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[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Côte d'Ivoire
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Côte d'Ivoire
  
'''Lire cette page en français: [[Hydrogéologie de la Côte d'Ivoire | Hydrogéologie de la Côte d'Ivoire]]''' [[File: flag_of_france.png  | 50px]]
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'''Most of the textual information on this page was taken from the chapter on Côte d'Ivoire in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060034 ‘Groundwater in North and West Africa’] (UN 1988). Some of this information is outdated. If you have more recent information on the hydrogeology of Cote d'Ivoire, please get in touch.'''  
  
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
  
In pre-colonial times, the present day area of Republic of Côte d'Ivoire included part of a number of states, including the Gyaaman, Kong Empire, and Baoulé. Côte d'Ivoire became a protectorate of France in 1843–1844 and a French colony in 1893. During colonial rule, France promoted the development of agricultural plantations along the coast, using forced labour. Côte d'Ivoire won independence in 1960. In the first decades after independence the country was notably stable and the economy grew rapidly, while it maintained close ties to France and neighbouring countries. Since the early 1990s, Côte d'Ivoire has experienced coup d’etat and two civil wars, first from 2002–2007 and again, following disputed elections, in 2010-2011.  
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In pre-colonial times, the present day area of Republic of Côte d'Ivoire included part of a number of states, including the Gyaaman, Kong Empire, and Baoulé. Côte d'Ivoire became a protectorate of France in 1843–1844 and a French colony in 1893. During colonial rule, France promoted the development of agricultural plantations along the coast, using forced labour. Côte d'Ivoire won independence in 1960. In the first decades after independence the country was notably stable and the economy grew rapidly, while it maintained close ties to France and neighbouring countries. Since the early 1990s, Côte d'Ivoire has experienced coup d’etat and two civil wars, first from 2002 – 2007 and again, following disputed elections, in 2011.  
  
 
At independence, Côte d'Ivoire had the strongest economy in West Africa, based largely on commercial agriculture for export, and it continued to develop this sector, particularly cocoa and coffee. A recession in the 1980s contributed to the increasing political unrest. Despite civil wars, falling global prices for agricultural products, and internal political pressures, the country remains the largest regional economy, largely based on agricultural and forestry product (including rubber) exports, and is the world’s largest exporter of cocoa beans. Employment opportunities attract large numbers of workers from neighbouring countries. Petroleum products also contribute to export earnings.  
 
At independence, Côte d'Ivoire had the strongest economy in West Africa, based largely on commercial agriculture for export, and it continued to develop this sector, particularly cocoa and coffee. A recession in the 1980s contributed to the increasing political unrest. Despite civil wars, falling global prices for agricultural products, and internal political pressures, the country remains the largest regional economy, largely based on agricultural and forestry product (including rubber) exports, and is the world’s largest exporter of cocoa beans. Employment opportunities attract large numbers of workers from neighbouring countries. Petroleum products also contribute to export earnings.  
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[[File:Côte d'Ivoire_pre_Monthly.png| 255x124px| Average monthly precipitation for Côte d'Ivoire showing minimum and maximum (light blue), 25th and 75th percentile (blue), and median (dark blue) rainfall]] [[File:Côte d'Ivoire_tmp_Monthly.png| 255x124px| Average monthly temperature for Côte d'Ivoire showing minimum and maximum (orange), 25th and 75th percentile (red), and median (black) temperature]] [[File:Côte d'Ivoire_pre_Qts.png | 255x124px | Quarterly precipitation over the period 1950-2012]] [[File:Côte d'Ivoire_pre_Mts.png|255x124px | Monthly precipitation (blue) over the period 2000-2012 compared with the long term monthly average (red)]]
 
[[File:Côte d'Ivoire_pre_Monthly.png| 255x124px| Average monthly precipitation for Côte d'Ivoire showing minimum and maximum (light blue), 25th and 75th percentile (blue), and median (dark blue) rainfall]] [[File:Côte d'Ivoire_tmp_Monthly.png| 255x124px| Average monthly temperature for Côte d'Ivoire showing minimum and maximum (orange), 25th and 75th percentile (red), and median (black) temperature]] [[File:Côte d'Ivoire_pre_Qts.png | 255x124px | Quarterly precipitation over the period 1950-2012]] [[File:Côte d'Ivoire_pre_Mts.png|255x124px | Monthly precipitation (blue) over the period 2000-2012 compared with the long term monthly average (red)]]
  
