Editing Hydrogeology of Djibouti

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Warning: You are not logged in. Your IP address will be publicly visible if you make any edits. If you log in or create an account, your edits will be attributed to your username, along with other benefits.

The edit can be undone. Please check the comparison below to verify that this is what you want to do, and then save the changes below to finish undoing the edit.

This page supports semantic in-text annotations (e.g. "[[Is specified as::World Heritage Site]]") to build structured and queryable content provided by Semantic MediaWiki. For a comprehensive description on how to use annotations or the #ask parser function, please have a look at the getting started, in-text annotation, or inline queries help pages.

Latest revision Your text
Line 294: Line 294:
 
===Groundwater quality===
 
===Groundwater quality===
  
Groundwater salinity is widely high: in 2005, more than half of Djibouti's boreholes were recorded as showing salinity of more than 900 mg/l, and sometimes up to 1,200 mg/l. At this time, only groundwater in the northwest of the country was recorded as having ionic levels below the standards of use for irrigation. High levels of boron are the most common (FAO AQUASTAT 2005). Where groundwater is used for agriculture, high evapotranspiration rates and mineralised irrigation returns have contributed to rising salinity, both in shallow alluvial and deeper volcanic rock aquifers. In coastal zones, salinity is exacerbated by over-abstraction that draws down water levels and induces sea water intrusion (Ahmed et al 2018).
+
Groundwater salinity is widely high: in 2005, more than half of Djibouti's boreholes were recorded as showing salinity of more than 900 mg/l, and sometimes up to 1,200 mg/l. At this time, only groundwater in the northwest of the country was recorded as having ionic levels below the standards of use for irrigation. High levels of boron are the most common (FAO AQUASTAT 2005). Where groundwater is used for agriculture, high evapotranspiration rates and mineralised irrigation returns have contributed to rising salinity, both in shallow alluvial and deeper volcanic rock aquifers. In coastal zones, salinity is exacerbated by over-abstraction that draws down water levels and induces sea water intrusion(Ahmed et al. 2018).
  
 
Rapid urbanisation with a lack of adequate sanitation is contributing to groundwater quality degradation in urban areas (Ahmed et al 2017).
 
Rapid urbanisation with a lack of adequate sanitation is contributing to groundwater quality degradation in urban areas (Ahmed et al 2017).
  
Nitrate concentrations are high in many areas, in both alluvial and volcanic aquifers. Much of this is likely to be natural, reflecting evaporative and biochemical controls in arid conditions, but some is likely to be due to local contamination by livestock or human waste (Awaleh et al 2017).
+
Nitrate concentrations are high in many areas, in both alluvial and volcanic aquifers. Much of this is likely to be natural, reflecting evaporative and biochemical controls in arid conditions, but some is likely to be due to local contamination by livestock or human waste (Awaleh et al 2017)
  
 
==Groundwater use and management==
 
==Groundwater use and management==

Please note that all contributions to Earthwise may be edited, altered, or removed by other contributors. If you do not want your writing to be edited mercilessly, then do not submit it here.
You are also promising us that you wrote this yourself, or copied it from a public domain or similar free resource (see Earthwise:Copyrights for details). Do not submit copyrighted work without permission!

Cancel Editing help (opens in new window)

  [] · [[]] · [[|]] · {{}} · · “” ‘’ «» ‹› „“ ‚‘ · ~ | °   · ± × ÷ ² ³ ½ · §
[[Category:]] · [[:File:]] · <code></code> · <syntaxhighlight></syntaxhighlight> · <includeonly></includeonly> · <noinclude></noinclude> · #REDIRECT[[]] · <translate></translate> · <languages/> · ==References== · {{reflist}} · ==Footnote== · {{reflist|group=note}} · <ref group=note> · __notoc__ · {{DEFAULTSORT:}} <div class="someclass noprint"></div> {{clear}} <br>