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[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
  
'''Lire cette page en français: [[Hydrogéologie de la République Démocratique du Congo | Hydrogéologie de la République Démocratique du Congo ]]''' [[File: flag_of_france.png  | 50px]]
 
 
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
  
 
The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is the largest country in sub-Saharan Africa. Between the 14th and 19th centuries, the kingdom of Kongo included much of the western part of present-day DRC, while in the centre and east the kingdoms of Luba and Lunda ruled from the 16th and 17th to the 19th centuries. The region was made a personal colony of the Belgian King Leopold II in 1885, called the Congo Free State, and exploited for its natural resources, particularly rubber, through plantation agriculture using forced labour. During this time a large proportion of the Congolese population died as a result of exploitation and disease. Belgium annexed the territory as the Belgian Congo in 1908. Independence was gained in 1960 as the Republic of Congo, also known as Congo-Leopoldville; this was later changed to Zaire in 1971 and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1997.  
 
The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is the largest country in sub-Saharan Africa. Between the 14th and 19th centuries, the kingdom of Kongo included much of the western part of present-day DRC, while in the centre and east the kingdoms of Luba and Lunda ruled from the 16th and 17th to the 19th centuries. The region was made a personal colony of the Belgian King Leopold II in 1885, called the Congo Free State, and exploited for its natural resources, particularly rubber, through plantation agriculture using forced labour. During this time a large proportion of the Congolese population died as a result of exploitation and disease. Belgium annexed the territory as the Belgian Congo in 1908. Independence was gained in 1960 as the Republic of Congo, also known as Congo-Leopoldville; this was later changed to Zaire in 1971 and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1997.  
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The Congo River is the largest river basin in Africa, and the second largest in the world after the Amazon, and drains all surface water in the country. It has a number of large tributary rivers, many of which have been dammed for hydroelectric power production.   
 
The Congo River is the largest river basin in Africa, and the second largest in the world after the Amazon, and drains all surface water in the country. It has a number of large tributary rivers, many of which have been dammed for hydroelectric power production.   
  
|[[File:Democratic Republic of the Congo_Hydrology.png | frame | Major surface water features of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Map developed from World Wildlife Fund HydroSHEDS; Digital Chart of the World drainage; and FAO Inland Water Bodies. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Surface water | surface water resource page]]]].
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|[[File:Democratic Republic of the Congo_Hydrology.png | frame | Major surface water features of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Map developed from World Wildlife Fund HydroSHEDS; Digital Chart of the World drainage; and FAO Inland Water Bodies. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Surface water | surface water resource [page]]]]
 
|}
 
|}
  
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==Geology==
 
==Geology==
  
This section provides a geological map and a summary of the geology of the Democratic Republic of the Congo at a national scale, based on a 1:5 million scale map (see [[Geology | the Geology resources page]] for more details).
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This section provides a geological map and a summary of the geology of the Democratic Republic of the Congo at a national scale (see [[Geology | the Geology resources page]] for more details).
 
 
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Democratic Republic of the Congo geology and hydrogeology map'''].
 
  
 
More detailed geological information can be found in other maps and reports (see the list in the References section, below), including:  
 
More detailed geological information can be found in other maps and reports (see the list in the References section, below), including:  
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[[File:DRC_Geology5.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of the Democratic Republic of the Congo at 1:5 million scale. Developed from map published originally by UNESCO (Furon and Lombard 1964), digitised by and made available by the USGS (Persits et al. 2002). For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Democratic Republic of the Congo geology and hydrogeology map].]]
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[[File:DRC_Geology3.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of the Democratic Republic of the Congo at 1:5 million scale. Developed from map published originally by UNESCO (Furon and Lombard 1964), digitised by and made available by the USGS (Persits et al. 2002). For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]]]
  
  
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||Metamorphosed quartzites, schists, limestones, dolomitic limestones and dolomites. The calcareous rocks are often karstic.
 
||Metamorphosed quartzites, schists, limestones, dolomitic limestones and dolomites. The calcareous rocks are often karstic.
 
|-
 
|-
|Crystalline Basement - granitic and metamorphic rocks
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|Crystalline granitic and metamorphic rocks
 
||Precambrian
 
||Precambrian
 
||Crystalline granitic and metamorphic basement rocks, part of the African Craton
 
||Crystalline granitic and metamorphic basement rocks, part of the African Craton
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The hydrogeology map shows a simplified version of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | hydrogeology Map]] resource page for more details).  
 