More information on average rainfall and temperature for each of the climate zones in Cote d'Ivoire can be seen at the [[Climate of Cote d'Ivoire | Côte d'Ivoire climate page]].
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More information on average rainfall and temperature for each of the climate zones in Cote d'Ivoire can be seen at the [[Climate of Cote d'Ivoire | Cote d'Ivoire climate page]].
  
 
These maps and graphs were developed from the CRU TS 3.21 dataset produced by the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia, UK. For more information see the [[Climate | climate resource page]].
 
These maps and graphs were developed from the CRU TS 3.21 dataset produced by the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia, UK. For more information see the [[Climate | climate resource page]].
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|Urban population with access to safe drinking water (%) || || ||  || || 93.1
 
|Urban population with access to safe drinking water (%) || || ||  || || 93.1
 
|-
 
|-
|Population affected by water related disease (per 1000 inhabitants)||1,423,000 || ||  || ||  
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|Population affected by water related disease ||1,423,000 || ||  || ||  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Total internal renewable water resources (cubic metres/inhabitant/year) || || ||  ||3,385 ||  
 
|Total internal renewable water resources (cubic metres/inhabitant/year) || || ||  ||3,385 ||  
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==Geology==
 
==Geology==
  
This section provides a summary of the geology of Côte d'Ivoire. More information is available in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060034 ‘Groundwater in North and West Africa: Côte d'Ivoire’] (UN 1988) (see References section, below).
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This section provides a summary of the geology of Côte d'Ivoire. More information is available in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060034 ‘Groundwater in North and West Africa: Côte d'Ivoire’] (UN 1988). (see References section, below).
  
 
The geology map shows a simplified version of the geology at a national scale (see [[Geology | the Geology resources page]] for more details).
 
The geology map shows a simplified version of the geology at a national scale (see [[Geology | the Geology resources page]] for more details).
  
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Cote d’Ivoire geology and hydrogeology map'''].
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  [[File:CotedIvoire_Geology2.png | 500 px | center | thumb|  Geology of Côte d'Ivoire at 1:5 million scale. Developed from USGS map (Persits et al. 2002). For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]]]
 
 
  [[File:CotedIvoire_Geology3.png | 500 px | center | thumb|  Geology of Côte d'Ivoire at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002 / Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Cote d’Ivoire geology and hydrogeology map].]]
 
  
  
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||Subsidence of the coastal basin began in the Cretaceous and reached a maximum in the Pliocene (late Tertiary), but continues today (JICA). The lower part of the sedimentary infill in the coastal basin comprises detrital continental Tertiary (Miocene-Pliocene) formations - mostly coarse sands -  and, in the deepest areas, Upper and Middle Cretaceous marine formations, mostly sandstone, including ferruginous sandstone, and clays. Together, these form the Continental Terminal formation (sometimes, the Cretaceous is treated as a separate aquifer). Examples of lithological (geological) logs of boreholes through the Continental Terminal can be seen in [https://www.ircwash.org/sites/default/files/824AFW78-3855.pdf Bourgeois (1978)] (Figure 1C, page 48).
 
||Subsidence of the coastal basin began in the Cretaceous and reached a maximum in the Pliocene (late Tertiary), but continues today (JICA). The lower part of the sedimentary infill in the coastal basin comprises detrital continental Tertiary (Miocene-Pliocene) formations - mostly coarse sands -  and, in the deepest areas, Upper and Middle Cretaceous marine formations, mostly sandstone, including ferruginous sandstone, and clays. Together, these form the Continental Terminal formation (sometimes, the Cretaceous is treated as a separate aquifer). Examples of lithological (geological) logs of boreholes through the Continental Terminal can be seen in [https://www.ircwash.org/sites/default/files/824AFW78-3855.pdf Bourgeois (1978)] (Figure 1C, page 48).
 
