Hydrogeology of Egypt
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Egypt’s geography and history have been shaped by the Sahara desert and the Nile River. Irrigated agriculture on fertile flood plains supported the great ancient civilisations that flourished for three millennia until the 1st century CE. After this, Egypt was ruled by successive waves of incomers: Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Ottomans, French and finally British. French investment supported the construction of the strategic Suez Canal, completed in 1869. Egypt was a British protectorate from 1882 to 1953, when after a revolution in 1952 it became an independent republic. Since then, Egypt has seen a number of periods of military, civil and political unrest, including internal conflict and external war. The Arab Spring of 2011 saw a popular uprising followed by further unrest, culminating in the 2014 election of a new president who had initially claimed control as the head of the Egyptian Armed Forces. The military continues to play a large role in political and economic sectors.
Egypt’s population is concentrated along the Nile valley, with very low concentrations in the Sahara. The economy is fairly diverse, depending in large part on agriculture (including the export of cotton and citrus fruit), hydrocarbons, and tourism, although tourism has declined since 2011. Remittances from Egyptians working abroad are also an important contributor. There is an expanding information technology sector, and revenue from the Suez Canal bolsters income. Built between 1960 and 1970, the Aswan dam on the Nile provides water for irrigation, allowing the expansion of irrigated areas, as well as hydroelectric power potential, and regulates floodwater flows.
Egypt is an arid country. The only perennial surface water resource is the major transboundary River Nile, which is the main source of irrigation water, on which nearly all agriculture in the country relies. There is a dense network of canals branching from the Nile. Away from the Nile valley, the rural population depends on groundwater.
Dr Kirsty Upton and Brighid Ó Dochartaigh, British Geological Survey, UK
Dr Imogen Bellwood-Howard', Institute of Development Studies, UK
Please cite this page as: Upton, Ó Dochartaigh and Bellwood-Howard, 2018.
Bibliographic reference: Upton K, Ó Dochartaigh BÉ and Bellwood-Howard, I. 2018. Africa Groundwater Atlas: Hydrogeology of Egypt. British Geological Survey. Accessed [date you accessed the information]. http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/Hydrogeology_of_Egypt
Terms and conditions
|Estimated Population in 2013*||82,056,378|
|Rural Population (% of total) (2013)*||57.0%|
|Total Surface Area*||995,450 sq km|
|Agricultural Land (% of total area) (2012)*||3.6%|
|Border Countries||Libya, Sudan, Israel, Gaza Strip|
|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal (2013)*||68,300 Million cubic metres|
|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Agriculture (2013)*||86.4%|
|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Domestic Use (2013)*||7.8%|
|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Industry (2013)*||5.9%|
|Rural Population with Access to Improved Water Source (2012)*||98.8%|
|Urban Population with Access to Improved Water Source (2012)*||100%|
* Source: World Bank
More information on average rainfall and temperature for each of the climate zones in Egypt can be seen at the Egypt climate page.
These maps and graphs were developed from the CRU TS 3.21 dataset produced by the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia, UK. For more information see the climate resource page.
The geology map shows a simplified version of the geology at a national scale. More information is available in the report UN (1988) (see References section, below).
The hydrogeology map below shows a simplified version of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the hydrogeology Map resource page for more details).
More information on the hydrogeology of Egypt is available in the report United Nations (1988) (see References section, below).
The major groundwater systems in Egypt are (from Aquastat:
- - Nile aquifer: mostly recharged by infiltration of excess irrigation water originally from the Nile river, so it is not an additional primary source of water but a secondary source of freshwater available for use. In term of abstractions, it provides about 85 percent of the total groundwater abstractions in the country (AfDB 2015).
- - Nubian sandstone aquifer: fossil groundwater in the south west part of the country shared with Libya, Chad and Sudan
- - Fissured carbonate aquifer: widely spread over more than half of the country’s area, on top of the Nubian aquifer
- -Moghra aquifer: towards the Qattara depression, recharged both by rainfall and lateral inflow from the Nile, but containing also saline water in the north west
- - Coastal aquifer: on northern and western coasts, recharged by rainfall, but presence of saline water underneath limits the abstracted quantities
- - Basement aquifer: mostly in eastern deserts and southern Sinai.
For further information about transboundary aquifers, please see the Transboundary aquifers resources page.
References with more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Egyptcan be accessed through the Africa Groundwater Literature Archive.
United Nations. 1988. Groundwater in North and West Africa: Egypt. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development and Economic Commission for Africa.