics (HCH), created in 1996 under the supervision of the Prime Minister's Office, is responsible for national water sector policy. Its role is to put in place an adequate institutional framework able to take charge of water and sanitation-specific problems, and to ensure integrated management of water and sanitation.
 
* The Ministry of Economic Infrastructure, through its Department of Water (DE), plays a key role in developing policy on water resources. It is composed of three sub-divisions: i) the hydrology sub-directorate, ii) the urban hydraulics sub-directorate, and iii) the village hydraulics sub-directorate.
 
 
 
In the late 1990s, Côte d’Ivoire, with the support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and FAO, undertook preliminary studies towards an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) system in the country. Some of the results of these studies were:
 
 
 
* A draft country integrated water resources management policy document
 
* A water related Law and 20 draft enforcement decrees
 
* A draft integrated water resources management institutional framework
 
* • A National Hydraulic Programme project involving about ten integrated water resources management programmes
 
 
 
However, the IWRM implementation process met with difficulties due to the civil war after 1999. Much work has been done since 2007 to restore water supply infrastructure and water management procedures, including starting to reactivate village-level water management committees.
 
 
 
Records of drilled water boreholes are stored and managed in rural water supply subdirections within the Department of Water in the Ministry of Economic Infrastructure. A JICA (undated but post 2015) report records of a total of 17,532 groundwater wells and boreholes, of which 12,639 are boreholes and 4094 are hand dug wells. Most of these are in the Precambrian Basement aquifer, but a large proportion are in the coastal basin aquifers.   
 
 
 
A private enterprise, the Société de Distribution d’Eau de Côte d’Ivoire (SODECI), has been responsible for operation and maintenance of the Abidjan water system since 1959, the year before independence, and has been responsible for operation and maintenance of all urban water systems in Côte d’Ivoire since 1974.
 
  
 
==References==
 
==References==

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