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'''This page has limited information. If you have more information on the hydrogeology of Egypt, please get in touch!'''  
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'''This page has limited information and needs to be updated. If you have more information on the hydrogeology of Egypt, please get in touch!'''  
  
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
  
 
Egypt’s geography and history have been shaped by the Sahara desert and the Nile River. Irrigated agriculture on fertile flood plains supported the great ancient civilisations that flourished for three millennia until the 1st century CE. After this, Egypt was ruled by successive waves of incomers: Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Ottomans, French and finally British. French investment supported the construction of the strategic Suez Canal, completed in 1869. Egypt was a British protectorate from 1882 to 1953, when after a revolution in 1952 it became an independent republic. Since then, Egypt has seen a number of periods of military, civil and political unrest, including internal conflict and external war. The Arab Spring of 2011 saw a popular uprising followed by further unrest, culminating in the 2014 election of a new president who had initially claimed control as the head of the Egyptian Armed Forces. The military continues to play a large role in political and economic sectors.
 
Egypt’s geography and history have been shaped by the Sahara desert and the Nile River. Irrigated agriculture on fertile flood plains supported the great ancient civilisations that flourished for three millennia until the 1st century CE. After this, Egypt was ruled by successive waves of incomers: Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Ottomans, French and finally British. French investment supported the construction of the strategic Suez Canal, completed in 1869. Egypt was a British protectorate from 1882 to 1953, when after a revolution in 1952 it became an independent republic. Since then, Egypt has seen a number of periods of military, civil and political unrest, including internal conflict and external war. The Arab Spring of 2011 saw a popular uprising followed by further unrest, culminating in the 2014 election of a new president who had initially claimed control as the head of the Egyptian Armed Forces. The military continues to play a large role in political and economic sectors.
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{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
|-
 
|-
|Capital city || Cairo
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|Estimated Population in 2013* || 82,056,378
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|-
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|Rural Population (% of total) (2013)* || 57.0%
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|-
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|Total Surface Area* || 995,450 sq km
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|-
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|Agricultural Land (% of total area) (2012)* || 3.6%
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|-
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|Capital City || Cairo
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Region || Northern Africa
 
|Region || Northern Africa
 
|-
 
|-
|Border countries || Libya, Sudan, Israel, Gaza Strip
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|Border Countries || Libya, Sudan, Israel, Gaza Strip
 
|-
 
|-
|Total surface area* || 1,001,450 km<sup>2</sup>  (100,145,000 ha)
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|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal (2013)* || 68,300 Million cubic metres
 
|-
 
|-
|Total population (2015)* || 91,508,000
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|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Agriculture (2013)* || 86.4%
 
|-
 
|-
|Rural population (2015)* || 54,970,000 (60%)
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|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Domestic Use (2013)* || 7.8%
 
|-
 
|-
|Urban population (2015)* || 36,538,000 (40%)
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|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Industry (2013)* || 5.9%
 
|-
 
|-
|UN Human Development Index (HDI) [highest = 1] (2014)*|| 0.6899
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|Rural Population with Access to Improved Water Source (2012)* || 98.8%
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|-
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|Urban Population with Access to Improved Water Source (2012)* || 100%
 
|}
 
|}
  
<nowiki>*</nowiki> Source: [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/query/index.html?lang=en FAO Aquastat]
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<nowiki>*</nowiki> Source: World Bank
  
  
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===Water statistics===
 
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
| || 2002 ||2005||2010||2012||2014||2015
 
|-
 
|Rural population with access to safe drinking water (%) || || ||  || || ||99
 
|-
 
|Urban population with access to safe drinking water (%) || || ||  || || ||100
 
|-
 
|Population affected by water related disease || No data || No data || No data  || No data || No data || No data
 
|-
 
|Total internal renewable water resources (cubic metres/inhabitant/year) || || ||  || ||19.67 ||
 
|-
 
|Total exploitable water resources (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  ||49,700|| ||
 
|-
 
|Freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources || || || 126.6|| || ||
 
|-
 
|Total renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) ||  || || || ||2,300 ||
 
|-
 
|Exploitable: Regular renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  ||700 || ||
 
|-
 
|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  || ||1,300 ||
 
|-
 
|Fresh groundwater withdrawal (primary and secondary) (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||8,045  || || ||
 
|-
 
|Groundwater: entering the country (total) (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  || || ||1,000
 
|-
 
|Groundwater: leaving the country to other countries (total) (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data  || No data || No data || No data
 
|-
 
|Industrial water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year) || || || 2,000|| || ||
 
|-
 
|Municipal water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year)  || || || 9,000|| || ||
 
|-
 
|Agricultural water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||67,000 || || ||
 
|-
 
|Irrigation water withdrawal (all water sources)<sup>1</sup> (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data  || No data || No data || No data
 
|-
 
|Irrigation water requirement (all water sources)<sup>1</sup> (Million cubic metres/year) ||45,110 || ||  || || ||
 
|-
 
|Area of permanent crops (ha) || || ||  || || 1,075,000||
 
|-
 
|Cultivated land (arable and permanent crops) (ha) || || ||  || ||3,745,000 ||
 
|-
 
|Total area of country cultivated (%) || || ||  || ||3.74 ||
 
|-
 
|Area equipped for irrigation by groundwater (ha) || || 227,600 || || || ||
 
|-
 
|Area equipped for irrigation by mixed surface water and groundwater (ha) || No data || No data || No data  || No data || No data || No data
 
|}
 
 
These statistics are sourced from [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/main/index.stm FAO Aquastat]. They are the most recent available information in the Aquastat database. More information on the derivation and interpretation of these statistics can be seen on the FAO Aquastat website.
 