|-   
 
|-   
!colspan="4"|Precambrian Basement (West African Shield)
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!colspan="4"|Basement (West African Shield)
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Birrimian
 
|Birrimian
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||The oldest basement formations include crystalline gneiss, granites and migmatites. They are most common in the west of the country (although migmatites are found everywhere).  
 
||The oldest basement formations include crystalline gneiss, granites and migmatites. They are most common in the west of the country (although migmatites are found everywhere).  
 
|}
 
|}
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==Hydrogeology==
 
==Hydrogeology==
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This section provides a summary of the hydrogeology of the main aquifers in Côte d'Ivoire. More information is available in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060034 United Nations (1988)] (see References section, below).
 
This section provides a summary of the hydrogeology of the main aquifers in Côte d'Ivoire. More information is available in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060034 United Nations (1988)] (see References section, below).
  
The hydrogeology map shows a simplified version of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology Map]] resource page for more details).  
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The hydrogeology map shows a simplified version of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Hydrogeology Map | Hydrogeology Map]] resource page for more details).  
  
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Cote d’Ivoire geology and hydrogeology map'''].
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  [[File:CotedIvoire_Hydrogeology2.png | center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Côte d'Ivoire at 1:5million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Hydrogeology Map | hydrogeology map]] resource page]]
 
 
An early detailed overview of groundwater in Côte d’Ivoire (in French) can be seen in the report [https://www.ircwash.org/sites/default/files/824AFW78-3855.pdf Notice Explicative de la Carte de Planification des Ressources en Eau de Côte d'Ivoire, du Ghana, du Togo et du Benin] (Bourgeois 1978). A summary in English can be seen in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060034 Groundwater in North and West Africa: Côte d'Ivoire] (United Nations, 1988).
 
 
 
  [[File:CotedIvoire_Hydrogeology3.png | center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Côte d'Ivoire at 1:5million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | hydrogeology map]] resource page. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Cote d’Ivoire geology and hydrogeology map].]]
 
  
 
'''Summary'''
 
'''Summary'''
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The narrow sedimentary coastal basin, with Cretaceous-Tertiary consolidated sedimentary rocks overlain by unconsolidated Quaternary sediments, contains two highly permeable aquifer zones at depth. '''Continental Terminal''' is the name sometimes given to the whole of this coastal basin aquifer, from Cretaceous to Quaternary, and sometimes to describe only the Quaternary, or only the Tertiary, or both the Cretaceous and Tertiary formations. Here, it is used to describe the Cretaceous-Tertiary aquifer in the coastal basin that underlies the Quaternary aquifer. The Quaternary aquifer is described separately below, highlighting its unconsolidated nature and high vulnerability.
 
The narrow sedimentary coastal basin, with Cretaceous-Tertiary consolidated sedimentary rocks overlain by unconsolidated Quaternary sediments, contains two highly permeable aquifer zones at depth. '''Continental Terminal''' is the name sometimes given to the whole of this coastal basin aquifer, from Cretaceous to Quaternary, and sometimes to describe only the Quaternary, or only the Tertiary, or both the Cretaceous and Tertiary formations. Here, it is used to describe the Cretaceous-Tertiary aquifer in the coastal basin that underlies the Quaternary aquifer. The Quaternary aquifer is described separately below, highlighting its unconsolidated nature and high vulnerability.
  
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An early detailed overview of groundwater in Côte d’Ivoire (in French) can be seen in the report [https://www.ircwash.org/sites/default/files/824AFW78-3855.pdf Notice Explicative de la Carte de Planification des Ressources en Eau de Côte d'Ivoire, du Ghana, du Togo et du Benin] (Bourgeois 1978). A summary in English can be seen in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060034 Groundwater in North and West Africa: Côte d'Ivoire] (United Nations, 1988).
  