The hydrogeology map shows a simplified version of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | hydrogeology Map]] resource page for more details).  
 
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Democratic Republic of the Congo geology and hydrogeology map'''].
 
  
 
The DRC is also covered by the SADC hydrogeological map and atlas (2010), available through the [https://ggis.un-igrac.org/ggis-viewer/viewer/sadcgip/public/default SADC Groundwater Information Portal].
 
The DRC is also covered by the SADC hydrogeological map and atlas (2010), available through the [https://ggis.un-igrac.org/ggis-viewer/viewer/sadcgip/public/default SADC Groundwater Information Portal].
  
[[File:DRC_Hydrogeology4.png| center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of the Democratic Republic of the Congo at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | hydrogeology map]] resource page. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Democratic Republic of the Congo geology and hydrogeology map].]]
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[[File:DRC_Hydrogeology3.png| center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of the Democratic Republic of the Congo at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | hydrogeology map]] resource page]]
  
 
===A history of hydrogeological investigation and information in DRC===
 
===A history of hydrogeological investigation and information in DRC===
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|-
 
|-
 
|Precambrian Basement and Metasedimentary
 
|Precambrian Basement and Metasedimentary
||Low to Moderate
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||Low
 
||Crystalline basement rocks and highly metamorphosed metasediments and metavolcanic rocks form local aquifers where they have developed weathered and/or fractured zones. These usually have low productivity, but occasionally moderate. Transmissivity values of 1 to 50 m<sup>2</sup>/day, and rarely up to 100 m<sup>2</sup>/day, have been recorded, and yields of 0.2 to 1.7, and rarely up to 3.5, l/s (20 to 150 (rarely up to 300) m<sup>3</sup>/day). Aquifer properties are controlled by the depth of weathering (regolith) and the degree of fracturing of un-weathered bedrock. Fractured bedrock alone can sometimes supply relatively good yields, but has low storage and cannot sustain these yields in the long term. Weathered regolith (which is up to 30 m thick in the oriental provinces) can provide additional storage.  
 
||Crystalline basement rocks and highly metamorphosed metasediments and metavolcanic rocks form local aquifers where they have developed weathered and/or fractured zones. These usually have low productivity, but occasionally moderate. Transmissivity values of 1 to 50 m<sup>2</sup>/day, and rarely up to 100 m<sup>2</sup>/day, have been recorded, and yields of 0.2 to 1.7, and rarely up to 3.5, l/s (20 to 150 (rarely up to 300) m<sup>3</sup>/day). Aquifer properties are controlled by the depth of weathering (regolith) and the degree of fracturing of un-weathered bedrock. Fractured bedrock alone can sometimes supply relatively good yields, but has low storage and cannot sustain these yields in the long term. Weathered regolith (which is up to 30 m thick in the oriental provinces) can provide additional storage.  
  
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The following provide more information on the geology and hydrogeology of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
 
The following provide more information on the geology and hydrogeology of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
  
Many of these, and others, can be accessed through the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=CD&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
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Many of these, and others, can be accessed through the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=CD&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive]
  
 
'''Online resources'''
 
'''Online resources'''
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PROMINES - Growth with Governance in the Mineral Sector / La Bonne Gouvernance dans le Secteur Minier comme Facteur de Croissance. Project P106982 / IDA – H589 ZR – TF010744.
 
PROMINES - Growth with Governance in the Mineral Sector / La Bonne Gouvernance dans le Secteur Minier comme Facteur de Croissance. Project P106982 / IDA – H589 ZR – TF010744.
  
Return to the index pages:
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==Return to the index pages==
 
[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
 
[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
  

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