 
Further water and related statistics can be accessed at the [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/query/index.html?lang=en Aquastat Main Database].
 
 
<sup>1</sup> More information on [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/water_use_agr/index.stm irrigation water use and requirement statistics]
 
  
 
==Geology==
 
==Geology==
  
The geology map shows a simplified version of the geology at a national scale. More information is available in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060035 UN (1988)] (see References section, below).  
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The geology map shows a simplified version of the geology at a national scale. More information is available in the report [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/fulldetails.cfm?id=AGLA060035 UN (1988)] (see References section, below).  
  
 
{|
 
{|
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==Hydrogeology==
 
==Hydrogeology==
  
The hydrogeology map below shows a simplified version of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | hydrogeology Map]] resource page for more details).  
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The hydrogeology map below shows a simplified version of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Hydrogeology Map | hydrogeology Map]] resource page for more details).  
  
More information on the hydrogeology of Egypt is available in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060035 United Nations (1988)] (see References section, below).  
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More information on the hydrogeology of Egypt is available in the report [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/fulldetails.cfm?id=AGLA060035 United Nations (1988)] (see References section, below).  
  
One summary of the major groundwater systems in Egypt is as follows (fromj [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries_regions/EGY/ FAO Aquastat]):
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The major groundwater systems in Egypt are (from [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries_regions/EGY/ Aquastat]:
  
:- the Nile aquifer: this is mostly recharged by infiltration of excess irrigation water originally from the Nile river, so it is not an additional primary source of water but, does contain a secondary source of water available for use. In term of abstractions, it provides about 85% of the total groundwater abstractions in Egypt ([https://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Environmental-and-Social-Assessments/Egypt_-__National_Drainage_Programme_ESMF_SUMMARY_-_05_2015.pdf AfDG 2015]).
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:- Nile aquifer: mostly recharged by infiltration of excess irrigation water originally from the Nile river, so it is not an additional primary source of water but a secondary source of freshwater available for use. In term of abstractions, it provides about 85 percent of the total groundwater abstractions in the country ([https://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Environmental-and-Social-Assessments/Egypt_-__National_Drainage_Programme_ESMF_SUMMARY_-_05_2015.pdf AfDB 2015]).
  
:- the Nubian sandstone aquifer: in the southwest of Egypt; shared with Libya, Chad and Sudan. Contains fossil groundwater.
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:- Nubian sandstone aquifer: fossil groundwater in the south west part of the country shared with Libya, Chad and Sudan
  
:- Fissured carbonate aquifer: widely spread over more than half of Egypt; overlies the Nubian aquifer
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:- Fissured carbonate aquifer: widely spread over more than half of the country’s area, on top of the Nubian aquifer
  
:- Moghra aquifer: towards the Qattara depression, recharged both by rainfall and lateral inflow from the Nile, but containing also saline water in the north west
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:-Moghra aquifer: towards the Qattara depression, recharged both by rainfall and lateral inflow from the Nile, but containing also saline water in the north west
  
:- Coastal aquifer: on the northern and western coasts; recharged by rainfall; known to contain saline water below fresh recharge, which limits the amount of fresh groundwater that can be abstracted.
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:- Coastal aquifer: on northern and western coasts, recharged by rainfall, but presence of saline water underneath limits the abstracted quantities
  
:- Basement aquifer: found mostly in the eastern desert and southern Sinai.
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:- Basement aquifer: mostly in eastern deserts and southern Sinai.
  
  [[File:Egypt_Hydrogeology.png| center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Egypt at 1:5million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | hydrogeology map]] resource page]]
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  [[File:Egypt_Hydrogeology.png| center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Egypt at 1:5million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Hydrogeology Map | hydrogeology map]] resource page]]
  
 
[[File: Hydrogeology_Key.png | center | 500x195px]]
 
[[File: Hydrogeology_Key.png | center | 500x195px]]
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==References==
 
==References==
  
References with more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Egyptcan be accessed through the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=EG&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
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References with more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Egyptcan be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/searchResults.cfm?title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=EG&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
 
 
AfDG. 2015. https://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Environmental-and-Social-Assessments/Egypt_-__National_Drainage_Programme_ESMF_SUMMARY_-_05_2015.pdf National Drainage Programme (NDP), Egypt: Environmental and Social Management Framework Summary]. Africa Development Bank Group, April 2015.
 
 
 
United Nations. 1988. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060035 Groundwater in North and West Africa: Egypt]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development and Economic Commission for Africa.  
 
  
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United Nations. 1988. [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/fulldetails.cfm?id=AGLA060035 Groundwater in North and West Africa: Egypt]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development and Economic Commission for Africa.
  
Return to the index pages:
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==Return to the index pages==
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Egypt
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Egypt
  

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