 
====Unconsolidated====
 
====Unconsolidated====
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||Groundwater has moderate mineral content, with dry residues of between 250 and 500 mg/l, sometimes up to 650 mg/l, and a pH close to 7 (neutral).
 
||Groundwater has moderate mineral content, with dry residues of between 250 and 500 mg/l, sometimes up to 650 mg/l, and a pH close to 7 (neutral).
 
|-
 
|-
|Granito-gneiss aquifers
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|Granitogneiss aquifers
||Lower Precambrian
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|| Lower Precambrian
 
||Groundwater occurs here mostly in shallow weathered zones, where the rock has weathered to sand and gravel; and in deeper fractures in unweathered bedrock. Groundwater resources are therefore found in discontinuous localised aquifers.  
 
||Groundwater occurs here mostly in shallow weathered zones, where the rock has weathered to sand and gravel; and in deeper fractures in unweathered bedrock. Groundwater resources are therefore found in discontinuous localised aquifers.  
  
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==Groundwater use and management==
 
==Groundwater use and management==
 
===Groundwater use===
 
  
 
Groundwater from the Quaternary aquifer is the main source of drinking water supply in Abidjan and most of the rest of the coastal zone. Groundwater from shallow boreholes and hand dug wells in the basement aquifer is the main source of water in rural areas across the rest of the country. Many boreholes have been drilled in both rural and urban areas, mainly for domestic water supply.  
 
Groundwater from the Quaternary aquifer is the main source of drinking water supply in Abidjan and most of the rest of the coastal zone. Groundwater from shallow boreholes and hand dug wells in the basement aquifer is the main source of water in rural areas across the rest of the country. Many boreholes have been drilled in both rural and urban areas, mainly for domestic water supply.  
  
===Groundwater management===
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Records of drilled water boreholes are stored and managed in rural water supply subdirections within the Department of Hydrology, MIE. JICA (undated) report records of a total of 17,532 groundwater wells and boreholes, of which 12,639 are boreholes and 4094 are hand dug wells. Most of these are in the Precambrian Basement aquifer, but a large proportion are in the coastal basin aquifers.   
 
 
Key institutions with a role in groundwater management are:
 
 
 
* The Office of the High Commissioner for Hydraulics (HCH), created in 1996 under the supervision of the Prime Minister's Office, is responsible for national water sector policy. Its role is to put in place an adequate institutional framework able to take charge of water and sanitation-specific problems, and to ensure integrated management of water and sanitation.
 
* The Ministry of Economic Infrastructure, through its Department of Water (DE), plays a key role in developing policy on water resources. It is composed of three sub-divisions: i) the hydrology sub-directorate, ii) the urban hydraulics sub-directorate, and iii) the village hydraulics sub-directorate.
 
 
 
In the late 1990s, Côte d’Ivoire, with the support of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and FAO, undertook preliminary studies towards an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) system in the country. Some of the results of these studies were:
 
 
 
* A draft country integrated water resources management policy document
 
* A water related Law and 20 draft enforcement decrees
 
* A draft integrated water resources management institutional framework
 
* • A National Hydraulic Programme project involving about ten integrated water resources management programmes
 
 
 
However, the IWRM implementation process met with difficulties due to the civil war after 1999. Much work has been done since 2007 to restore water supply infrastructure and water management procedures, including starting to reactivate village-level water management committees.
 
 
 
Records of drilled water boreholes are stored and managed in rural water supply subdirections within the Department of Water in the Ministry of Economic Infrastructure. A JICA (undated but post 2015) report records of a total of 17,532 groundwater wells and boreholes, of which 12,639 are boreholes and 4094 are hand dug wells. Most of these are in the Precambrian Basement aquifer, but a large proportion are in the coastal basin aquifers.   
 
 
 
A private enterprise, the Société de Distribution d’Eau de Côte d’Ivoire (SODECI), has been responsible for operation and maintenance of the Abidjan water system since 1959, the year before independence, and has been responsible for operation and maintenance of all urban water systems in Côte d’Ivoire since 1974.
 
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
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JICA Report (date unknown but after 2015) - extract. Chapter 5 - [http://open_jicareport.jica.go.jp/pdf/11634250_10.pdf Geology and Groundwater] (of Côte d’Ivoire).  
 
JICA Report (date unknown but after 2015) - extract. Chapter 5 - [http://open_jicareport.jica.go.jp/pdf/11634250_10.pdf Geology and Groundwater] (of Côte d’Ivoire).  
 
Kouame KJ, Jourda JP, Biemi J, and Leblanc Y. 2008. Groundwater Modelling and Implication for Groundwater Protection: Case Study of the Abidjan Aquifer, Côte d’Ivoire. In: Adelana and MacDonald (eds.) Applied Groundwater Studies in Africa: IAH Selected Papers on Hydrogeology 13.
 
  
 
Kouamé el al. 2013. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/efaf/9192096b978b14d291a31660d8314276f9a9.pdf Modeling of Groundwater Flow and Drawdown Evolution Simulation of Abidjan Aquifer (Côte d’Ivoire)]. Journal of Asian Scientific Research, Vol. 3 (4), pp 344-364.
 
Kouamé el al. 2013. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/efaf/9192096b978b14d291a31660d8314276f9a9.pdf Modeling of Groundwater Flow and Drawdown Evolution Simulation of Abidjan Aquifer (Côte d’Ivoire)]. Journal of Asian Scientific Research, Vol. 3 (4), pp 344-364.
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Kouamé et al. 2013. [https://www.researchgate.net/publication/268504582_Modeling_of_Quaternary_Groundwater_Pollution_Risk_by_GIS_and_Multicriteria_Analysisin_the_Southern_Part_of_Abidjan_District_Cote_d'Ivoire Modeling of Quaternary Groundwater Pollution Risk by GIS and Multicriteria Analysis in the Southern Part of Abidjan District (Côte d’Ivoire)]. Journal of Environmental Protection Vol. 4 (11), pp 1213-1223. Doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.411139
 
Kouamé et al. 2013. [https://www.researchgate.net/publication/268504582_Modeling_of_Quaternary_Groundwater_Pollution_Risk_by_GIS_and_Multicriteria_Analysisin_the_Southern_Part_of_Abidjan_District_Cote_d'Ivoire Modeling of Quaternary Groundwater Pollution Risk by GIS and Multicriteria Analysis in the Southern Part of Abidjan District (Côte d’Ivoire)]. Journal of Environmental Protection Vol. 4 (11), pp 1213-1223. Doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.411139
  
Lasm T, Razack M and Youan Ta M. 2008. Geostatistical Assessment of the Transmissivity of Crystalline Fissured Aquifer in the Bondoukou Region, North-Eastern Cote d’Ivoire. In: Adelana and MacDonald (eds.) Applied Groundwater Studies in Africa: IAH Selected Papers on Hydrogeology 13.
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Oga MS, Marlin C, Dever L, Filly A and Njitchoua R. 2008 . Hydrochemical and isotopic characteristics of coastal Groundwater near Abidjan. In: Adelana and MacDonald (eds) Applied Groundwater Studies in Africa, pp 371-389.
 
 
Oga MS, Marlin C, Dever L, Filly A and Njitchoua R. 2008 . Hydrochemical and isotopic characteristics of coastal Groundwater near Abidjan. In: Adelana and MacDonald (eds) Applied Groundwater Studies in Africa: IAH Selected Papers on Hydrogeology 13, pp 371-389.
 
  
 
Practica Foundation, UNICEF and Enterprise Works/VITA. 2014. [https://www.practica.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/COTE_IVOIRE_carte_finale_A2.pdf Etude de faisabilite des techniques de forages manuelle: Carte des zones favorables - Republique de la Côte d'Ivoire]. Practica/Enterprise Works/VITA/UNICEF
 
Practica Foundation, UNICEF and Enterprise Works/VITA. 2014. [https://www.practica.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/COTE_IVOIRE_carte_finale_A2.pdf Etude de faisabilite des techniques de forages manuelle: Carte des zones favorables - Republique de la Côte d'Ivoire]. Practica/Enterprise Works/VITA/UNICEF
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United Nations. 1988. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060034 Groundwater in North and West Africa: Côte d'Ivoire]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development and Economic Commission for Africa, Natural Resources/Water Series No.18, ST/TCD/5
 
United Nations. 1988. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060034 Groundwater in North and West Africa: Côte d'Ivoire]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development and Economic Commission for Africa, Natural Resources/Water Series No.18, ST/TCD/5
  
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==Return to the index pages==
[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]
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[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Cote d'Ivoire
  
  

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